Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 92, No. 12, December

Challenges Facing the United States of America in Implementing Universal coverage/Defis Que Les Etats-Unis d'Amerique Doivent Relever Pour Mettre En Oeuvre la Couverture Maladie universelle/Desafios a Los Que Se Enfrentan Los Estados Unidos De America En la Implementacion De la Cobertura Universal
Introduction The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act--commonly known as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) or Obamacare--was signed into law in 2010. The Act's first open enrolment period --which began in October 2013--was fraught with controversy...
Countries Vindicate Cautious Stance on E-Cigarettes
Countries signed up to an international tobacco control treaty have embraced controversial WHO proposals to regulate electronic cigarettes. Armando Peruga tells Fiona Fleck why. Q: What are the health risks of using e-cigarettes and how do they...
Defining Disrespect and Abuse of Women in Childbirth: A Research, Policy and Rights Agenda
In the field of maternal and newborn health, there have been calls to prioritize the intra-partum period and promote facility delivery to meet maternal and newborn mortality reduction goals. This aim is based on a decade of epidemiological work identifying...
Dilemmas of Evaluation: Health Research Capacity Initiatives
Strengthening health research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is a recognized way to advance health and development. Numerous approaches to strengthening capacity exist at different levels, including training for individuals, improving...
Effectiveness of Travel Restrictions in the Rapid Containment of Human Influenza: A Systematic review/Efficacite Des Mesures De Restriction Des Deplacements Dans le Confinement Rapide De la Grippe Humaine: Une Revue systematique/La Eficacia De Las Restricciones a Los Viajes En la Contencion Rapida De la Gripe Humana: Una Revision Sistematica
Introduction Travel restrictions were included in the WHO interim protocol: rapid operations to contain the initial emergence of pandemic influenza that was published in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO). (1) However, as they would hamper...
Health Policy and Systems Research: Building Momentum and Community
In October 2014, nearly 2000 people from 125 countries shared and debated issues that are critical to improving the performance of health systems, at the Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research, in Cape Town, South Africa. (1) Such research...
Health-System Resilience: Reflections on the Ebola Crisis in Western Africa
Disease outbreaks and catastrophes can affect countries at any time, causing substantial human suffering and deaths and economic losses. If health systems are ill-equipped to deal with such situations, the affected populations can be very vulnerable....
Nutrition for 21st Century
An ambitious new agenda--in the form of a Political Declaration and Framework for Action to improve nutritional health for the next 10 years--was presented to a major United Nations conference in Rome, Italy, last month. The agenda addresses the...
Peri-Operative Pulse Oximetry in Low-Income Countries: A Cost-Effectiveness analysis/Oxymetrie De Pouls Perioperatoire Dans Les Pays a Revenu Faible: Une Analyse De la rentabilite/La Oximetria De Pulso Perioperatoria En Los Paises De Ingresos Bajos: Un Analisis De la Rentabilidad
Introduction The pulse oximeter is a non-invasive medical device that monitors oxygen saturation and pulsation. When used continuously during surgery, it can provide early warning of hypoxia, hypovolaemia and impending cardiac arrest. Since oximetry...
Pharmacovigilance and Tuberculosis: Applying the Lessons of Thioacetazone
Following its introduction in the late 1940s, thioacetazone was widely-used as an anti-tuberculosis medicine in the following decades. (1) Reports of cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions related to its use emerged in the literature soon after its introduction...
Post-Licensure Deployment of Oral Cholera Vaccines: A Systematic Review/ Deploiement Apres Homologation Des Vaccins Oraux Contre le Cholera: Une Revue systematique/Utilizacion De Vacunas Orales Contra El Colera Posterior a la Aprobacion De Su Uso: Una Revision Sistematica
Introduction Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 causes severe diarrhoea and the main strategies to prevent the disease are to promote hygiene and to ensure safe water and sanitation. These basic needs are often not met in endemic areas with seasonal cholera...
The Last Bastions of Guinea-Worm Disease: Conflict and a New Disease Pattern Are Hampering Efforts to Eradicate Guinea-Worm Disease in the Last Four Endemic Countries
A terrible itchiness is the first symptom of guinea-worm disease or dracunculiasis. Next, explains Adama Guindo, a village chief in eastern Mali, an agonizing blister appears on an ankle or foot. "You don't see the worm to begin with," he says. When...
Training Clinicians Treating HIV to Diagnose Cytomegalovirus Retinitis/ Former Les Cliniciens Du VIH a Examiner Les Yeux Pour Diagnostiquer la Retinite a cytomegalovirus/Formacion De Medicos del VIH En El Examen Oftalmologico Para Diagnosticar la Retinitis Por Citomegalovirus
Introduction Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a potentially blinding opportunistic infection that used to occur in up to one-third of HIV-infected patients in high-income countries before the availability...
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