Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 47, No. 3, Fall

An Attempt to Evaluate Mental Workload Using Wavelet Transform of EEG
INTRODUCTION In human-computer interaction, many tasks are performed using complicated cognitive information processing. Such situations cause mental workload or stress that has not been observed as a result of performing traditional physical tasks....
A Normative Database of Thumb Circumduction in Vivo: Center of Rotation and Range of Motion
INTRODUCTION The thumb has unique kinematic and anatomical characteristics as compared with the other four digits of the hand, and it plays an irreplaceable role in many manipulative tasks. Thumb function is often regarded as accounting for 40%...
Assessing the Effects of Positive Feedback and Reinforcement in the Introduction Phase of an Ergonomic Intervention
INTRODUCTION The motivation for ergonomics intervention research stems from statistics of the number and cost of recordable workplace injuries and from literature that has shown that ergonomic solutions can be effective countermeasures. Repetitive...
Attentive Navigation for Viewpoint Control in Virtual Environments
INTRODUCTION Three-dimensional virtual environments (VEs) and teleoperated systems are frequently characterized by the use of an egocentric viewpoint that moves through the environment, offering viewers multiple perspectives on a visual information...
Audibility of Train Horns in Passenger Vehicles
INTRODUCTION Collisions between motor vehicles and trains continue to occur at highway-rail crossings despite the application of various systems to warn motorists. In 2002, for example, 310 people in the United States were killed in collisions of...
Audio and Visual Cues in a Two-Talker Divided Attention Speech-Monitoring Task
INTRODUCTION In recent years, improvements in data transmission technology have dramatically reduced the cost of telecommunications bandwidth. To this point, however, relatively little effort has been made to exploit this low-cost bandwidth in improved...
Augmented, Pulsating Tactile Feedback Facilitates Simulator Training of Clinical Breast Examinations
INTRODUCTION Each year breast cancer kills 40,000 women in the United States, with approximately 211,240 new cases estimated for 2005 (Jemal et al., 2005). Fortunately, if tumors are treated before reaching 2.0 cm in maximum diameter, the 5-year...
Heuristic Automation for Decluttering Tactical Displays
INTRODUCTION Clutter can become a serious problem for users monitoring situation displays. For example, in naval air defense, users must monitor airspaces to find threatening aircraft. These airspaces are frequently in busy environments near land...
Limitations in Drivers' Ability to Recognize Pedestrians at Night
INTRODUCTION Pedestrian fatalities are a major road safety issue. In the United States, 70,000 pedestrians were injured and 4747 pedestrians were killed in the year 2003; pedestrian fatalities accounted for 11% of all traffic fatalities in that...
Low-Back Biomechanics and Static Stability during Isometric Pushing
INTRODUCTION Biomechanical analyses of pushing and pulling tasks are necessary to improve the current understanding of spinal load, spinal stability, and the associated risk of musculoskeletal injury. Lifting has been historically cited as a significant...
Mission Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: A Workload Analysis
INTRODUCTION Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide many benefits over manned systems, including having smaller platforms, being more cost efficient, enabling longer mission times, allowing flight control that may not be possible with manned aircraft...
Relationships among Display Features, Eye Movement Characteristics, and Reaction Time in Visual Search
INTRODUCTION The question of what determines the location of the next fixation, or how people select the fixation point as they move their eyes around a display in front of them, might be addressed with reference to the specific activities necessary...
Sharing Control between Humans and Automation Using Haptic Interface: Primary and Secondary Task Performance Benefits
INTRODUCTION Although certain costs of adding automation to a machine or process are easy enough to anticipate (e.g., additional operator training), other costs have turned out to be much more subtle. Especially when operators are called upon to...
Speech-Based Interaction in Multitask Conditions: Impact of Prompt Modality
INTRODUCTION Even simple driving tasks can become complex for drivers who are also dealing with in-vehicle interactive systems, such as navigation systems that provide real-time route guidance (e.g., Schraagen, 1993). Interaction with such systems,...
Target Acquisition with UAVS: Vigilance Displays and Advanced Cuing Interfaces
INTRODUCTION U.S. Air Force missions involving reconnaissance, airlift support, and weapons delivery are being carried out by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). These vehicles offer potential advantages over conventional "manned" aircraft; they are...
Team Task Analysis: Identifying Tasks and Jobs That Are Team Based
INTRODUCTION The primary objective of the present paper is to present information on the development of three team task analysis scales. A goal was to develop these scales in such a manner that they could be easily incorporated into existing job...
Visual Difficulties Reported by Low-Vision and Nonimpaired Older Adult Drivers
INTRODUCTION The majority of older adults continue to drive safely well into their 80s and 90s (Ball & Rebok, 1994; Federal Highway Administration, 1998; Johnson & Keltner, 1985; Marottoli et al., 1993). Many older drivers drive because...