Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 42, No. 3, Fall

A Dyadic Protocol for Training Complex Skills: A Replication Using Female Participants
The effectiveness and efficiency of the active interlocked modeling (AIM) dyadic protocol in training complex skills has been extensively demonstrated. However, past evaluation studies have all used male participants exclusively. Consequently, the...
Evaluation of Alternative Waveforms for Animated Mimic Displays
Animated mimic displays can be used to present system information regarding physical form, function, and causality. However, a potential limitation in current designs has been identified: the presence of ambiguous apparent motion. Two theoretical explanations...
Fleet Study Evaluation of an Advance Brake Warning System
The advance brake warning system (ABWS) is a mechanism that activates the brake lights in response to a rapid disengagement of the gas pedal, before the driver's foot reaches the brake pedal. Two previous studies showed that (a) such rapid releases...
Human versus Automation in Responding to Failures: An Expected-Value Analysis
A simple analytical criterion is provided for deciding whether a human or automation is best for a failure detection task. The method is based on expected-value decision theory in much the same way as is signal detection. It requires specification...
Linguistic Cues and Memory for Synthetic and Natural Speech
Past research has demonstrated that there are cognitive processing costs associated with comprehension of speech generated by text-to-speech synthesizers, relative to comprehension of natural speech. This finding has important performance implications...
Overcoming Representational Errors in Complex Environments
Errors in situation awareness (SA) can degrade the decision process. One particularly troublesome SA error is the representational error, which reflects problems with the misinterpretation of information based on a person's current mental model of...
Postural Instability and Motion Sickness in a Fixed-Base Flight Simulator
We evaluated the prediction that postural instability would precede the subjective symptoms of motion sickness in a fixed-base flight simulator. Participants sat in a cockpit in a video projection dome and were exposed to optical flow that oscillated...
Stature, Age, and Gender Effects on Reach Motion Postures
The rapid adoption of software to simulate human reach motions in the design of vehicle interiors and manufacturing and office workstations has required a sophisticated understanding of human motions. This paper describes how more than 3000 right-arm...
Team Play with a Powerful and Independent Agent: A Full-Mission Simulation Study
One major problem with pilot-automation interaction on modem flight decks is a lack of mode awareness; that is, a lack of knowledge and understanding of the current and future status and behavior of the automation. A lack of mode awareness is not simply...
The Design and Delivery of Crew Resource Management Training: Exploiting Available Resources
Despite widespread acceptance throughout commercial and military settings, crew resource management (CRM) training programs have not escaped doubts about their effectiveness. The current state of CRM training is an example of how an entire body of...
The Framing of Drivers' Route Choices When Travel Time Information Is Provided under Varying Degrees of Cognitive Load
In two experiments, participants chose between staying on a main route with a certain travel time and diverting to an alternative route that could take a range of travel times. In the first experiment, travel time information was displayed on a sheet...
The Potential for Misinterpretation Considered More Globally: A Response to Vicente and Ethier
The notion that one can capture some aspect of reality by making a description of it using a symbol ... seems to me a fascinating and powerful idea. But ... there is a trade-off; any particular representation makes certain information explicit at the...
Training Concurrent Multistep Procedural Tasks
This study assessed the effectiveness of traditional whole-task, pure part-task, and two forward-chaining part-task techniques to train rapidly presented concurrent multistep tasks. When training was equated for the total number of training trials,...
Visual Search in Complex Displays: Factors Affecting Conflict Detection by Air Traffic Controllers
Recent free flight proposals to relax airspace constraints and give greater autonomy to aircraft have raised concerns about their impact on controller performance. Relaxing route and altitude restrictions would reduce the regularity of traffic through...
Why Fluid Dynamics Matters for Display Design in Process Control: Commentary on Bennett and Malek
INTRODUCTION As its name implies, cognitive engineering requires attention to the properties of both human cognition and engineering systems. Bennett and Malek (this issue) have done an exemplary job of investigating properties of human cognition...

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