American Criminal Law Review

American Criminal Law Review is a magazine covering criminal law in the U.S. It is published quarterly by Georgetown University Law Center.Subjects for American Criminal Law Review include: Police, Penology, and Penal Institutions; Law.

Articles from Vol. 33, No. 3, Spring

Antitrust
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Conspiracy B. Restraint of Trade C. Interstate Nexus D. Intent. III. DEFENSES A. Withdrawal from Conspiracy B. Statute of Limitations C. Double Jeopardy. D. Single Entity E. Respondent Superior...
Computer Crimes
I. Introduction A. Defining Computer Crime B. Types of Computer-Related Offenses II. Federal Approaches A. Federal Criminal Code 1. Computer Abuse Amendments Act of 1994 a. Offenses Under the Statute b. Defenses 2. Other Statutes a. Copyright...
Corporate Criminal Liability
I. INTRODUCTION II. CORPORATE CRIMINAL LIABILITY FOR AGENT ACTION A. Scope of Employment B. For the Benefit of the Corporation C. Significance of the agent's employment status 1. Common Law Standard 2. Model Penal Code Standard III. CORPORATE DEFENSES...
Employment Related Crimes
I. INTRODUCTION II. WORKER SAFETY A. Occupational Safety and Health Act 1. Employer's Willful Violation of Standard Causes Death a. Elements of the Offense i. Employer ii. Willful Violation iii. Specific Standard iv. Causes Death b. Defenses...
Environmental Crimes
I. Introduction II. New Developments A. Trends in B. New Directions in Enforcement C. Legislative Developments D. Proposed Sentencing Guidelines E. Judicial Developments III. Common Issues A. Liability 1. Corporate 2. Responsible Corporate Officer...
False Claims
I. INTRODUCTION A. 31 U.S.C. Sections 3729-3733 B. 18 U.S.C. Section 287 II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Presentation of a Claim B. False, Fictitious or Fraudulent Claims C. Knowledge. D. Materiality III. DEFENSES A. Intent-based Defenses B. Double...
False Statements
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Statements B. Falsity C. Materiality D. Intent E. Jurisdiction III. DEFENSES A. Exculpatory "No" B. Ambiguity C. Double Jeopardy D. Multiplicity of the Indictment E. Other Defenses IV. SENTENCING...
Federal Criminal Conflict of Interest
I. Introduction II. BRIBERY AND ILLEGAL GRATUITIES A. Elements of the Bribery Offense 1. Thing of Value 2. Federal Public Official 3. Corrupt Intent. 4. Influence of a Public Official 5. Official Act B. Defenses 1. Entrapment 2. Outrageous Government...
Federal Criminal Conspiracy
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE. A. Agreement B. Illegal Goal C. Knowledge, Intent and Participation D. Overt Act III. DEFENSES A. Statute of Limitations B. Insufficiency of the Indictment C. Variance D. Multiplicitous indictment...
Federal Food and Drug Act Violations
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Statutory Elements 1. Food, Drug, Cosmetic or Device 2. Adulterated or Misbranded 3. Delivery or Transportation into Interstate Commerce B. "Responsible Relation" Element III. DEFENSES A. Constitutional...
Financial Institutions Fraud
I. INTRODUCTION II. BANK FRAUD: [sections] 1344 A. Potential Scope B. Elements of the Offense 1. Knowledge 2. Executes or attempts to Execute 3. Scheme or Artifice 4. To Defraud or Obtain Monies By False or Fraudulent Pretenses a. Defrauding...
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
I. INTRODUCTION II. ACCOUNTING PROVISIONS A. Affected Parties B. Elements of the Offense 1. Record-keeping 2. Internal Controls C. Intent D. Affirmative Defenses E. Enforcement III. ANTI-BRIBERY PROVISIONS A. Affected Parties B. Elements of...
Health Care Fraud
I. Introduction II. Prosecuting Medicare and Medicaid Fraud A. Traditional Fraud Statutes 1. False Claims a. Elements of the Offense i. Presentation of a claim ii. False, fictitious, or fraudulent nature of a claim iii. Intent requirement b. Defenses...
Intellectual Property
I. INTRODUCTION II. THEFT OF TRADE SECRETS A. National Stolen Property Act 1. Transported in Interstate Commerce. 2. Goods, Wares or Merchandise 3. Minimum Value of $5,000. 4. Stolen, Converted or Taken by Fraud 5. Knowledge that Items Were Stolen...
Mail and Wire Fraud
I. INTRODUCTTON II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Scheme to Defraud 1. Traditional Frauds 2. Fraud Involving Intangible Rights B. Intent to Defraud C. Mailing In Furtherance of a Scheme 1. Causing the Mails to be Used 2. The "In Furtherance" Requirement...
Money Laundering
I. INTRODUCTION II. OVERVIEW OF THE STATUTE A. Section 1956 1. Transaction Money Laundering 2. Transportation Money Laundering 3. Sting Operations B. Section 1957 III. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Knowledge 1. General Knowledge Requirement 2. Willful...
Obstruction of Justice
I. Introduction II. Obstruction of Justice: The Omnibus Provision A. Scope of Section 1503 B. Elements of the Offense 1. Pending Proceedings 2. Knowledge and Intent 3. Interference or Attempt to Interfere a. Concealment, Alteration or Destruction...
Organizational Sentencing
I. INTRODUCTION II. GUIDELINES PROVISIONS: OFFENSES COVERED AND SANCTIONS PERMITTED A. Remedial Measures B. Probation C. Imposition of Fines 1. Base Offense Level 2. Base Fine 3. Culpability a. Calculation b. Corporate Cooperation c. Corporate...
Procedural Issues
I. INTRODUCTION II. INITIATION OF PROSECUTION A. The Grand Jury 1. Standard of Review for Grand Jury Error 2. Prosecutorial Misconduct B. Document Production 1. Fifth Amendment Aspects of Document Production 2. Act of Production Doctrine 3. Collective...
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations
I. Introduction II. Elements of the Offense A. Two or More Predicate Acts of Rackeetering Activity B. Pattern C. Enterprise 1. Types of Enterprises 2. Proving the Enterprise 3. Person-Enterprise Rule D. Effect on Interstate Commerce E. Prohibited...
Securities Fraud
I. INTRODUCTION II. ELEMENTS OF THE OFFENSE A. Substantive Fraud 1. Material Omissions and Misrepresentations a. Misstatements and Omissions b. Materiality c. Scienter d. Reliance e. Willfulness 2. Insider Trading a. The Classical Theory b....
Tax Evasion
I. Introduction II. IRC Section 7201 A. Elements 1. Existence of a Tax Deficiency 2. Affirmative Act Constituting Evasion 3. Willfulness B. Defenses 1. Lack of Deficiency 2. Lack of Willfulness 3. Third Party Liability/Reliance 4. Selective...
The Independent Counsel Statute: Bad Law, Bad Policy
INTRODUCTION The Watergate scandal--and the crisis in public confidence in government it spawned--left us many legacies, one of which is the Independent Counsel ("IC") statute.(1) Over twenty years after the fact, the "lessons" of the scandal itself...