Cartography & Geographic Information Systems

Articles

Vol. 26, No. 2, April

Dealing with Time
Maps are involved as soon as one decides to understand spatial relationships and patterns. Most maps limit themselves to a single snapshot in time. However, the study of geographical processes cannot be successful without considering time as well,...
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Vol. 25, No. 4, October

Multi-Scale Categorical Data Bases with Automatic Generalization Transformations Based on Map Algebra
ABSTRACT: The problem of generalizing spatial data sets has been studied in the context of categorical data. Map Algebra, a deterministic modeling language, has been chosen as the modeling language for the generalization transformations. The methodology...
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Worlds of Information: The Geographic Metaphor in the Visualization of Complex Information
ABSTRACT: This paper explores the potential of the geographic metaphor in helping generate systematic, flexible, and powerful visualizations of textual information. It is part of a larger project aiming at the development of a general spatialization...
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Generating Street Center-Lines from Inaccurate Vector City Maps
ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the problem of automatically generating city street networks from a possibly inaccurate vector description of their blocks. The street network, represented as a graph structure with attributes related to both streets...
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Rethinking Levels of Measurement for Cartography
ABSTRACT: Stevens' measurement levels (nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio) have become a familiar part of cartography and GIS. These levels have been accepted unquestioned from publications in social sciences dating from the 1940s and 1950s. The...
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Topologically Correct Subdivision Simplification Using the Bandwidth Criterion
ABSTRACT: The line simplification problem is an old and well studied problem in cartography. Although there are several algorithms to compute a simplification there seem to be no algorithms that perform line simplification in the context of other geographical...
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Recent Literature
ATLASES Andersson, G., and K. Jahnberg. 1997. Stromstad, Sweden. Stockholm: Institute for Urban History; Odense: Odense University Press. 51 pp. (Scandinavian atlas of historic towns; no. 9). Andreae, C. 1997. Lines of country: An atlas of railway...
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In Memoriam: James P. Corbett (1909-1998)
"There is no limit to the complications you can introduce, if you work at it. But there is a very definite limit to the simplicity you can achieve, even if you devote a lifetime to it. Jim Corbett so admonished the assembled digital mapping researchers...
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Vol. 25, No. 3, July

Spatial Data Infrastructures: Developments, Trends, and Perspectives from Converging Viewpoints
"Isn't that a Library on your Desktop?" What do we call ourselves--geographers, cartographers, GIScientists? Is it GIS, cartography, or geography? Are we all cartographic information specialists or do we deal in spatial data? What about geomatics?...
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Towards a California Geospatial Digital Library: A Strategy for Networked Knowledge
ABSTRACT: In this paper, digital libraries, a new form of networked organization, are examined. Suitable organizational frameworks are necessary to develop and sustain digital library initiatives and to use them most effectively. This paper assumes...
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Spatial Data and the Digital Library
ABSTRACT: As geographic information technologies develop and gain new and often nontraditional users, librarians are working to develop services and collections to meet their needs. Acquiring, managing, describing, and distributing information are...
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Building a North American Spatial Data Infrastructure
ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the state of spatial data infrastructures within North America in late 1997. After providing some background underlying the philosophy and development of the SDI concept, the authors discuss effects of technology, institutions,...
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Looking Forward: Geographic Information Services and Libraries in the Future
ABSTRACT: This paper outlines aspects of present information technology, commerce, and science in the context of geographic information. A review of recent collaborations of government, private sector, and academic representatives identifies possible...
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Comparison of Angles from Surface Slope/Aspect Algorithms
ABSTRACT: Few studies have compared algorithms for mapping surface slope and aspect from digital elevation models. Those studies that have compared these algorithms treat slope and aspect angles independently. The evaluation and comparison of surface...
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Recent Literature
ANIMATED CARTOGRAPHY Herrmann, C., and H. Asche. 1998. Animierte thematische Karten zur Schweizer Bevolkerungsstatistik. Geographica Helvetica 53(1): 17-29. ATLASES Ashton, J. 1998. Windows on nineteenth-century New York: The Peres & Browne...
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In Memoriam: John Clinton Sherman (1916-1996)
John Clinton Sherman was born in Toronto, Canada. John was an educator and a cartographer. Momentous events took place during his lifetime--two World Wars, the advent of broadcast television, the arrival of astronauts on the moon, the onset of the...
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April

Information Technologies, Advocacy, and Development: Resistance and Backlash to Industrial Shrimp Farming
Introduction While the overwhelming belief is that advanced information and communication technologies (ICT) will profoundly influence society, experts differ significantly about whether these impacts will be positive or negative (note 1). Current...
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The Evolution of Public Participation GIS
Geographic information systems (GIS) have become part of the mainstream. From their early days as an expensive custom built luxury they have been tweaked and prodded until they are now off-the-shelf necessities for all manner of public and private...
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Vol. 25, No. 2, April

