The Journal of Race & Policy

Articles

Vol. 12, No. 1, Spring/Summer

Founding Editor's Introduction
I am delighted to present the twelfth volume, issue number one of The Journal ofRace and Policy (JRP). A central activity of the Consortium for Research on Race, Diversity, and Policy, JRI3 continues to grow and evolve as a fixture of permanence on the...
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Black Immigrant Children, Insurance Status and Neighborhood Characteristics: A Study by Length of Time in the United States Using Data from the National Survey of Children's Health
INTRODUCTIONThe United States is home to 20 percent of the world's foreign-born population; more than any other nation in the world, with over one million new legal immigrants arriving annually (Martin and Midgely, 2010). As the number of foreign-born...
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New Body Politics
New Body Politics Therí A. Pickens (2014). New Body Politics: Narrating Arab and Black Identity in the Contemporary United States. New York: Routledge Press. ISBN 978-0-415-73521-6 (Hardcover) $99.33 Pages: 186Theri A. Pickens' (2014) New Body Politics:...
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Black Silent Majority
Black Silent Majority Michael Javen Fortner (2015). Black Silent Majority: The Rockefeller Drug Laws and the Politics of Punishment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN: 978-0-674-74399-1 $26.40 Pages: 339Michael Javen Fortner provides an insightful...
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The Post-Racial Society Is Here
The Post-Racial Society Is Here Wilbur C. Rich (2013). The Post-Racial Society is here. New York: Routledge Press. ISBN 978-0-415-81851-3 (Paper) $44.95 Pages 161.In The Post-Racial Society Is Here, Rich offers support for his contention that an American...
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The Fight for Interracial Marriage Rights in Antebellum Massachusetts
The Fight for Interracial Marriage Rights in Antebellum Massachusetts Amber D. Moulton (2015). The Fight for Interracial Marriage Rights in Antebellum Massachusetts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN: 978-0674-96762-5 (Hardcover) $35.40 Pages:...
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Beyond Freedom's Reach
Beyond Freedom's Reach Adam Rothman (2015). Beyond Freedom's Reach: A Kidnapping in the Twilight of Slavery. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN: 978-0-674-36812-5 (Hardcover) $35.00 Pages: 257The prologue to Adam Rothman's Beyond Freedom's...
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American Identity in the Age of Obama
American Identity in the Age of Obama Amílcar Antonio Barreto & Richard L. O'Bryant (Eds.) (2014). American Identity in the Age of Obama. New York: Routledge Press. ISBN: 978041572596-5 $34.83 Pages 250.merican Identity In The Age ofObama is a new...
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Vol. 12, No. 2, Fall/Winter

