The American Midland Naturalist

Articles from Vol. 167, No. 1, January

Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax Virescens) Nest Tail Structure and Function in Temperate Forests
ABSTRACT.-Streamers of hanging plant debris (nest tails) are commonly used for nest concealment by tropical Tyrannid flycatchers. Of the 35 species of Tyrannid flycatchers that regularly occur in temperate North America, only the Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax...
Acceptance of Simulated Cowbird Parasitism in a Northern Population of Red-Winged Blackbirds
ABSTRACT.-Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) may be more likely to desert nests parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) when they interact with the parasite, because desertion frequencies are higher at naturally parasitized nests...
Age-Related Changes in Characteristics and Prey Capture of Seasonal Cohorts of Sarracenia Alata Pitchers
ABSTRACT.-The characteristics associated with prey attraction and capture in pitcher plants are not well understood. Because of physiological constraints due to growth patterns and resource availability, pitcher characteristics should vary among seasonal...
A Novel Songbird Nest Predator: The Greater Arid-Land Katydid
ABSTRACT.-We describe the removal (predation) of a black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) nestling by a female greater arid-land katydid (Neobarrettia spinosa) in southwest Texas. The event was captured with a nest camera during night in Jun. 2010. Neobarrettia...
Changes in Elk Distribution and Group Sizes after Wolf Restoration
ABSTRACT.-Changes in ungulate distribution can alter competitive interactions, plant communities, risks of zoonotic disease transmission, and availability of animals for harvest. We used annual aerial survey data for northern Yellowstone elk in Montana...
Contrasting Effects of Sand Burial and Exposure on Invertebrate Colonization of Leaves
ABSTRACT.-Leaf detritus in streams fills dual resource roles as habitat and as food. Unless retained by some structural component, detritus gets transported to downstream reaches out of the local system. Low gradient sandy-bottomed streams retain leaf...
Ecological Details Matter in Island Biogeography: A Case Study on the Samoan Orchids
ABSTRACT.-Often, ecological details are ignored in biogeographical analyses. I use the orchid flora of the Samoan islands to investigate the importance of such details for explaining biogeographical patterns, with special attention to habitat availability...
It Is Good to Be Eaten by a Bear: Effects of Ingestion on Seed Germination
ABSTRACT.-Fruits and their seeds are ingested by many carnivores, but few studies have quantified the effect of ingestion by carnivorous consumers on seed germination. Here, we examine effects of bear frugivory on the germination of three fruit-producing...
Life History Aspects of a Relict Ironcolor Shiner Notropis Chalybaeus Population in a Novel Spring Environment
ABSTRACT.-Ironcolor shiner Notropis chalybaeus is generally absent from groundwater-dominated systems throughout its range; however, a relict disjunct population occurs within the spring-fed upper reaches of the San Marcos River in central Texas. We...
Life History of the Fluted Kidneyshell Ptychobranchus Subtentum
ABSTRACT.-The fluted kidneyshell Ptychobranchus subtentum (Say, 1825) is a candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Fecundity, fish hosts, and selected population demographics were determined during...
Long Term Trends and Outlook for Mountain Sucker in the Black Hills of South Dakota
ABSTRACT.-The extirpation of native fishes is a major concern in North America, and an understanding of population trends of imperiled fishes is critical to their management and conservation. Mountain sucker Catostomus platyrhynchus is a stream fish...
Rodent-Prey Content in Long-Term Samples of Barn Owl (Tyto Alba) Pellets from the Northwestern United States Reflects Local Agricultural Change
ABSTRACT.-Rodent prey contained in two temporally distinct collections of Barn Owl (Tyto alba) pellets from the same roost in southeastern Washington state (USA) differ in terms of taxonomic abundances. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) dominate the...
Spatial Organization of Unexploited Beavers (Castor Canadensis) in Southern Illinois
ABSTRACT.-Few researchers have used radiotelemetry to study spatial organization in beavers (Castor canadensis) given limitations in available radio-attachment methods for the species. During Mar. 2005-Sept. 2006, we attached tail-mounted transmitters...
Structural Attributes of Two Old-Growth Cross Timbers Stands in Western Arkansas
ABSTRACT.-Comprised of largely non-commercial, xeric, oak-dominated forests, the Cross Timbers in Arkansas have been heavily altered over the last two centuries, and thus only scattered parcels of old-growth timber remain. We inventoried and mapped two...
Subterranean Termites of the Oklahoma Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Cross Timbers
ABSTRACT.-A study was conducted to characterize termite colonies on the Nature Conservancy's Tallgrass Prairie Preserve Cross Timbers habitat in northeastern Oklahoma. The two test sites were established on a prescribed-burn area and no-burn area of...
Survival and Cause-Specific Mortality of Pronghorn in Southwestern North Dakota
ABSTRACT.-In many pronghorn populations there exists uncertainty about which factors most affect survival rates. Also, although pronghorn within the same population might exhibit both migratory and non-migratory behaviors, few studies have assessed whether...
The Effect of Mycorrhizae on Plant Growth and Reproduction Varies with Soil Phosphorus and Developmental Stage
ABSTRACT.-Determining the impact of both environmental variation and developmental stage on plant-mycorrhizal associations is important, as both can shift the association along the mutualism-parasitism continuum. This study examines the effect of phosphorus...
The First Observations of the Eastern Sand Darter, Ammocrypta Pellucida (Agassiz), in the Ohio Portion of the Maumee River Mainstem in Sixty-Five Years
ABSTRACT.-The eastern sand darter (Ammocrypta pellucida Agassiz) is a small (<7 cm) bottom dwelling fish that inhabits rivers with clean sand substrates. Siltation and degradation of its riverine habitat caused the species to become rare throughout...