The Evolution of Public Participation GIS
Geographic information systems (GIS) have become part of the mainstream. From their early days as an expensive custom-built luxury they have been tweaked and prodded until they are now off-the-shelf necessities for all manner of public and private...
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Empowerment, Marginalization, and "Community-Integrated" GIS
ABSTRACT: The "GIS and Society" literature has raised a number of critical issues concerning the political economy and epistemology of geographical information systems (GIS) and the politics and power relations associated with their use. Recently,...
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GIS and Community-Based Planning: Exploring the Diversity of Neighborhood Perspectives and Needs
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, using a participatory research design, it attempts to contribute to a better understanding of the problems neighborhood groups face in accessing and using GIS-based data sources and technology,...
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Multimedia GIS for Planning Support and Public Discourse
ABSTRACT: This article describes innovative ways in which spatial information is conveyed by multimedia GIS to support public discourse in a city planning environment. We explore how GIS results can be manipulated to allow additional analysis by a...
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How and Why Community Groups Use Maps and Geographic Information
Introduction Strong neighborhoods make healthy cities. The obvious questions, then, are what makes strong neighborhoods and what can be done to build that strength? People who have access to GIS (geographic information systems) have come to feel...
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Public Participation GIS-Barriers to Implementation
ABSTRACT: Although GIS technology has become an important decision-support tool in many private and public organizations, its potential as a resource in local public policy debates has yet to be realized. Creating a supportive climate for public participation...
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Recent Literature
ANIMATED CARTOGRAPHY Acevedo, W., and P. Masuoka. 1997. Time-series animation techniques for visualizing urban growth. Computers & Geosciences 23(4):423-35. Kraak, M.J., R. Edsall, and A.M. MacEachren. 1997. Kartografische animaties en legenda's...
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Vol. 25, No. 1, January

Line Generalization Based on Analysis of Shape Characteristics
ABSTRACT. Many solutions for line generalizations have already been proposed. Most of them, however, are geometric solutions, not cartographic ones. The position we take in this paper is to observe school-case solutions available in standard cartographic...
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Enhancing Operations with Spatial Access Methods in a Database Management System for GIS
ABSTRACT. Much attention has been devoted in the past to support classes of applications which are not well served by conventional database systems. Focusing on the application domain of geographic information systems (GIS), several architectural approaches...
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The Elusive Nature of Expertise in Spatial Interpolation
ABSTRACT. This study examines expert knowledge in the context of spatial interpolation through an analysis of surfaces manually interpolated by experts and non-experts. A comparison of expert and non-expert evaluations of computer-interpolated surfaces...
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GPS and GIS: Enhanced Accuracy in Map Matching through Effective Filtering of Autonomous GPS Points
ABSTRACT. The development of the Global Positioning System (GPS), along with ever more powerful geographic information systems (GIS), has spawned the development of public safety applications. One of the most noteworthy of these applications is the...
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Recent Literature
ATLASES Black, J. 1997. Maps and history: Constructing images of the past. New Haven: Yale University Press. 267 pp. Collins, J. F., and T. Cummins (eds). 1996. Agroclimatic atlas of Ireland. Dublin: AGMET. 190 pp. Kartographiches Institut...
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January

Visual Evaluation of GIS Algorithms Using a Reference Grid
Introduction Geographic information systems (GIS) are now quite capable of complex modeling (Tomlin 1990), and the outputs are often used for various decision making tasks. These outputs should be scrutinized for errors as they may mislead GIS users...
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Vol. 24, No. 4, October

On Tightly Coupling Models with Visualizations: The Package for Analysis and Visualization of Environmental Data
ABSTRACT. Environmental modeling activities can tremendously benefit from geographic information system (GIS) technology. Through integration of environmental models with GIS functionalities, modelers can address complex environmental issues and analyze...
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Spectral Schemes: Controversial Color Use on Maps
ABSTRACT. Cartographers have long discouraged the use of spectral, or rainbow, color schemes on thematic maps of quantitative geographic data, though such color use is common in GIS and scientific visualization. Recent research, however, has shown...
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CAMPREL: A New Adaptive Conformal Cartographic Projection
ABSTRACT. The theoretical basis of CAMPREL is discussed. Previously derived partial, differential second-order equations describing the conformal mapping of a rotational ellipsoid onto a plane, and the contour conditions formulated on the basis of...
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Practical Results Using Simulated Annealing for Point Feature Label Placement
ABSTRACT. This paper describes a production-oriented computer program for point feature label placement on petroleum industry basemaps. The program uses a simulated annealing algorithm to find a feasible and near optimal solution to the problem of...
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In Memoriam: John P. Snyder (1926-1997)
John P. Snyder, the internationally known authority on map projections, died on April 28, 1997. Although probably best known for his notable contributions and publications in his main field of expertise, his interests were wide and he was active in...
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Vol. 24, No. 3, July