Grounds for Difference
Grounds for Difference Rogers Brubaker (2015). Grounds for Difference. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-74396-0 (Hardcover) $39.95 Pages 213.At a time when the US is torn over whose life matters and is at battle with terror networks...
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The Myth of Race
The Myth of Race Review: Robert Wald Sussman (2014). The Myth of Race: The Troubling Persistence of an Unscientific Idea. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN: 978-0-674-41731-1 (Paperback) $17.68 Pages 384.Scientifically speaking, there are no...
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The Cultural Matrix: Understanding Black Youth
The Cultural Matrix: Understanding Black Youth Orlando Patterson (Ed.) (2016). The Cultural Matrix: Understanding Black Youth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-72875-2 (Paperback) $16.66 Pages 665.It seems such a stark contradiction....
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White Fragility and Affirmative Action
INTRODUCTIONIn June 2016, the US Supreme Court delivered a much-anticipated decision on affirmative action in the case Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin. While many had anticipated that this would be the case where the use of affirmative action...
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Affirmative Action in American Government Introductory Textbooks
INTRODUCTION"Considerable deference is owed to a university in defining those intangible characteristics, like student body diversity, that are central to its identity and educational mission."-Justice Anthony Kennedy, Fisher v. University of Texas at...
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Founding Editor's Brief
Colleagues, it is with great pleasure that we present this special issue of The Journal ofRace and Policy. Through the years, the Supreme Court has basically ruled that consideration of an applicant's race/ethnicity is legal, if there is a direct and...
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The Effects of Contextual Priming on Attitudes toward College Admissions
INTRODUCTIONAbigail Fisher, the plaintiff in Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin, was by all accounts a college-ready high school senior. She had a 3.59 grade point average and a combined verbal and math SAT score of 1180 (Merlan, 2013). She later...
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Aligned or Misaligned? Similarities and Differences between African Americans' and Black Caribbeans' Opinions on Affirmative Action
INTRODUCTIONAffirmative action has been one of the most controversial issues in American politics since the 1960s. To many, it is controversial because it is a set of policies that target some groups to benefit but not others. Moreover, affirmative action...
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Our Black Sons Matter
Our Black Sons Matter George Yancy, Maria del Guadalupe Davidson, and Susan Hadley (Eds.) (2016). Our Black Sons Matter. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN: 9781442269118 (Cloth) $34.00 Pages 227.Our Black Sons Matter, edited by George Yancy, Maria...
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A Hollow Hope? Social Change, the U.S. Supreme Court and Affirmative Action
INTRODUCTIONIn 1978, Regents of the University of California v. Bakke set in motion decades of US Supreme Court decisions considering the constitutionality of affirmative action.1 Many viewed the decision as a victory for those seeking to foster diversity...
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Guest Editor's Introduction
It is an honor to serve as guest editor of the Fall/Winter 2016 special issue of The Journal of Race and Policy, entitled Emerging Perspectives on Affirmative Action in an Increasingly Diverse America. I am grateful to Dr. Michael Clemons for this opportunity;...
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Affirmative Action and Refugees of Color: Starting the Conversation
INTRODUCTIONDiscrimination in the hiring of refugees exists. It is, however, a sensitive subject within resettlement networks and academia. Documenting discriminatory practices is difficult. The lack of refugees in executive positions in many nonprofits...
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Vol. 11, No. 1, Spring/Summer

Founding Editor's Brief
This issue marks the tenth year for The Journal oj Race and Policy. It is also the year that we begin publication of the journal twice a year. This first issue of volume 11 includes a diverse collection of three scholarly articles, by Adrienne Holloway...
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Editor's Introduction
It is with great satisfaction that I present you with my final issue as Editor. Over the course of my three year term, I am pleased to witness the continual growth and recognition of the scholarship featured in the journal. With increasing submissions...
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Higher Education and the Making of Immigration Policy
Undergraduate and graduate public policy programs are fundamentally about preparing graduates who will help craft sound public policy by doing competent research and being able to recognize and utilize such research. Integral to this mission is equipping...
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Quaker Political Interventions, and U.S. Puerto Rico Policy Development, 1900-1917
INTRODUCTIONThere is a consensus among scholars that 1898 was a critical moment in the development of modern U.S. imperialism (Snyder, 1962; Lewis, 1963; LaFerber, W. 1963; Foner, 1972; Watson, Jr. 1982; Morales Carrion, 1983; Drinnon, 1997; Musicant,...
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Are Low-Income African American Households Accessing Redeveloped Neighborhoods? A Case Study of Four Chicago Neighborhoods
INTRODUCTIONThe escalation of urban gentrification activity spurred by federal housing policy is a strong contributor to the diminishing supply of affordable rental housing units. The influx of middle-income persons into changing neighborhoods typically...
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African-American English: Structure, History and Use
by S.S. Mufwene, J.R. Rickford, G. Bailey, & J. BaughThis poignant homage to a language variety relentlessly on trial is timeless and utterly essential to the American conversation about race, most pointedly about the historic contestation of the...
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Smarter Crime Control: A Guide to a Safer Future for Citizens, Communities, and Politicians
by Irvin WallerThe issue of how not just to control crime but to lessen it is a global concern that is studied relentlessly by researchers, activists, and everyday citizens alike. Irvin Waller's book, Smarter Crime Control: A Guide to a Safer Future...
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African American Women in the News: Gender, Race, and Class in Journalism
African American Women in The News: Gender, Race, and Class in Journalism is essentially a collection of six research studies by Professor Meyers that describe and analyze how African American women are depicted in the media. "It seems as if we know"...
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Saving the Neighborhood: Racially Restrictive Covenants, Law, and Social Norms
Saving the Neighborhood explores the rise, fall, and odd persistence of racially restrictive residential covenants in the U.S. Against claims that covenants did not matter much because they were rarely enforced, Richard Brooks and Carol Rose make the...
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Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring

