Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 42, No. 4, Winter

A Componential Model of Human Interaction with Graphs: VI. Cognitive Engineering of Pie Graphs
This paper proposes and tests the following three-component model of reading a pie graph to estimate segment size: (a) selecting a mentally represented anchor segment (25%, 50%, or 75%), (b) mentally aligning representations of the anchor and target...
Adaptation and Sensitivity to Postural Change in Sitting
We used 3 psychophysics methods to determine perceptible changes in seat height, seat pan angle, and backrest angle using an experimental chair. In the method of adjustment, the chosen chair settings were affected by the initial setting. For example,...
Applying Quality Control Charts to the Analysis of Single-Subject Data Sequences
Techniques from the field of quality control can be used to classify the quality of individual samples of physical or cognitive performance. After stable baselines have been established for an individual, deviations in performance can be evaluated...
Effects of Vehicle Interior Geometry and Anthropometric Variables on Automobile Driving Posture
The effects of vehicle package, seat, and anthropometric variables on posture were studied in a laboratory vehicle mockup. Participants (68 men and women) selected their preferred driving postures in 18 combinations of seat height, fore-aft steering...
Frames of Reference for the Display of Battlefield Information: Judgment-Display Dependencies
In 2 experiments, U.S. Army soldiers viewed computer-generated displays that presented battlefield information from 3 different frames of reference: a 2D plan view display (with contour lines), a 3D exocentric perspective display, and an interactive...
Fuzzy Signal Detection Theory: Basic Postulates and Formulas for Analyzing Human and Machine Performance
Signal detection theory (SDT) assumes a division of objective truths or "states of the world" into the nonoverlapping categories of signal and noise. The definition of a signal in many real settings, however, varies with context and over time. In the...
Medication Schemas and Memory for Automated Telephone Messages
The present study investigated whether older and younger adults use a schema to organize and remember spoken reminder messages for taking medication. Previous research has shown that older and younger adults share preferences for organizing printed...
Multiple Two-Dimensional Displays as an Alternative to Three-Dimensional Displays in Telerobotic Tasks
In this study a multiple-view two-dimensional (2D) display was compared with a three-dimensional (3D) monocular display and a 3D stereoscopic display using a simulated telerobotic task. As visual aids, three new types of visual enhancement cues were...
The Effect of Handle Angle on MAWL, Wrist Posture, RPE, and Heart Rate
In manual material handling tasks, the handle serves as the interface between the human operator and the box (the materials). Handle angle design can affect both wrist posture and lifting ability. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of handle...
Vehicle and Driver Attributes Affecting Distance from the Steering Wheel in Motor Vehicles
The current study was designed to confirm that female drivers sit closer to the steering wheel than do male drivers and to investigate whether this expected difference in sitting position is attributable to differences in the physical dimensions of...
Visual Search for Grouped versus Ungrouped Icons in a Computer Interface
The paradigm of visual search was used to investigate how participants looked for a target file among distracter files in an icon-based computer interface. The purpose of these experiments was to study the effect of icons and spatial grouping on scanning...

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