Negro History Bulletin

A quarterly scholarly journal published by the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH), devoted to research in black history. Continued by Black History Bulletin.

Articles

January-December

Introduction
This volume contains entries that chronologically span the range from the beginning of the Civil War to the noteworthy career of Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall, and geographically tend to concentrate on the Midwest and West. Willard R. Johnson...
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Flight to Freedom: African-American Westward Migration after Civil War Cruuiculum Planner
Part I: Lesson One: Family Ties Through History Relevant Standards Addressed by These Lessons: Standards in Historical Thinking * Standard 2, E: The student thinks chronologically and can read historical narratives imaginatively, taking into...
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Tracing Trails of Blood on Ice: Commemorating "The Great Escape" in 1861-62 of Indians and Blacks into Kansas
My heart raced and emotions surged before I consciously grasped the meaning of what I was reading in that footnote. Reading all the footnotes had become routine for me, because ages ago I learned that important information about my people and my interests...
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High Expectations: African Americans in Civil War Kentucky
Most civilians in Kentucky suffered during the American Civil War, but no class was less fortunate than the commonwealth's Americans of African descent. Caught between the conflicting policies of unsympathetic northern generals and the harsh attitude...
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Poetic Justice: The Whipping of William H. Clopton
Whipping was the most common form of punishment administered by planters to their slaves. Planters frequently used the whip on bondsmen whom they deemed insolent or guilty of committing crimes. Corporal punishment was the preferred method of enforcing...
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African American Cowboys on the Western Frontier
Chronicling the African American presence on the western frontier of the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries is a small but important--and growing--area of historical inquiry. Unfortunately, western history books fail to give attention to...
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You Can Hear Them a Mile Away: The Black Invasion of Los Angeles
In 1920 the African American population of Los Angeles was 15,579. By 1930 that number increased to 38,894. (1) These population figures in themselves do not represent a large number of people. To illustrate that fact, the total black population of...
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Being Seen and Heard: African American Documentation Initiatives in Iowa and Minnesota
I am an invisible man. No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I one of your Hollywood-movie ectoplasms. I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, fiber and liquids-and I might even be said to possess a mind....
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Thurgood Marshall: Fighting for a Moral Society
Proceedings presented before the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Inc., September 29, 2000, Washington, D.C. This paper argues for the principles of Thurgood Marshall's aspiration for a moral...
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Vol. 62, No. 4, December

Park Service Determines Woodson Home Suitable and Feasible as a National Historic Site
Pursuant to Public Law 106-349 passed by the 106th Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton, the National Park Service has completed a Special Resource Study that determined that the Dr. Carter G. Woodson Home was both suitable and feasible...
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The ASALH Celebrates 76th Annual Black History Month with Kick-Off Luncheon Playhouse
In February 2001, the ASALH celebrated the 76th Anniversary of Black History Month with a Kick-Off Luncheon Playhouse performance of "LET MY PEOPLE GO" by the Touting Theatre Ensemble of North Carolina at the Blackburn Center, Howard University, Washington,...
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ASALH Announces 12th Annual Essay Contest for Undergraduate Students
The Association for the Study of African-American Life and History announces its 12th annual Essay Contest for undergraduates. Support for this competition comes from the estate of the late Lillie Newton Hornsby of Atlanta, Georgia. Any full-time undergraduate...
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Black History Learning Resource Package Still Available
There are still plenty of Black History Learning Research Packages for 2001 available. Highlighting the African American community, the Package focuses on the Black History Month theme, "Creating and Defining the African-American Community: Family,...
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Music Superstar Carlos Santana Helps National Education Association Boost Minority Teacher Recruitment
Los Angeles, CA--Rock & roll legend Carlos Santana and the National Education Association (NEA) have announced they will join forces in an effort to help attract Hispanics, African-Americans and other talented minorities to the teaching profession....
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Revisiting the Zanj and Re-Visioning Revolt: Complexities of the Zanj Conflict (868-883 AD)
During the Zanj Revolt, which lasted nearly 15 years from 868-883 AD, tens of thousands of people met their deaths in lower Iraq. Such an incredible level of bloodshed during this 15-year span led contemporary historians like Al-Tabari and Al-Masudi...
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A Citizen's View of Presidential Responsibility: Jackie Robinson and Dwight D. Eisenhower
The 1950's was a decade of rapid change in the nation. During this period, baseball great Jackie Robinson and World War II hero Dwight David Eisenhower changed professions. In 1952, the former president of Columbia University and Army general went...
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April-September