Addressing Consumer Access and Utilization in the Hill District among African Americans Using the Behavioral Health Initiative Model
INTRODUCTIONEpidemiological research shows that behavioral disorders are common in the United States, (Kessler et ah, 2005; Harvard Medical School, 2007; Druss, 2009) and the National Institute of Health reports that one in four adults suffer from a...
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Post-Earthquake Challenges and Progress among the Haitian Diaspora in Brooklyn, New York: Findings from the Haitian American Empowerment Program
INTRODUCTIONLarge numbers of people, often entire communities, are affected by major disasters all over the world (Elal and Slade, 2005). Among the natural disasters, earthquakes are very common and one of the most devastating (Oflaz, Hatipo lu, and...
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An Evaluation of Sociocultural Stress and Coping: Black American Social Identities as Mediators for Acceptance Coping
INTRODUCTIONCurrent trends show that over 2.8 million immigrants from the Caribbean countries reside in the United States, many in the metropolitan areas of New York and Miami (Waters, 2001; Levitt and Waters, 2002). Qualitative and quantitative studies...
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Role of Parental Nativity in Breastfeeding among Black Children in the United States, 2011
INTRODUCTIONPrevious research has identified substantial health benefits of breastfeeding for both children and their mothers. Breastfeeding has been found to be associated with a significant reduction in acute otitis media, acute myelogenous leukemia,...
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Acculturation and Its Influence on the Health Perceptionsy Health Behaviors, and Health Outcomes of African Immigrants in the United States: A Review of the Literature
INTRODUCTIONAcculturation, a process that occurs "when groups of different cultural backgrounds and their individual members engage each other," is said to influence health out-comes and patterns of health care service utilization among certain groups...
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REVIEW OF: Somebody's Knocking at Your Door: AIDS and the African-American Church
Somebody's Knocking at Your Door: AIDS and the African-American Church Ronald Jeffrey Weatherford and Carole Boston Weatherford (2012). Somebody's Knocking at Your Door: AIDS and the African-American Church. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7890-0575-5...
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REVIEW OF: Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation
REVIEW OF: Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation Estelle B. Freedman (2013). Redefining Rape: Sexual Violence in the Era of Suffrage and Segregation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN: 9780674724846 (Hardcover)...
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A Note from the Founding Editor
This issue of The Journal of Race and Policy marks its tenth anniversary, and we intend to press on with the legacy that has endured since its inception. The inaugural issue was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the 1954 United States Supreme Court...
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Special Issue Editors: Rhonda Belue and Titilayo A. Okoror
In this issue of The Journal of Race and Public Policy, we present papers that focus on the health of black families and children in the United States. The articles in this issue span a range of social and health conditions, and how they uniquely affect...
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Global Black Family Health and Progressive Obligations to Realize Health as a Right
INTRODUCTION"Africanproblems are ourproblems,andourproblems are Africanproblems. "- El Hajj Malik Shabazz (Malcolm X), 19641In a recent film, The Neo African-Americans (2007), directed by Kobina Aidoo, thirteen black immigrants to the United States are...
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REVIEW OF: Transcending Blackness: From the New Millennium Mulatta to the Exceptional Multiracial
REVIEW OF: Transcending Blackness: From the New Millennium Mulatta to the Exceptional Multiracial By: Ralina L. Joseph Ralina L. Joseph (2013). Transcending Blackness: From the New Millennium Mulatta to the Exceptional Multiracial. London: Durham, North...
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Vol. 9, No. 1, Spring

