Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 41, No. 2, June

Adaptive Team Coordination
INTRODUCTION A ubiquitous factor that teams have to confront and adapt to is stress induced by uncertainty, ambiguity, and time pressure. Stress reduces an individual's or team's flexibility and causes errors (e.g., the Vincennes incident). Janis...
Age, Luminance, and Print Legibility in Homes, Offices, and Public Places
INTRODUCTION What are typical luminance levels in the built environment? Knowing the answer to this question would be valuable both for experimenters wanting to select representative luminance levels in experiments and for those wanting to determine...
An On-the-Road Comparison of In-Vehicle Navigation Assistance Systems
INTRODUCTION One of the more interesting advances in transportation over the past decade is the introduction of intelligent transportation systems. Of particular interest is the flurry of activity directed at developing advanced traveler information...
Does CRM Training Improve Teamwork Skills in the Cockpit? Two Evaluation Studies
INTRODUCTION For many years the military has known that teams are essential to mission success. Military teams have been assigned to complete a wide variety of tasks, many of which are too complex or dangerous for a single individual to accomplish...
Effects of Earplugs and Protective Headgear on Auditory Localization Ability in the Horizontal Plane
INTRODUCTION Localization represents a fundamental auditory skill that contributes to survival by indicating the presence and position of mates, prey, and enemies. Moreover, identification of sound source positions is an intimate part of modern-day...
Effects of Pacing When Using Material Handling Manipulators
INTRODUCTION Numerous sources have demonstrated an association between manual materials handling and work-related lost time attributable to musculoskeletal injury (e.g., Ayoub, 1982; Chaffin & Park, 1973; Marras et al., 1993). In attempts to...
Footwear Cushioning: Relating Objective and Subjective Measurements
INTRODUCTION Foot-ground interfaces exist in many different forms. Frequently the interface is a shoe or floor mat, and sometimes it is a carpet-like material, such as an Astroturf, providing specific biomechanical characteristics to help one perform...
Repetition Improves Older and Younger Adult Memory for Automated Appointment Messages
INTRODUCTION Cognitive and Communication Factors Related to Appointment Attendance The failure of patients to attend health care appointments is well documented (e.g., Deyo & Inui, 1980). It is a particular concern for older adults, who require...
The Effects of Complex Wrist and Forearm Posture on Wrist Range of Motion
INTRODUCTION In order to minimize the risk of repetitive trauma injuries, postures or motions that place joints near the limits of their range of motion (ROM) should be avoided. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) concluded...
The Hysteresis Effect
INTRODUCTION Human information processing is an integral part of the interaction among the human, the machine, and their operating environment, and it influences human-machine system performance. The hysteresis effect is an aspect of human information...
The Utility of Display Space in Keeping Track of Rapidly Changing Information
INTRODUCTION Human operators whose jobs involve scheduling, coordinating, and keeping track of process variables that interact with each other often support these tasks by augmenting their work environments with external memory aids such as computer...
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