Black History Learning Resource Package Spotlights African American Community
Spotlighting the African American community, the Black History Learning Research Package for 2001 will be available January 2001 and will focus on the Black History Month theme for that year, "Creating and Defining the African-American Community: Family,...
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New Jersey School District Tackles Teaching Racially Sensitive Literature
Help develop teacher's guide for WGBH-PBS Culture Shock Series One of America's most beloved and banned books, Mark Twain's novel was attacked when it was published in 1885 for its "low morals." It became part of the American literary canon, only...
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National Education Association President Joins Nationwide Effort to Boost Literacy of Black Teens
Washington, D.C. -- National Education Association President Bob Chase has joined the national advisory board of Books for Boys, a new initiative to improve reading skills among young African Americans. The pilot program targets black males ages 12-18,...
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Racial Integrity or `Race Suicide': Virginia's Eugenic Movement, W. E. B. Du Bois, and the Work of Walter A. Plecker
It is difficult to pinpoint exactly when key Virginia state officials and academics began to explore the subject of eugenics as a policy issue. On January 15, 1913, University of Virginia (UVA) professor Harvey Earnest Jordan delivered a lecture titled...
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A History of Native American and African Relations from 1502 to 1900
There is a historic relationship between Indians and blacks from their earliest contact in the 1500s to the early twentieth century. This contact has resulted in the development of communities of blacks who are part African and Indian or part African,...
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Africana Studies and New Media Technologies: Inquiry, Research, and Analysis for a New Age
INTRODUCTION The concurrent growth and development of the information highway and New Media technologies has profoundly changed the world's exposure to, and study of, African and diaspora people. The proliferation of websites, CD-ROM's and other...
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Paul Robeson, the Cold War, and the Question of African-American Loyalties
By the mid-1940's, much of the world knew the face and voice of Paul Robeson. Movie star, thespian, and musical soloist, the versatile Robeson possessed luminous talent, inexhaustible charm, and deep intellect. A man of seemingly inexhaustible energy,...
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Vol. 62, No. 1, January-March

From the Editor
Just a word of introduction. This issue of the Negro History Bulletin (NHB) marks my debut as editor. In addition, the NHB has undergone a complete overhaul of the editorial review board, which now includes Stacey Close, Eastern Connecticut State University;...
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Wade in the Water: A Day of Remembering, Mourning, and Honoring African American Ancestors
The arrival of 20 Africans in April 1619 at Jamestown, Virginia, is symbolically recognized as the start of slavery in the American colonies. For centuries our African ancestors were chained, branded, beaten, and transported across the ocean as part...
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Born for Trouble
Anna Marity Lewis (1905-1988) was the daughter of a former slave and a Norwegian farm girl. As an adult, she became an activist in the labor movement in Minneapolis. Her family saved a number of her journals that offer powerful and provocative stories...
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BLACK AWAKENINGS: Student Protest at Delaware State College, 1968
Prior to 1968, Delaware State College students appeared politically asleep in a state of political and social unconsciousness. That year, however, they arose from their slumber and began to view their situation in a different manner. Black students...
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The Wickersham Commission and William Monroe Trotter
Many of us have an image of the 1920s as a rollicking, hold-on-tight, anything-goes age with frenetic flappers, towering sports figures, and urban mobsters with colorful names. It was also a time when alcohol manufacture, sale, and transportation for...
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July-December