Founding Editor's Brief
This is the ninth issue of The Journal of Race and Policy. It marks a new phase in the short history of the publication. About a year and a half ago, we undertook a number of measures to strengthen The Journal of Race and Policy. Among these was the...
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Editors Introduction
It is with great pleasure that I bring to you, volume 9, issue 1 of The Journal of Race and Policy. In keeping with the historically robust collection of analyses pertaining to the discursive arena of race and politics, this issue will not disappoint....
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The Struggle for Justice in a Post-Race Society
Many would have us believe that the election of Barack Obama officially marks the end of our race problem in the U.S. The blight of over 350 years of slavery and Jim Crow is supposedly now over. We are, apparently, on the cusp of a new dawn. For many,...
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A Ruckus on High Street: The Birth of Black Studies at the Ohio State University
INTRODUCTIONA perusal of the scholarly writings on campus unrest during the Vietnam War era finds the events at The Ohio State University conspicuously absent. Instead, much of the literature privileges schools such as Columbia University, UC Berkeley,...
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Employing Intersectionality: The Impact of Generation on Black Women Maryland State Legislators' Views on Anti-Domestic Violence Legislation
ANTI-DOMESTIC VIOLENCE LEGISLATIONBlack women may be the most cohesive demographic group within state legislatures. Survey research has indicated that African American women state legislators have distinct policy interests (Barrett 1995). Research by...
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Racial Group Consciousness, Economic Threat, and Black Opinions toward Immigration
Immigration has long been an issue of controversy in American politics. The treatment of the immigration issue has ebbed and flowed. Congress passed Immigration Acts, in 1965 and 1990, to open up the border to welcome new immigrants to the United States....
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The Bioethical Dilemma of Holloway's Private Bodies & Public Texts
The Bioethical Dilemma of Holloway's Private Bodies & Public Texts by Karla F.C. HollowayProblematizing contemporary societal assumptions regarding the private, public divide, and what bodies are afforded privacy in situ, this skillful and haunting...
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The Creolizing Subject: Race, Reason, and the Politics of Purity
The Creolizing Subject: Race, Reason, and the Politics of Purity by Michael J. Monahan"The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line."(W.E.B. Du Bois)As we enter the twentieth century, the problem of the color line still is a...
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The Problem of the Future World W.E.B. Du Bois and the Race Concept at Midcentury
REVIEW OF The Problem of the Future World: W.E.B. Du Bois and the Race Concept at Midcentury by Eric PorterEric Porter is Professor of American Studies at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He is the author of What Is This Thing Called Jazz? African...
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Vol. 8, No. 1, Spring

Acknowledgements
As has been consistently the case with the publication of every issue of The Journal of Race and Policy, some individuals and organizations are deserving of special recognition for their service and contribution. Indeed, it is a virtual certainty that...
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Editor's Introduction
Colleagues, it is a pleasure to present to you volume 8, issue number 1, of The Journal of Race and Policy. This wide-ranging issue includes articles covering diverse topics dealing with race, culture, and policy in the United States. In "The Strange...
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Race, Gender, and Entrepreneurship Initiatives: Comparing Black Men's and Women's Use of Small Business Development Centers
INTRODUCTIONThough entrepreneurship is frequently admired and elevated as a uniquely American route to self-empowerment and upward mobility, rates of business ownership vary depending on the race of the entrepreneur. Blacks often lag behind immigrants...
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The Cultural Clash: Chinese Native-Place Sentiment and the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDIn the Congressional debate over Chinese exclusion in 1882, Orville Platt, a U.S. Senator from Connecticut, remarked, "This is race legislation Harsh in provisions, severe......
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Black Opposition to Progressive Racial Policies and the "Double (Non) Consciousness" Thesis
INTRODUCTIONIt is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others ... One ever feels this twoness-an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings (Du Bois,...
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Can Mobile Food Truck Vendors Contribute to the Accessibility of Nutritious Foods in Vulnerable Communities?: An Analysis of Public Health Policy
INTRODUCTIONOver the past 15 years, there has been a growing focus on reducing the obesity epidemic in America (Story, et ah, 2008). In particular, there is a demand for greater access to nutritious foods and more limitations on energy-dense foods with...
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The Strange Life of Assimilation in the National Language Debate
INTRODUCTIONInherent within the belief of societal order is the belief in homogeneity. Assumptions that posit unity through "sameness" are by no means new in the United States. The nineteenth century for example, provides a myriad of illustrations, including...
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The Heightening Effect of Race, Class, and Gender on HIV Exposure among Low-Income Black Women
INTRODUCTIONAccording to CDC, black communities continue to experience higher rates of Hiv/ AIDS than any other group in the United States (U.S.) (CDC, 2011). Black women, despite representing only 13% of the female U.S. population, make up 72% of the...
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Vol. 7, No. 1, 2011

