Demographic Research

Articles from Vol. 25, July-December

An Inquiry into the Uneven Distribution of Women's HIV Infection in Rural Malawi
AbstractEcological comparisons in sub-Saharan Africa show that HIV prevalence is lower where men are generally circumcised than where they are not. Randomized controlled trials have found a 50-60% reduction in HIV acquisition for newly circumcised men....
Assimilation and Emerging Health Disparities among New Generations of U.S. Children
AbstractThis article shows that the prevalence of four common child health conditions increases across generations (from first-generation immigrant children to second-generation U.S.-born children of immigrants to third-and-higher-generation children)...
Challenges in Moving from Macro to Micro: Population and Family Structures in Ageing Societies
AbstractAssumptions are often made about how population ageing on the macro level has altered generational structures of families at the micro level. The purpose of this paper is to increase the awareness of challenges and potential pitfalls in bridging...
Children's Stunting in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is There an Externality Effect of High Fertility?
AbstractA positive relationship between the number of siblings and a child's chance of being stunted has been seen in several studies. It is possible that individual stunting risks are also raised by high fertility in the community, partly because of...
China's Far Below-Replacement Fertility and Its Long-Term Impact: Comments on the Preliminary Results of the 2010 Census
AbstractThe Chinese government conducted its sixth national census in 2010 and released its major results in April 2011. According to the National Bureau of Statistics the quality of the census was very high. Although the currently released census results...
Cohort Change, Diffusion, and Support for Gender Egalitarianism in Cross-National Perspective
AbstractArguments about the spread of gender egalitarian values through a population highlight several sources of change. First, structural arguments point to increases in the proportion of women with high education, jobs with good pay, commitment to...
Constructing a Survey over Time: Audio-Visual Feedback and Theatre Sketches in Rural Mali
AbstractKnowledge dissemination is an emerging issue in population studies, both in terms of ethics and data quality. The challenge is especially important in long term follow-up surveys and it requires methodological imagination when the population...
Demographic Responses to Short-Term Stress in a 19th Century Tuscan Population: The Case of Household Out-Migration
AbstractThis paper examines the relationship between household emigration and short-term crisis in a mid-19th century rural, Tuscan community. Based on a detailed reconstruction of individual and household life-histories, this study demonstrates the...
Economic Resources and the First Child in Italy: A Focus on Income and Job Stability
AbstractAt the turn of the twentieth century Italy registered a lowest-low fertility level, i.e., a total fertility rate of 1.26 children per woman in 2000. In this paper we investigate whether and how in that period economic resources and, in particular,...
Ethnic Differentials of the Impact of the Family Planning Program on Contraceptive Use in Nepal
AbstractThere is wide variation of family planning services use among ethnic groups in Nepal. Despite three decades of implementation the need for family planning services is substantially unmet (25%), and there have been no systematic studies evaluating...
Exceptional Longevity in Okinawa: A Plea for In-Depth Validation
AbstractThe topic of this article is the exceptional longevity in Okinawa. This phenomenon should be thoroughly validated at both the individual and population levels. This contribution analyzes the demographic data available for the population of Okinawa,...
Gender Differences in Social Mortality Differentials in Switzerland (1990-2005)
AbstractUsing data from the 1990 and 2000 Swiss Federal Censuses linked to the death records of the years 1990-1995 and 2000-2005, this paper investigates gender differences in mortality differentials by level of educational achievement and by marital...
Household Composition across the New Europe: Where Do the New Member States Fit In?
AbstractIn this paper we present indicators of household structure for 26 of the 27 countries of the post-enlargement European Union. As well as broad indicators of household type, we present statistics on single-person and extended-family households,...
Intergenerational Family Constellations in Contemporary Europe: Evidence from the Generations and Gender Survey
AbstractDemographic research has drawn attention to the multiple ways in which changes in mortality and childbearing have produced major shifts in intergenerational family structures. The aim of this article is to contribute to this body of research...
Occupational Inequalities in Health Expectancies in France in the Early 2000s: Unequal Chances of Reaching and Living Retirement in Good Health
AbstractIncreasing life expectancy (LE) raises expectations for social participation at later ages. We computed health expectancies (HE) to assess the (un)equal chances of social/work participation after age 50 in the context of France in 2003. We considered...
Sampling International Migrants with Origin-Based Snowballing Method: New Evidence on Biases and Limitations
AbstractThis paper provides a methodological assessment of the advantages and drawbacks of the origin-based snowballing technique as a reliable method to construct representative samples of international migrants in destination areas. Using data from...
The Changing Determinants of UK Young Adults' Living Arrangements
AbstractThe postponement of partnership formation and parenthood in the context of an early average age at leaving home has resulted in increased heterogeneity in the living arrangements of young adults in the UK. More young adults now remain in the...
The Contribution of Increases in Family Benefits to Australia's Early 21st-Century Fertility Increase: An Empirical Analysis
AbstractBetween 2001 and 2008 Australia's total fertility rate increased from 1.73 to 1.96. This period also saw changes to family benefits, most notably the introduction of a universal, flat-rate payment at birth and increased subsidisation of childcare....
The Effects of Integration and Transnational Ties on International Return Migration Intentions
AbstractWhile return migration is receiving increasing attention, there is still insufficient insight into the factors which determine migrants' intentions and decisions to return. It is often assumed that integration in receiving countries and the concomitant...
The Future of Death in America
AbstractPopulation mortality forecasts are widely used for allocating public health expenditures, setting research priorities, and evaluating the viability of public and private pensions, and health care financing systems. In part because existing methods...
The Interplay of Employment Uncertainty and Education in Explaining Second Births in Europe
AbstractThis paper analyzes how labor market instability since the late 1980s in Europe has mediated decisions to have a second child. In particular, I seek to determine the dimensions of economic uncertainty that affect women with different educational...
The Potential Impact of Intermarriage on the Population Decline of the Parsis of Mumbai, India1
AbstractThe Parsis, a community of Iranian descent, are an important ethno-religious minority group in India. Over the past few decades this group has shown a sharp numerical decline. The Parsis in India are endogamous and children of women married outside...
Towards an Integrated Approach for the Analysis of Gender Equity in Policies Supporting Paid Work and Care Responsibilities
AbstractThis paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for analysing the degree to which public policies support gender equity in paid work and care. Combining the distinction between commodification and decommodification and the distinction between...
Who Fears and Who Welcomes Population Decline?
AbstractEuropean countries are experiencing population decline, and the tacit assumption in most analyses is that this decline may have detrimental effects on welfare. In this paper, we use a survey conducted in the Netherlands to find out whether population...
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