Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 46, No. 2, Summer

Conceptual Issues in the Study of Dynamic Hazard Warnings
INTRODUCTION Dynamic warnings are "sensor-based signaling systems" (Bliss & Gilson, 1998). They present, at any moment in time, one of two or more messages (inactivity of the warning is also considered to be a message), based on input from sensors,...
Effects of Sensory Modality and Task Duration on Performance, Workload, and Stress in Sustained Attention
INTRODUCTION The expanded use of automation has altered the role of operators in many work settings from that of active controllers to executive monitors who must stay attentive to displays and take action only in the event of imminent problems...
Engaging in Activities Involving Information Technology: Dimensions, Modes, and Flow
INTRODUCTION A growing body of literature portrays interaction between humans and information technology (IT) as a dynamic system that cannot be understood by looking at the user and the IT product as separate entities. The theoretical perspective...
Evaluation of a Computerized Aid for Creating Human Behavioral Representations of Human-Computer Interaction
INTRODUCTION In 1983, Card, Moran, and Newell developed the goals, operators, methods, and selection rules (GOMS) methodology for modeling human computer tasks. A GOMS model has four components: The goal is the state to be achieved, or end state....
Foot Shape Modeling
INTRODUCTION The foot is a flexible structure, as 26 bones give its shape. Large deformations from its neutral posture, however, can place excessive stress and sometimes strain, giving rise to discomfort and even pain. Thus it becomes important...
Grip Force Vectors for Varying Handle Diameters and Hand Sizes
INTRODUCTION Designers often depend on published grip strength data obtained using an apparatus that varies handle size by controlling only a single dimension (e.g., span). One such instrument is the Jamar dynamometer, which measures force in a...
Imperfect In-Vehicle Collision Avoidance Warning Systems Can Aid Drivers
INTRODUCTION Intelligent transportation systems (ITSs) are increasingly becoming technically feasible and economically affordable (Lee, 1997; Walker, Stanton, & Young, 2001). Unlike in-vehicle safety systems such as air bags and safety belts,...
Minimal Instrumentation May Compromise Failure Diagnosis with an Ecological Interface
INTRODUCTION What can be sensed forms a fundamental limiting feature of displays. This limiting feature is not always given the emphasis it deserves. --C. R. Kelley (1968, p. 90). Ecological interface design (EID; Vicente, 2002; Vicente &...
Productivity and Ergonomic Investigation of Bent-Handle Pliers
INTRODUCTION The development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represents a complex interaction among an individual's psychological characteristics, the individual's physiological characteristics, and the mechanical/physical factors...
Remembrance of Cases Past: Who Remembers What, When Confronting Critical Flight Events?
INTRODUCTION Intelligent behavior in the present requires the ability to profit from the past. This is true in all walks of life and especially so in aviation. After almost a century of aviation experience, almost every conceivable kind of event...
Right of Way in the Sky: Two Problems in Aircraft Self-Separation and the Auction-Based Solution
INTRODUCTION Recent developments in aviation technology significantly improve the information available to pilots and the possibility of communication between aircraft (e.g., Livack, McDaniel, Battiste, & Johnson, 1999). In the near future,...
Safety Symbol Comprehension: Effects of Symbol Type, Familiarity, and Age
INTRODUCTION Pictorial symbols may be a valuable form of communication for conveying safety information. Symbols can enhance text comprehension, facilitate top-down processing of a safety message, be better perceived than text in degraded conditions,...
Synchronization of Traffic Signals as a Means of Reducing Red-Light Running
INTRODUCTION Surveys of British and American motorists indicate that aggressive driving is one of the driver's greatest concerns as far as traffic safety is involved (AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 1997; National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,...
The Size-Weight Illusion in Team Lifting
INTRODUCTION Lifters perceive larger objects to be lighter than smaller objects of the same mass. This phenomenon is commonly known as the size-weight illusion and has been studied extensively since the work of Charpentier (1891). Although most...
Trapezius Muscle Motor Unit Activity in Symptomatic Participants during Finger Tapping Using Properly and Improperly Adjusted Desks
INTRODUCTION Work-related muscular neck-shoulder pain is a major health risk among computer operators, particularly in women (Hagberg & Wegmann, 1987; Oberg & Astrom, 2000; Punnet & Berquist, 1997; Sauter, Schleifer, & Knutson, 1991)....
Verification of the Change Blindness Phenomenon While Managing Critical Events on a Combat Information Display
INTRODUCTION In daily life people apprehend a world filled with numerous objects and surfaces--a world rich with detail--or do we? Perhaps no other visual phenomenon challenges people's naive visual impression of the world more than change blindness...

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