Public Health and Disaster Preparedness in St. Kitts and Nevis
PUBLIC HEALTHThe patient population as well as health care providers in St. Kitts and Nevis, West Indies are of predominantly African ancestry. The spectrum of health-related disparities and challenges are similar to those of African ancestry in the...
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Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring

Acknowledgements: UVA in St. Kitts and Nevis Program
The guest editors of this special issue of The Journal of Race and Policy are very grateful for the contributions made by the authors of the papers as well others who provided support to produce this edition. Held in January 2009, 2010 and 2011, "U.Va....
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Editor's Introduction
It gives me great pleasure to present this special issue of The Journal of Race and Policy. Currently in its seventh year, the journal continues to pursue its mission as an interdisciplinary forum for the presentation of scholarly research dealing with...
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Prologue
The people of St. Kitts and Nevis are descendants of Africa, Europe, Asia, and South America. Amerindian people known as Arawaks migrated from South America to the Caribbean and were followed much later by Carib Indians, and subsequently by Europeans...
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The Culture of St. Kitts and Nevis
INTRODUCTIONThe population of St. Kitts and Nevis is estimated to be 50,314 (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011). The majority of those who inhabit the islands are of Afro-Caribbean descent. Ninety-four percent (94%) of the inhabitants are black, 2.74%...
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Overview of Health Care in St. Kitts and Nevis
INTRODUCTIONPrior to the arrival of Europeans in the fifteenth century, the Kalinago people, who called the islands Liamuiga ("fertile island") and Oualie ("land of beautiful water"), inhabited the islands of St. Kitts and Nevis. Christopher Columbus...
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Public Health and Health Policy in the Caribbean
INTRODUCTIONThe challenges of public health and health policy in the Caribbean region are enormous and complex. Some define the region as extending from Bermuda to the coast of Venezuela, a distance of 1,700 miles. The vast overall size and separation...
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All-Hazards, All Communities: An Approach to Disaster Preparedness and Policy
INTRODUCTIONThe explosion and collapse of the Krakatoa Volcano on August 26, 1883 portended the development of what is known today as the field of disaster management. When it occurred, it was the largest recorded explosion heard over the longest distance...
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Earth-Atmosphere Interactions: Tropical Storm and Hurricane Activity in the Caribbean and Consequent Health Impacts
CARIBBEAN VULNERABILITYTropical cyclones (known as hurricanes in the North Atlantic Ocean) regularly wreak devastation on communities throughout the tropics, and sometimes even at higher latimdes. Records of the societal impacts of hurricanes in the...
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Natural Disasters and Infectious Diseases: Mitigating Risks to Vulnerable Populations
INTRODUCTIONAt a time when American politicians were agitating for the proposed overhaul of a massive $829-5 billion annual healthcare budget, southern neighbors in Haiti trembled under one of this century's worst natural disasters. On January 12, 2010...
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Humanitarianism and Health Care: The Global Faith Alliance in St. Kitts and Nevis
INTRODUCTIONFounded by spiritually inspired leaders of different faiths with the desire to promote and improve the health care delivery systems in developing countries around the world, the Global Faith Alliance (gfa) has maintained the principle that...
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When CPR Is Needed: Back to Basics
INTRODUCTIONResuscitation from cardiac arrest has developed over many centuries. Perhaps the first documented case of cardiac arrest resuscitation is noted in The Holy Bible in which ancient Hebrew text and the Old Testament describe how the prophet...
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Mass Casualty Incident Healthcare Provider Training Drill
Mass Casualty Incident Healthcare Provider Training Drill INTRODUCTIONThe World Health Organization (who) defines a disaster as "a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental...
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Recent Devastating Tragedies: Lessons Learned
INTRODUCTIONWhen disaster strikes, communities are presented with opportunities to learn from both inadequate disaster preparedness and successful experiences. Post-event is a crucial time in which to examine preparedness measures that worked and those...
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Vol. 6, No. 1, Spring

