Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 41, No. 1, March

Age-Related Performance in a Multiple-Task Environment
INTRODUCTION A multiple-task environment requires an individual to perform two or more tasks at the same time, usually under a time limit for overall task performance. Everyday examples of multiple tasks include driving an automobile in an unfamiliar...
A Methodology for Enhancing Crew Resource Management Training
INTRODUCTION In the 1970s, hundreds of airline passengers on routine, scheduled flights lost their lives because each of three aircrews committed an error. In one incident, the crew failed to take fuel levels into consideration during problem solving;...
Auditory Spatial Facilitation of Visual Search Performance: Effect of Cue Precision and Distractor Density
INTRODUCTION Virtual environments often contain simulations of auditory reality in addition to visual reality. Auditory virtual environments are produced by replicating two cues known to be important for sound-source localization: inter-aural difference...
Designing an Interface to Optimize Reading with Small Display Windows
INTRODUCTION A great amount of learning and working is done through reading. The majority of electronically presented text readily available today mimics the technology of the book by displaying "digital pages" on a screen. However, present technology...
Double Trade-Off Curves with Different Cognitive Processing Combinations: Testing the Cancellation Axiom of Mental Workload Measurement Theory
INTRODUCTION The conceptual bases of mental workload measurement have been supported by a three-legged foundation provided by subjective, performance, and physiological indices (Gopher & Donchin, 1986; O'Donnell & Eggemeier, 1986). Together,...
Eye Movements of Younger and Older Drivers
INTRODUCTION There is much experimental data to support the casual observation that visual perception and information processing capabilities decline with advancing age. Because driving is a highly visual task, this deterioration has been used to...
Human Sensitivity to Variability Information in Detection Decisions
INTRODUCTION Technological developments often result in the automatization of many operations, particularly those that involve complex processing, handling of hazardous materials, and remote operations. Many of the automated systems include data...
Impairment of Driving Performance Caused by Sleep Deprivation or Alcohol: A Comparative Study
INTRODUCTION Driver impairment is defined as a change in driving performance caused by the deleterious effects of alcohol, fatigue, drugs, or sudden illness (Fairclough, 1997a). In 1995, approximately 24% of traffic casualties in the United Kingdom...
Interactive Critiquing as a Form of Decision Support: An Empirical Evaluation
INTRODUCTION In examining the artificial intelligence literature, one may find that there have been many attempts to build decision-support systems that provide the user with a conclusion and an explanation for that conclusion. For example, in the...
Planning, Shared Mental Models, and Coordinated Performance: An Empirical Link Is Established
INTRODUCTION In dynamic task settings, such as the aviation, nuclear power plant, and medical industries, teamwork is essential for successful job completion. Even minor breakdowns in teamwork can result in unforgiving errors in such complex work...
Predicting Optimal Accommodative Performance from Measures of the Dark Focus of Accommodation
INTRODUCTION Historically, visual accommodation has been described as resting at the far point of the eye's focusing range (Helmholtz, 1909). However, scattered empirical evidence from as early as the mid-19th century suggested an intermediate resting...
The Discrimination, Acquisition, and Retention of Aiming Movements Made with and without Elastic Resistance
INTRODUCTION Given the proliferation of machines and devices with which people interact in jobs and everyday lives, there are many occasions when people have to make discrete movements accurately without vision of their limbs. They do not see their...
The Effect of Personality Type on Muscle Coactivation during Elbow Flexion
INTRODUCTION Work-related musculoskeletal injuries and illnesses are prevalent in many industries, and they result in both monetary and human costs (Putz-Anderson, 1988). Most of these injuries are believed to be caused either by an identifiable...
Who Is Flying This Plane Anyway? What Mishaps Tell Us about Crew Member Role Assignment and Air Crew Situation Awareness
INTRODUCTION Situation awareness (SA) and situation assessment in teams have been subjects of research and practice for some time (e.g., Jentsch et al., 1995; Orasanu, 1995; Prince, Salas, Bowers, & Jentsch, 1995; Robertson & Endsley, 1995;...

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