Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 43, No. 4, Winter

Attentional Filtering in the Design of Electronic Map Displays: A Comparison of Color Coding, Intensity Coding, and Decluttering Techniques
INTRODUCTION The presentation of map information on electronic displays is a challenge because the amount of information that must be presented is constrained by the size of the space in which the information can be displayed. The map may support...
Behavioral Influences of Proximal Alarms
INTRODUCTION Multiple alarm events are most likely to occur with highly sophisticated, closely coupled systems (Stanton, 1994). Greater numbers of alarms or alerts associated with components and subsystems increase the potential for sensing multiple...
Context-Dependent Memory under Stressful Conditions: The Case of Skydiving
INTRODUCTION The present study originated with an observation: The instructors for our (L. T. and J. C.) beginning skydiving course made us rehearse short skydiving procedures repeatedly during most of a 4-h training session. These procedures were...
Retrospective and Prospective Validity of Aircraft Accident Risk Indicators
INTRODUCTION Numerous studies have examined the relationships among pilot biodata, personality measures, and accident involvement. Commonly examined characteristics include age (Baker, Lamb, Li, & Dodd, 1993; Lategola, Fiorica, Booze, &...
Speech-Based Interaction with In-Vehicle Computers: The Effect of Speech-Based E-Mail on Drivers' Attention to the Roadway
INTRODUCTION The evolution of computers has made a variety of in-vehicle information systems possible (Lee, 1997; Lee, Kantowitz, Hulse, & Dingus, 1994). These new information systems can enhance mobility and productivity, but they may also...
Supporting Decision Making and Action Selection under Time Pressure and Uncertainty: The Case of In-Flight Icing
INTRODUCTION Operators in a variety of event-driven high-risk domains such as aviation often need to make decisions and select and execute appropriate actions under time pressure and uncertainty. One way to support operators in these tasks is through...
Team Training in the Skies: Does Crew Resource Management (CRM) Training Work?
INTRODUCTION In aviation, accidents and mishaps have been attributed to human error in 60% to 80% of cases (Freeman & Simmon, 1991). A large part of these are attributable to failures in coordination among cockpit crews. For example, poor pilot...
The Twilight Envelope: A User-Centered Approach to Describing Roadway Illumination at Night
INTRODUCTION Vehicle headlamps provide a limited region of useful illumination at night on the road. The importance of describing this region is highlighted by the facts that the majority of fatal collisions occur at night and that many of these...
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