Editor's Introduction
The American democratic experiment made a major advance in November 2008 with the election of Barack Hussein Obama, the nation's first African descendent president. No other major Western democracy can boast the election of a historically oppressed racial...
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Guest Editor's Introduction: Assessing Race and Policy in the Age of Obama
On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama made well-documented history as the first black person elected to the presidency of the United States. This event was significant on multiple fronts, as it broke racial barriers at the highest level of American government...
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Judged by His Actions: How President Obama Addressed Race in the First Six Months of His Administration
INTRODUCTION"The 'abnormality' in this case, is the highly problematic question of whether, in the foreseeable future, a Black person would win either of the major party nominations or be elected president in America..." (Walters, 1988, 159).In 1988,...
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'My Fellow Citizens: Barack Obama and Immigration Policy
I. HISTORIC ELECTIONBarack Obama's election to the presidency of the United States has been hailed as his1 1 and rightfully so. He is the first African American to hold the executive office in a nation with a painful racist history of black subjugation....
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Obama Administration Policy toward American Indians and Tribal Nations
The Obama administration has the potential to generate, implement, or extend policies that provide needed support and some semblance of justice for American Indians and Tribal Nations. Some top issues involve further strengthening the federal acknowledgement...
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Obama's Health Care Plan: The Perceptions of Professionals and the People
INTRODUCTIONIn addition to becoming the first African American president, President Barack Obama has set forth an ambitious health care reform agenda that rivals the establishment of Medicare and the Civil Rights Act in terms of historical significance....
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Diversity and Its Discontents: Ambivalence in Neighborhood Policy and Racial Attitudes in the Obama Era
INTRODUCTIONUversity in the United States is increasing. While whites are currently about 75% of the U.S. population, estimates show not only that the nation will have no racial majority by the middle of this century, but also that racial diversity is...
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Reflecting the Nation: Race, Ethnicity and A Culturally Inclusive Arts Policy
INTRODUCTIONOne of the most pressing issues in the nation's cultural landscape is diversity in the arts. Arts practitioners and cultural policy makers argue that the relevance and impact of the arts in the 21st century are dependent on racial and ethnic...
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The Color of Affirmative Action: Exploring Contemporary Racial Ideologies through Public Responses to Affirmative Action Policies in Michigan
On June 23, 2008 NPR's Morning Edition news analyst Cokie Roberts commented on the then impending presidential campaign entering a new phase. After discussing general poll results, co-host Rene Montain prompted Ms. Roberts, "There were also some interesting...
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Embodying the White Racial Frame: The (In)Significance of Barack Obama
INTRODUCTIONThe victory of Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential election marked a significant historic moment in the United States. In a nation founded upon, and owing much of its economic growth and prosperity to the instimtion of racialized slavery,...
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Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring

