Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 46, No. 3, Fall

Age Differences in Search of Web Pages: The Effects of Link Size, Link Number, and Clutter
INTRODUCTION The Internet has sparked a revolution in the last decade, producing significant changes in the ways companies do business and individuals perform their daily tasks. Although the first "boom" of prosperity for new Internet businesses...
A New Model of Scheduling in Manufacturing: Tasks, Roles, and Monitoring
INTRODUCTION There are few areas in life in which scheduling does not play a part. Scheduling is a fundamental process that is essential within business, industry, and service sectors. There are numerous forms of scheduling--for example, devising...
Characterizing the Effects of Droplines on Target Acquisition Performance on a 3-D Perspective Display
INTRODUCTION Three-dimensional (3-D) displays have potential applications in many areas, such as medicine, aviation, and information visualization (e.g., Ellis & McGreevy, 1983; Gaunt & Gaunt, 1978; Pepper, Smith, & Cole, 1981). Three-dimensional...
Conversation Disrupts Change Detection in Complex Traffic Scenes
INTRODUCTION The ability to notice behaviorally meaningful objects and events in the visual surroundings is fundamental to an operator's capacity to maintain performance in a complex environment. Indeed, Endsley's (1995) widely cited model of situation...
Effect of Job Rotation on Work Demands, Workload, and Recovery of Refuse Truck Drivers and Collectors
INTRODUCTION The Tayloristic principle of division of labor and job specialization is a fundamental issue in the organization of work. This principle resulted, in many cases, in a subdivision of work into small cycles in order to increase productivity....
Learning to Make Decisions in Dynamic Environments: Effects of Time Constraints and Cognitive Abilities
INTRODUCTION Dynamic decision making (DDM) comprises a series of multiple, interdependent decisions that are made in real time in a continuously changing autonomous environment (Brehmer, 1990; Edwards, 1962). For example, air traffic control (ATC)...
Light Pen Use and Practice Minimize Age and Hand Performance Differences in Pointing Tasks
INTRODUCTION Computer systems are ubiquitous in work environments and are becoming so in homes. Although approximately 51% of households in the United States reported having a computer system as of August 2000, older adults lagged in adopting them...
Memory Processes of Flight Situation Awareness: Interactive Roles of Working Memory Capacity, Long-Term Working Memory, and Expertise
INTRODUCTION The term situation awareness (SA) has been highlighted in the aviation world because of its prominent role in flight operations. Although it has been considered an essential prerequisite for the safe operation of aircraft, the term...
Not Now! Supporting Interruption Management by Indicating the Modality and Urgency of Pending Tasks
INTRODUCTION Operators in complex event-driven domains face considerable and often competing attentional demands. They need to perform a wide range of tasks in coordination with other human and machine agents. Some tasks need to be performed immediately...
Partitioning Visual Displays Aids Task-Directed Visual Search
INTRODUCTION Processing a visual display often requires a search for a target symbol embedded within a field of distractor symbols. There is still considerable disagreement as to why the difficulty of visual search increases as the similarity of...
Sonification Supports Eyes-Free Respiratory Monitoring and Task Time-Sharing
INTRODUCTION An important goal in interface design is to provide the human operator with the right information at the right time in the right format. Some work environments stand out because of the apparent difficulty of achieving this goal. For...
Speed-Accuracy Characteristics of Human-Machine Cooperative Manipulation Using Virtual Fixtures with Variable Admittance
INTRODUCTION A goal of human-machine cooperative systems is to enhance user performance of tasks at the limits of human motor control. For example, microsurgical procedures such as retinal vein cannulation require operation at scales that exceed...
Stimuli Fixation and Manual Response as a Function of Expectancies
INTRODUCTION Under some conditions, only a small part of the available attentional resources is directed to the task at hand. In these situations people perform their task fairly well, on a more or less automated level, while keeping resources available...
When Redundant On-Screen Text in Multimedia Technical Instruction Can Interfere with Learning
INTRODUCTION Delivering text simultaneously in written and spoken form is common in multimedia presentations. Conference presenters or educators reading their overheads aloud, text on a TV screen with a voice reading the same text, and instructional...