Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 37, No. 3, September

Acquisition of Control Skills with Delayed and Compensated Displays
INTRODUCTION Numerous studies document the effects of delaying feedback for closed-loop, continuous manual control (Ricard, 1994). This feedback has been visual, and the size of the delays studied has ranged from the several-second transmission times...
An Experimental Investigation of Configural, Digital, and Temporal Information on Process Displays
INTRODUCTION Dynamic systems are particularly difficult to explain in language. However, relationships that are difficult to describe unambiguously in language are often easily depicted graphically. Putting a layer of interface computation between a...
Battlefield Recognition of Armored Vehicles
FACTORS IN ARMORED VEHICLE RECOGNITION Recognition of armored vehicles under combat conditions has been of concern since the first tank-versus-tank battle in World War I. An armored vehicle crew's ability to correctly recognize another vehicle as friend...
Effects of Back Support on Intra-Abdominal Pressure and Lumbar Kinetics during Heavy Lifting
INTRODUCTION Spine kinetic changes associated with the trunk anatomy have been linked with humans lifting near-maximal levels (Garg and Herrin, 1979; Morris, Lucas, and Bresler, 1961; Troup, Leskinen, Stalhammar and Kurinka, 1983). Obvious concerns...
Effects of Pictorial Relative Size and Ground-Intercept Information on Judgements about Potential Collisions in Perspective Displays
INTRODUCTION Advancements in technology have made it practical to use three-dimensional (3D) displays in flight deck, air traffic control (ATC), teleoperational, meteorological, scientific visualization, and medical imaging systems (for comprehensive...
Estimates of Driver Mental Workload: A Long-Term Field Trial of Two Subsidiary Tasks
INTRODUCTION A major problem in the study of complex perceptual-motor tasks such as automobile driving is the direct determination of the mental workload imposed on the operator. The concept of mental workload is based on the conjoint assumptions that...
Industrial Injury Cost Analysis by Occupation in an Electric Utility
INTRODUCTION In the last 20 years, U.S. corporations have established aggressive safety management programs. Although these efforts have reduced the rate of industrial injuries, industrial accidents still occur. A review of mortality research indicates...
Influence of Flooring on Standing Fatigue
INTRODUCTION In many manufacturing and service industries, workers are required to stand for long periods. Ergonomic problems associated with prolonged standing and walking range from lower extremity discomfort and fatigue to low back pain. In 1983,...
Mixed versus Pure Display Format in Integration and Nonintegration Visual Display Monitoring Tasks
In four experiments we examined the effect of varying the types of display coding (analog, verbal, digital) used in a visual monitoring task. In pure display conditions all indicators within a display were of the same type, and in mixed conditions display...
Musical versus Visual Graphs: Cross-Modal Equivalence in Perception of Time Series Data
By applying multidimensional scaling procedures and other quantitative analyses to perceptual dissimilarity judgments, we compared the perceptual structure of visual line graphs depicting simulated time series data with that of auditory displays (musical...
Naive Judgements of Stimulus-Response Compatibility
INTRODUCTION People perform tasks, and they also make judgments about tasks. They judge, for example, how likely they are to be able to accomplish tasks, how much effort tasks will require, and how much time tasks will take to complete. When tasks are...
Predictors of Hearing Protection Use among Workers: Implications for Training Programs
INTRODUCTION Hearing Protection The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimated that manufacturing work exposes 14 million U.S. workers to hazardous noise (OSHA, 1980). This leads to hearing loss, which causes significant human suffering...
Taxonomy of Scheduling Systems as a Basis for the Study of Strategic Behavior
Strategic behavior is frequently characterized by the need to decide among several courses of action, each of which may lead to a desired goal, subject to time constraints. Often strategic behavior can be regarded as a series of answers to the question,...
The Measurement of Team Process
INTRODUCTION Effective team performance is important for the well-being of team members and for those affected by the teams' performance in many areas, such as sports, medicine, commercial air travel, and manufacturing. Understanding the nature of effective...
The Proximity Compatibility Principle: Its Psychological Foundation and Relevance to Display Design
In this report we describe the concept of the proximity compatibility principle (PCP) and demonstrate its relevance to display design: Displays relevant to a common task or mental operation (close task or mental proximity) should be rendered close together...
Vigilance Latencies to Aircraft Detection among NORAD Surveillance Operators
INTRODUCTION Numerous vigilance researchers have questioned the wisdom of generalizing laboratory results to real-world tasks (Adams, 1987; Alluisi, Coates, and Morgan, 1977; Elliott, 1960; Kibler, 1965; Mackie, 1987; Thackray, Bailey, and Touchstone,...

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