Acknowledgements
I am elated that this is the fifth volume of The Journal of Race and Policy. The journal has survived because of the generosity and confidence of institutions and individuals who recognize the importance of its mission. Although the current economic...
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Editor's Introduction
This is the fifth volume, issue number one, of The Journal of Race and Policy. It includes important and timely research that reflects the continued significance of the penetration of the American polity by black Americans, women, and people of color...
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Black Gold: African American Legislators in California, 1970-2008
The ascension of Karen Bass to the speakership of the California assembly in 2008 represented a watershed event in African American politics. Speaker Bass made national history as the first African American woman in the United States to occupy this powerful...
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The Politics of Race, Gender, Ethnicity and Representation in the Texas Legislature
(ProQuest: ... denotes formula omitted.)Empirical examinations of political representation have focused heavily on the increase in the number of African American elected-officials following the passage of the Voting Rights Act (VRA) of 1965 (Davidson...
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Redefining the Role of City Government: Neoconservative Black Urban Regimes in Richmond, Virginia and Washington, D.C. 1998-2008
Since 1991, with the election of Michael White in Cleveland, Ohio, black mayors with neo-conservative tendencies have been elected in several majority black cities. They include William Campbell (Atlanta, Georgia, 1993), Dennis Archer (Detroit, Michigan,...
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Orienting Public Historically Black Colleges and Universities for the Future: Aligning Their Historic Mission with Appropriate Pedagogical Policy
A popular African proverb states aptly, "When there is no enemy within, the enemies outside cannot hurt you." Socrates, that old gadfly, proclaimed to his Athenian prosecutors, "The unexamined life is not worth living." Another wise person said somewhere...
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The Effect of Title IX on Participation of Black and White Females in High School Sports: Evidence from National Longitudinal Surveys*
Since the original development of organized school sports in early 19th century America, the focus has been on athletic participation among males. Sports were originally designed to instill in boys and young men such traits as cooperation, strength,...
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New Bottle, Same Drink? the Opinion of the U.S. Supreme Court on the Indiana Voter Identification Law
The opposition to the Negro voters gathered strength and in 1811, an act to prevent frauds at election, was passed. Section III of this act was, that whenever any bhckperson or person of color shall present himself to vote at any election in this state,...
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Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring

Acknowledgements
Colleagues, this is the fourth issue of The Journal of Race and Policy, and I am pleased to bring it to your attention. Indeed, there are a number of organizations and individuals deserving of note on this important page. First, the University of Virginia...
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The Politics of Ready, Aim. . . .Study More: Implementing the "Fire" in Race and Public Policy Research
INTRODUCTIONExamining racial disparities is an important part of public policy research. First, there must be solid data indicating whether racial disparities exist. Second, there must be an acceptance of the research and a concrete plan to reverse identified...
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The Role of Race, Gender, Party, and Structure in State Policymaking*
The Voting Rights Act of 1 965 serves as the most significant piece of civil rights legislation passed by Congress. Over the years, many civil rights litigants have used the act as a defense against electoral-structural barriers. These barriers include,...
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Black Lawmakers in the Quaker State: An Overview of the Pennsylvania Legislative Black Caucus, 1970-2002
One of the most dramatic, yet least studied, political gains of the post-civil rights era has been the proliferation of African American state lawmakers. In 1965, there were sixty-four African Americans state legislators (JCPES, 1 992, xxx) ; thirty-six...
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Triple M, Representin,' Reconstructin' and Resistin': Ideologies of Gender and Sexuality in Hip-Life Music in Ghana
INTRODUCTIONHistorically, Ghanaian women's roles in the popular music industry have been limited within the secular and non-secular musical spheres in the areas of performers, managers and producers. In Ghana, the highlife, gospel and hip-life music...
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Senator Barack Obama, Race and the New Public Policy Potential: The African American Candidates for the Senate in 2004 and 2006
Following the impact and influence of the Martin Luther King, Jr. -led civil rights movement, success came in the form of race-specific public policies such as the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the 1964 Voting Rights Act, the 1968 Fair Housing Act, and the...
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Beauty Standards Reflect Eurocentric Paradigms-So What? Skin Color, Identity, and Black Female Beauty
Being black affects the way a person walks and talks, his or values, culture, and history, how that person rehtes to others and how they relate to him or her.The Color Complex (Russell, Wilson, and Hall 1992, 62)...I begin to suffer from not being [white]...
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The Literature on African American Presidential Candidates
On June 3, 2008 history occurred in two subfields of Political Science: political parties and African American politics. In the area of political parties, one of the two major parties, the Democratic Party, saw the first African American U.S. Senator,...
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