Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 47, No. 2, Summer

Aging and Response Selection in Spatial Choice Tasks
INTRODUCTION The population of older adults is large and increasing at a rate such that by the year 2050 the number of adults 55 years of age or older will exceed 120 million (U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, 2002). Many older adults desire...
An Evaluation of a "Time Tunnel" Display Format for the Presentation of Temporal Information
INTRODUCTION Practitioners in virtually all domains of application need to be concerned with changes in resources, properties, and variables over time. The term temporal information will be used to refer to the historical trace of these changes....
Blind and Sighted Pedestrians' Judgments of Gaps in Traffic at Roundabouts
INTRODUCTION The modern roundabout intersection (see Figure 1) is a staple of transportation engineering in many parts of the world (Brilon, 1991; Brown, 1995; Jacquemart, 1998), with an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 roundabouts worldwide. The first...
Cognitive Anchoring on Self-Generated Decisions Reduces Operator Reliance on Automated Diagnostic Aids
INTRODUCTION The use of automated diagnostic aids is becoming increasingly common within a variety of complex systems, such as aviation, nuclear power, and health care. The ultimate effectiveness of these aids, however, is seldom realized because...
Comprehending Product Warning Information: Age-Related Effects and the Roles of Memory, Inferencing, and Knowledge
INTRODUCTION Successful comprehension of warnings frequently requires an understanding of not only explicitly stated information but also information that may be implied. If a warning designer were to explicitly state every concept that needed to...
Convergence of Self-Report and Archival Crash Involvement Data: A Two-Year Longitudinal Follow-Up
INTRODUCTION Using a relatively large and representative sample, the present study constructively replicates and extends Arthur et al. (2001) by investigating the convergence between self-report and archival data and, also, the relationships between...
Effects of Visual Flow Display of Flight Maneuvers on Perceived Spatial Orientation
INTRODUCTION Spatial disorientation (SD) during flight (Benson, 1978a, 1978b) is a cause of critical aircraft mishaps with aircraft and pilot losses. It can be characterized as depending on "an erroneous sense of one's position and motion relative...
Effects of Voice Technology on Test Track Driving Performance: Implications for Driver Distraction
INTRODUCTION Currently more than 180 million Americans use wireless phones (Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association, 2005). It is further estimated that 3.9% of passenger car drivers are using their wireless phones while driving at...
Height Effects in Real and Virtual Environments
INTRODUCTION Virtual reality (VR) technology has significant potential to create advances in a number of fields, such as medicine, engineering, design, training, and entertainment; however, systematic human factors research is needed to realize...
Older Driver Failures of Attention at Intersections: Using Change Blindness Methods to Assess Turn Decision Accuracy
INTRODUCTION Older drivers are overrepresented in fatal traffic accidents on a per-mile basis (Evans, 1988; Hakamies-Blomqvist, 1993; Massie, Campbell, & Williams, 1995; McGwin & Brown, 1999; Preusser, Williams, Ferguson, Ulmer, & Weinstein,...
Perceptions of Driver Distraction by Cellular Phone Users and Nonusers
INTRODUCTION Cellular phone use in the United States and around the world has dramatically increased over the last two decades. According to the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association (CTIA, 2004), there are more than 180 million wireless...
Perceptual Processes Used by Drivers during Overtaking in a Driving Simulator
INTRODUCTION On U.S. roads, 41,821 individuals were killed and 3.2 million injured during the year 2000 (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], 2000). Accident analyses implicate errors in perception and decision making as the probable...
Predictors of Web Navigation Performance in a Life Span Sample of Adults
INTRODUCTION During the past decade, the Internet has become one of the most important computer applications for older adults (Czaja & Lee, 2001). In the year 2000, adults over the age of 60 represented the fastest growing group of Internet...
Preface: The Importance of Technological Solutions to the Asymmetric Pattern of Global Aging
Aging of the human population is not uniform across the globe. In the so-called developing countries, where catastrophes and epidemics have taken a tremendous toll on the older generations, the age distribution strongly favors those of younger years....
The Efficacy of Naps as a Fatigue Countermeasure: A Meta-Analytic Integration
INTRODUCTION I'm beyond the stage where I need a bed, or even to lie down.... My mind clicks on and off, as though attached to an electric switch with which some outside force is tampering. I try letting one eyelid close at a time while I prop the...
The Form of Augmented Force-Feedback Fields and the Efficiency and Satisfaction in Computer-Aided Pointing Tasks
INTRODUCTION The development of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) with mouse control has been an important step toward making direct manipulation of objects on a computer screen possible (Shneiderman, 1983). Direct manipulation of objects has greatly...
Touch a Screen or Turn a Knob: Choosing the Best Device for the Job
INTRODUCTION A successful human-system interaction depends on the human's ability to communicate with the system--to direct it to perform an action, to request a piece of information, and so on. Such communication occurs through use of an input...

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