Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 82, No. 5, May

Ailing Russian Health-Care System in Urgent Need of Reform
The Russian Federation needs to overhaul its corrupt and inefficient health-care system if it is to provide regular medical assistance and help the country fight an AIDS epidemic, officials have said. "We just cannot go on like this--slowly dying--any...
A Simplified Screening Strategy for Thalassaemia and Haemoglobin E in Rural Communities in South-East Asia
Introduction Thalassaemia and haemoglobinopathy are the most common inherited disorders among humans, and they represent a major public health problem in many areas of the world, including south-east Asia (1). The most important disorders are [alpha]-thalassaemia...
Averting a Malaria Disaster in Africa-Where Does the Buck Stop?
Drug-resistant malaria--the gathering storm The serious threat posed by drug-resistant malaria in Africa is widely acknowledged (1). Chloroquine resistance is now universal, and the days of treating malaria with a single cheap drug are generally...
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Cataract Surgery: A Global and Regional Analysis
Introduction Cataracts are a major cause of blindness and of severe visual impairment leading to bilateral blindness in an estimated 20 million people worldwide. In developing countries 50-90% of all blindness is caused by cataracts (1). A cataract...
Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis Reduces Mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Tuberculosis Patients in Karonga District, Malawi
Introduction Cotrimoxazole is effective against many of the opportunistic infections that occur in individuals with advanced HIV disease, and it has been used widely in high-income countries (1-5). A randomized placebo-controlled trial in HIV-positive...
Creating Healthier Societies
When governments think about health, attention is usually on the cost of health care as that is where the money goes. The causes of ill-health tend to take second place. To the extent that causes intrude on policy-makers, a convenient, but loose, dichotomy...
Diabetes Cases in Africa to Double in Next 25 Years
The numbers of people with diabetes in Africa will more than double over the next 25 years, warned WHO and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) during the joint WHO IDF Workshop on Healthcare Coverage held in Dakar, Senegal, 1-3 April 2004....
Genomics Knowledge and Equity: A Global Public Goods Perspective of the Patent System
Introduction Genomics is the comprehensive examination of an organism's entire set of genes and their interactions (as distinct from genetics, which is the study of a single gene or a small number of genes to determine specific gene roles in diseases...
Ireland Stubs out Smoking in the Workplace
Ireland became the first country in the world to prohibit smoking in the workplace on 29 March 2004. The ban amounts to tobacco-free environments in all enclosed public spaces--including restaurants and the country's famous pubs, where a cigarette...
Microbicides Preventing HIV Infection Could Be Available by 2010
First generation topical microbicides aimed at preventing HIV infection in women could be available as early as 2010, researchers told participants at the Microbicides Conference 2004 held in London on 28-31 March. About 60 of these drugs in the...
Monkey Malaria Could Represent a New Human Strain
Monkey malaria may be more widespread among humans than previously thought and could represent a new strain of the disease more dangerous to humans, says a new study published in the UK-based medical journal, the Lance/(2004;363:1017-24). The study's...
New Generation of Non-Profit Initiatives Tackles World's "Neglected" Diseases
A new generation of non-profit drug companies and public-private partnerships is taking on the challenge of developing drugs and vaccines against diseases plaguing developing countries and traditionally ignored by the pharmaceutical industry because...
Potential Meningitis Tragedy Averted
A rare strain of meningitis known as W135 which re-emerged recently in Burkina Faso has been rapidly controlled thanks to the joint efforts of a number of international partnerships, and the rapid availability of stocks of a newly developed vaccine,...
Randomized Controlled Trials Join International Register
WHO and online publisher, Current Controlled Trials Ltd, announced that from 2 April 2004, all randomized controlled trials approved by the WHO ethics review board will be assigned an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN)...
Registering Clinical Trials Is Necessary for Ethical, Scientific and Economic Reasons
For unbiased judgement of the effectiveness of medications or non-pharmaceutical therapies, controlled clinical trials are the most important elements in deciding whether an intervention does more good than harm. Often undervalued, but increasingly...
Sexual Violence against Intimate Partners in Cape Town: Prevalence and Risk Factors Reported by Men
Introduction The World report on violence and health highlighted both the impact of sexual violence on public health and the scantiness of the research base on which to build an understanding of the problem and develop interventions (1). Whereas...
Signs of Illness in Kenyan Infants Aged Less Than 60 Days
Introduction Many developing countries have adopted the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) approach to the care of ill children at primary care level (1). For assessment, classification, and treatment purposes, children are divided...
The Future Incidence of Leprosy: A Scenario Analysis
Introduction The mainstay of current leprosy control is early detection and treatment with multidrug therapy (MDT). The number of patients receiving treatment declined after implementation of MDT because its period of treatment is shorter than that...
The Global Burden of Typhoid Fever
Introduction The existing estimate of the global burden of typhoid fever is 16 million illnesses and 600 000 deaths annually (1). This estimate was presented at a meeting of the Pan American Health Organization in 1984 and subsequently published...
Working across Sectors for Public Health
Hippocrates wrote about the relationship between environmental conditions and health status in Airs, waters and places in about 460 BC, where he identified environmental factors affecting human health that "doctors must know to pursue their calling"....
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