Journal of International Affairs

Foreign affairs periodical focuses on policy analysis, including state building and peace operations.

Articles from Vol. 53, No. 1, Fall

A New Energy Paradigm for the 21st Century
An intimate relationship between energy and international affairs has developed during the last two hundred years. The 18th century rise of the British Empire was fueled by the Industrial Revolution, which was in turn powered--and to some degree symbolized--by...
A New Political Economy of Oil?
Today's international petroleum industry is radically different from what it was in the 1970s. Yet it remains as highly politicized as it was in the heyday of resource nationalism two decades ago, when oil occupied the attention of Western governments...
Biomass Energy and the Poor in the Developing World
With the recent negotiations surrounding the Kyoto Protocol and the growing awareness of the limits of traditional approaches to energy, the urgent need to develop more climate-friendly energy technologies is becoming keenly appreciated worldwide....
Editors' Foreword
The evolution of human societies is dependent upon the conversion of ever more concentrated and more versatile forms of energy.... Neither the growth of technical capabilities and a deeper understanding of the surrounding world nor the effort to secure...
Energy and the Asian Security Nexus
Energy security concerns have always been central to geopolitical interests. Throughout history, the effort to secure access to energy sources and ensure adequate transport routes has demanded technological, commercial, diplomatic and military agility....
Energy Surprises for the 21st Century
Twenty-three years ago Amory Lovins was heavily criticized as wildly optimistic for predicting that energy efficiency would play a major role in shifting United States energy use patterns, thus reducing overall consumption far below official forecasts.(1)...
La Apertura: The Opening of Venezuela's Oil Industry
Between 1994 and 1999 Venezuela's entire oil and natural gas sector underwent the largest transformation in its contemporary history. Everything from gas and oil production to transportation, processing, refining and marketing was reformed to face...
Living with Coal: India's Energy Policy in the 21st Century
India's energy sector has been receiving a great deal of attention in recent years, particularly since the signing of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in 1992. In almost every forum dealing with the mitigation of emissions of greenhouse...
Multinationals and the New World of Energy Development: A Corporate Perspective
As the century draws to a close, multinational energy companies have entered a new and challenging period in their relatively brief but dramatic history. Technical advances and the end of the Cold War have made it possible for these companies to develop...
Nuclear Energy Policy in the European Union: Meltdown or False Alarm?
[A]part from the Green movement, there is little evidence of widespread public opposition to the continued operation of existing nuclear plants in Western and Northern Europe Recent elections in Sweden, Germany and France have helped shift the political...
Path Insistence: Comparing European and American Attitudes toward Energy
Last year I gave two similar talks about energy at two universities on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean and had two entirely different responses.(1) At each university I made the case that in the 20th century the United States had unnecessarily...
Pipelines and Pipe Dreams: Energy Development and Caspian Society
It is time to develop a new conventional wisdom to apply to the eight states of the Caspian Basin region,(1) one that better recognizes the region's implicit social weaknesses as well as its potential economic strengths. While the Caspian Basin states...
Russian Energy: A Blessing and a Curse
No study of world energy would be complete without including Russia. Yet despite so much potential, this resource-rich country has failed to take full advantage of its energy abundance. Through its egregious mismanagement of these resources, Russia...
The Caspian Pipeline Debate Continues: Why Not Iran?
The export of oil and gas reserves from the heavily resource-endowed Caspian states--Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Turkmenistan, Kazahkstan and Russia--is an economic problem that has evolved into a complex network of geo-strategic concerns. The countries...
The Perils of the Petro-State: Reflections on the Paradox of Plenty
Think back to the years 1973 and 1974 when the rapid and unexpected fourfold increase in the price of crude oil created the first global energy crisis. As the most massive transfer of wealth ever to occur without war began to work its way through the...
The Role and Responsibility of Oil Multinationals in Nigeria
The role played by the oil multinationals in Nigeria has received increasing attention in recent years as protest against oil production has grown, and with it the repressive response of the Nigerian government. Shell in particular, the largest producer...
The Soft Case for Soft Energy
Since the 1970s, North American and European governments as well as many policy analysts have believed that fossil fuels will gradually be replaced by "softer" sources of energy--mainly renewable energy sources such as windpower, solar power, biomass,...
The Three Gorges Dam and China's Energy Dilemma
Energy production and utilization in China have undergone enormous changes throughout the 20th century. One of the poorest nations in the world during the 1930s, with electrical output that was miniscule in comparison to neighboring countries such...