Geographic Information Systems for Risk Evaluation: Perspectives on Applications to Environmental Health
ABSTRACT. Geographic information system (GIS) applications for risk evaluation concerning environmental and ecological health are appearing with greater frequency. In this paper, we devise a conceptual framework for risk evaluation that encompasses...
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Exploring the Use of Buffer Analysis for the Identification of Impacted Areas in Environmental Equity Assessment
ABSTRACT. Though circular buffer zones are commonly used in environmental equity assessment, the results obtained may not be entirely accurate because physical processes rarely operate in a perfectly symmetrical manner. An integrated approach, known...
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Using Relative Risk Indicators to Disclose Toxic Hazard Information to Communities
ABSTRACT. Political leaders continue to reaffirm citizens' right to know about possible health hazards from industrial facilities located in their neighborhood. Yet, due to the complexity of conventional risk characterizations, it is extremely difficult...
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GIS-Based Environmental Equity and Risk Assessment: Methodological Problems and Prospects
ABSTRACT. Geographic information systems increasingly have been applied in the domain of environmental risk assessment. One area of research that appears to have excellent potential is in GIS as applied to the assessment of environmental equity. This...
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Vol. 24, No. 2, April

The Effects of Vertical Error in Digital Elevation Models on the Determination of Flow-Path Direction
ABSTRACT. This study examines the effects of vertical error in digital elevation models (DEMs) on the determination of flow-path direction. Flow-path data are widely used in hydrologic modeling applications, but the sensitivity of flow-path algorithms...
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Visualization of Multicriteria Location Analysis Using Raster GIS: A Case Study
ABSTRACT. This paper presents four techniques for visualizing multicriteria location analysis--the decision matrix, payoff matrix, multicriteria scatterplot/map matrix, and value path/map display. These techniques are implemented within a raster GIS...
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Map Design and Production Issues for the Utah Gap Analysis Project
ABSTRACT. The cartographic preparation and printing of four maps for the Utah GAP Project presented a wide range of challenges in cartographic design and production. In meeting these challenges, the map designers had to balance the purpose of the maps...
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Using ArcView to Create Contiguous and Noncontiguous Area Cartograms
ABSTRACT. This paper describes an enhanced Avenue "programming" code for constructing thematic cartograms in the ArcVeiw GIS environment. Methods of interpreting the cartograms are described as well. Introduction Certain data, such as electoral...
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Alternatives to Miller's Projection
In the 1942 issue of the Geographical Review published by the American Geographical Society, Osborne Maitland Miller presented a map projection which might be used as an alternative to that devised by Mercator. This is now known as Miller's Cylindrical...
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Recent Literature
ANIMATED CARTOGRAPHY Thompson, W., and S. Lavin. 1996. Automatic generation of animated migration maps. Cartographica 33(2): 17-28. ATLASES Arizona atlas & gazetteer--2nd ed. 1996. Freeport, Me.: DeLorme. 76 pp. Bernhardson, W. 1997....
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In Memoriam: Richard E. Dahlberg (1928-1996)
Cartographers lost a most respected colleague when Richard Dahlberg died in December 1996. Dick retired from Northern Illinois University (NIU) last summer and was planning to spend some time traveling while still contributing to his profession. It...
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Vol. 24, No. 1, January

Spherical Methods for Spatial Interpolation: Review and Evaluation
ABSTRACT. Global change research has placed new demands on methods of spatial analysis. In particular, spherical methods for spatial interpolation are required when spatial analyses are performed over large areas of the Earth's surface. In this article,...
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Statistical Modeling Uncertainties of Three-Dimensional GIS Features
ABSTRACT. This article presents a newly developed statistical approach for modeling positional uncertainties of geometric features in three-dimensional geographical information systems (GIS). These features include points, line segments and linear...
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Envisioning the American West: Maps, the Representational Barrage of 19th Century Expedition Reports, and the Production of Scientific Knowledge
ABSTRACT. A striking shaded relief map, created by Baron F. W. von Egloffstein to accompany the report on the first official exploration of the Grand Canyon in 1857-58, represents an important new way of envisioning America's western landscapes. Ideas...
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Recent Literature
ANIMATED CARTOGRAPHY Dransch, D. 1996. Einsatz und Konzeption yon kartographischen Computer-Animationen. Kartographische Nachrichten 46(6): 219-25. Yaman, M., and O. Koop. 1996. Kartografische animatie in een theoretisch kader. Kartografisch...
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In Memoriam: George F. Jenks (1916-1996)
It seems ironic to report on the passing of Professor George F. Jenks just months after the death of his colleague and close friend, John Sherman, the University of Washington cartographer. John and George were born within three months of each other...
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Bylaws of the Cartography and Geographic Information Society
Article I. Authority 1. These Bylaws are promulgated under the authority provided in Bylaw II of the 1980 Constitution and Bylaws of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, hereinafter referred to as ACSM Constitution and ACSM, respectively....
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