Human Factors

Articles from Vol. 44, No. 3, Fall

Age and Visual Impairment Decrease Driving Performance as Measured on a Closed-Road Circuit
INTRODUCTION Older drivers constitute the fastest growing section of the driving population. This has implications for road safety as older drivers are reported to have a higher number of crashes per distance traveled than either young or middle-aged...
Aiding Planning in Air Traffic Control: An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Perceptual Information Integration
INTRODUCTION Air traffic control equipment has changed in recent years as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has adapted its procedures to the growing volume of air traffic across the country. However, two major components of control equipment...
A Sociotechnical Method for Designing Work Systems
INTRODUCTION The allocation of tasks between humans and machines in complex systems has traditionally been referred to as the issue of function allocation. It is a problem encountered during the design of new systems and has increasing importance...
Dimensions of Arousal: Wakefulness and Vigor
INTRODUCTION An individual's level of arousal has a significant effect on his or her performance in a number of areas. For example, the reduction in arousal associated with shift work has been found to impair performance on a variety of cognitive...
Fixation Disparity: Binocular Vergence Accuracy for a Visual Display at Different Positions Relative to the Eyes
INTRODUCTION Binocular vision requires that the vergence angle between the two visual axes be adjusted for proper fusion of the two retinal images so that the point of regard is projected onto the fovea of each eye (i.e., the center region of...
Headway Feedback Improves Intervehicular Distance: A Field Study
INTRODUCTION The ability of people to remain alert in a continuous manner for prolonged durations is severely limited, and consequently momentary lapses in attention and delayed recognition of hazards have been shown to be a primary contributor...
Learning to Use a Home Medical Device: Mediating Age-Related Differences with Training
INTRODUCTION Electronic devices are becoming more prevalent in society. Interaction with such devices is nearly unavoidable; finding effective methods for training a wide range of potential users is thus very important. Although many devices...
Malleable Attentional Resources Theory: A New Explanation for the Effects of Mental Underload on Performance
INTRODUCTION With the new millennium upon us, major motor manufacturers are offering new vehicle automation devices. Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has already been released, offering total longitudinal control of the vehicle (see Richardson,...
Risk Attitude Reversals in Drivers' Route Choice When Range of Travel Time Information Is Provided
INTRODUCTION A significant amount of effort has been put into developing models of automobile drivers' route choice for both theoretical and practical purposes (for reviews, see Ben-Akiva & Lerman, 1997; Bovy & Stern, 1990). A central...
The Effect of Typing Posture on Wrist Extensor Muscle Loading
INTRODUCTION Medical issues, high-profile legal cases, and an abundance of commercially available "ergonomic" input devices have prompted an increase in research pertaining to word processing (typing) and data entry. Keyboard use has been implicated...
Using Animation to Help Students Learn Computer Algorithms
INTRODUCTION Computer-driven simulations and study aids are increasingly popular components of instructional curricula. Early experiments with such aids described their ability to enhance comprehension of complex subject matter (e.g., Rigney...
Using Tactile Features to Help Functionally Blind Individuals Denominate Banknotes
INTRODUCTION People with either very limited or no functional vision commonly have difficulty handling banknotes during their financial transactions. A recent report by the U.S. National Research Council (1995) surveyed the currency practices...
Visually Induced Motion Sickness Predicted by Postural Instability
INTRODUCTION Motion sickness is a common by-product of exposure to optical depictions of inertial motion. This phenomenon, called visually induced motion sickness (VIMS), has been reported in a variety of virtual environments, such as fixed-base...
Why Better Operators Receive Worse Warnings
INTRODUCTION The introduction of advanced technologies to practically all domains of life has increased the availability of dynamic warnings, alarms, and decision aids that are designed to help people in the performance of tasks or to alert them...