Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Articles from Vol. 94, No. 9, September

A Retrospective Analysis of Oral Cholera Vaccine Use, Disease Severity and Deaths during an Outbreak in South Sudan/Analyse Retrospective De L'utilisation Du Vaccin Oral Contre le Cholera, De la Gravite De Cette Maladie et De la Mortalite Qui Lui Est Associee Lors D'une Flambee Au Soudan Du Sud/
Introduction Cholera is an extremely virulent diarrhoeal disease that affects both children and adults and can kill within hours if left untreated. Although the disease was largely eliminated from industrialized countries over a century ago by water...
Cholera in South Sudan
A vaccination campaign got under way last month in South Sudan to stop a deadly outbreak of cholera. The health ministry, with support from WHO and other partners, has been ramping up disease surveillance, treatment and prevention efforts since...
Detecting Guillain-Barre Syndrome Caused by Zika Virus Using Systems Developed for Polio Surveillance
Zika virus disease is caused by a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus, which is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti species. Around 80% of infections are asymptomatic. (1) Symptomatic infections are characterized by mild fever lasting...
Gang Truce for Violence Prevention, El Salvador/Une Treve Des Gangs Pour Prevenir la Violence, El Salvador/ Tregua Entre Bandas Para la Prevencion De la Violencia, El Salvador
Introduction In 2012, there were 16.3 homicides per 100000 population in the Americas as a whole and 26.5 per 100000 in Central America. (1) Gang-related violence accounts for an estimated 70% of the homicides in El Salvador and for similarly large...
Group-Based Microfinance for Collective Empowerment: A Systematic Review of Health impacts/Microfinancement De Groupe Axe Sur la Responsabilisation Collective: Examen Systematique Des Consequences Sur le Plan De la sante/Microfinanciacion De Grupos Para El Empoderamiento Colectivo: Revision Sistematica De Los Efectos Sobre la Salud
Introduction Microfinance initiatives have become popular, particularly in low- and middle-income settings, as a means of promoting rural development, (1) increasing the bargaining power of women and improving household welfare. (2) Such has been...
Inpatient Management of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Review of WHO guidelines/Prise En Charge Des Enfants Hospitalises Pour Malnutrition Aigue Severe: Un Examen Des Lignes Directrices De I'OMS/Gestion Hospitalaria De Ninos Con Malnutricion Aguda Grave: Un Analisis De Las Directrices De la OMS
Introduction Each year, severe acute malnutrition--defined as a weight-for-height z-score of less than -3 or a mid-upper arm circumference of less than 115 mm--is the direct cause of an estimated 540 000 child deaths and an important underlying...
Rabies Vaccine Stockpile: Fixing the Supply Chain
World Rabies Day is 28 September, 2016, (1) and is designed to raise awareness about the prevention and control of this neglected disease. Almost all human rabies are transmitted by domestic dog bites or scratches, usually via saliva. Rabies virus...
Stroke: A Global Response Is Needed
Worldwide, cerebrovascular accidents (stroke) are the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability.' Stroke, the sudden death of some brain cells due to lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is lost by blockage...
Taking Action on NCDs
A new WHO reports calls on governments to step up action to protect people from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), especially heart disease, cancers, diabetes and lung diseases that are responsible for most deaths in people under 70 years of age. ...
The Challenges of Introducing a Malaria Vaccine
For the first time a malaria vaccine is to be tested for possible inclusion in national immunization programmes. Malcolm Molyneux tells Fiona Fleck why governments may need to work hard to convince people of its benefits. Q: How did you become interested...
The International Finance Facility for Immunisation: Stakeholders' Perspectives/ la Facilite Financiere Internationale Pour la Vaccination: Points De Vue Des Parties Prenantes/ El Fondo Financiero Internacional Para la Inmunizacion: Opiniones De Los Participantes
Introduction Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, finances vaccine programmes in low-income countries. In 2006, Gavi recognized that to reach high vaccine coverage levels as soon as possible, significantly, more funds were needed than were available. In...
United Nations Meeting on Antimicrobial Resistance: World Leaders Gather at the United Nations General Assembly in New York This Month to Mount a Response to the Growing Threat of Antimicrobial Resistance
Dr Abdul Ghafur, a consultant in infectious diseases in Chennai, had become alarmed by the number of multidrug-resistant infections in patients at major hospitals across India. In desperation, he and his colleagues issued the Chennai Declaration...
Visual Health Screening by Schoolteachers in Remote Communities of Peru: Implementation Research/ Depistage Des Troubles Visuels Par Des Enseignants Dans Des Communautes Isolees Du Perou: Recherche Sur la Mise En oevre/Examenes De la Salud Visual Realizados Por Profesores De Escuela En Comunidades Remotas De Peru: Investigacion Sobre la Ejecucion
Introduction Worldwide there are 12 million children with visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive errors that can affect their learning development. (1,2) Evidence has shown that visual deficits can be identified through visual acuity testing...
Zika: The Origin and Spread of a Mosquito-Borne virus/Zika: Origine et Propagation D'un Virus Transmis Par Des moustiques/El Zika: El Origen Y la Propagacion De Un Virus Transmitido Por Mosquitos
Introduction Zika, a flavivirus transmitted mainly by mosquitos in the genus Aedes, was discovered in 1947 in Uganda. (1) From the 1960s to 1980s, human infections were found across Africa and Asia, typically accompanied by mild illness. The first...
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