The Howard University Department of History, 1913-1973
This account of sixty years of the Howard University Department of History is an attempt to place its evolution within the context of several broad developments, notably the professionalization of historical study as an academic subject, the history...
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ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS: Why Historians Can Be Usefully Irritating
The book of Proverbs tells us that where there is no vision, the people perish.... What then is our vision here at Howard University? In my vision, Howard University is a comprehensive research university, unique and irreplaceable, defined by its core...
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FOR SUCH A TIME AS THIS: Lorraine A. Williams and the Howard University Department of History
Swing on in, sister! Tell us like it was, And is. Swing right on in. Clean out our minds, Scour our whitewashed souls Break apart our murky, Knotty confusions, Our preconceptions, our lies, Our strange slowness To believe...
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DR. CHANCELLOR WILLIAMS: Celebrating Our Glorious History(*)
He fell from the sky, wings flailing, tattered and dirty. An old man, an angel not fallen from grace but felled by sheer exhaustion. But he had known the glory of flight and, maybe, would fl/ again. No one really believed that, perhaps not even the...
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John Hope Franklin's Troubled Tenure at Howard University, 1947-1956
In the spring 1994, I had the opportunity to participate in the taping of a PBS special in honor of the life and work of historian John Hope Franklin. A mixed group of graduate and undergraduate history majors from Howard University was selected to...
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PROFESSOR MERZE TATE (1905-1996): A Profile(*)
Upon entering Oxford University in 1932, Merze Tate paused to ponder her future, and she did it in a vein not unlike the British poet Milton expressed in one of his famous sonnets. Though considering "what before me lies," she also indicated an admirable...
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The End of an Era
Olive Taylor's place in Howard University history seems to have been set naturally. After all, four generations of her family have attended the University. But after more than three decades of teaching African American and U.S. History at the University,...
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Current Faculty & Publications
Dr. Aziz A. Batran Dr. Aziz A. Batran is associate professor. He received his doctorate from the University of Birmingham, Great Britain, in 1972. His areas of specialization are North and West Africa and the history of Islam in Africa. Dr. Batran...
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HOWARD: A Selected Bibliography about the University and Its People
The Department of History at Howard University cannot be understood separate from the history of Howard University. History faculty members are a part of both the positive and negative experiences of the past and the present of this community. This...
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Vol. 61, No. 2, April-June

Read All about It!
United States Mint to Sell Black Patriot Commemorative Coins Coin sales can help build first African American Memorial on National Mall In accordance with legislation passed by Congress and signed by President Clinton on October 20, 1996, the...
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In the Name of the Law: The 1967 Shooting of Huey Newton and Law Enforcement's Permissive Environment
In the wee hours of the morning of October 28, 1967, officer John Frey radioed the Oakland, California police dispatcher for backup. He had spotted a beige Volkswagen automobile, which he told the dispatcher matched the description of a vehicle used...
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Francis Williams: An Eighteenth-Century Tertium Quid
The story of Francis Williams (c.1700- c.1770) has been told and retold in a number of places, but never very well nor very thoroughly. Williams has seldom been looked at as his own person but instead has been perceived as a useful little tessera,...
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Youth Forum
Lois Mailou Jones was an artist and educator (1905-1998). Throughout her career of over 60 years Lois Mailou Jones contributed to the arts as both practitioner and educator. Born in 1905 to Caroline Dorinda Adams and Thomas Vreeland Jones in Boston...
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Vol. 61, No. 1, January-March

National Park Service Travel Itinerary Honors Underground Railroad
"African American History Month is a time to reflect on the nation's heritage and the continuing struggle for freedom and dignity which have stamped themselves on the human history of our nation," remarked Robert Stanton, director of the National Park...
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Memorial to African American Officers Planned for Fort Des Moines
A monument will be built in the grounds of historic Fort Des Moines, Iowa to honor the first African American soldiers to graduate from the Army's Officer Candidate School, according to Lou Erbstein, Ft. Des Moines historian and museum curator. Ft....
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Churchs Chicken and Bingwa Software Provide Schools with Mathematical Heritage Series
Churchs Chicken and Bingwa Software Company have partnered to increase students' math skills through a special edition of Bingwa Mathematical Heritage[R] Series. Using diverse role models such as Madame C.J. Walker, George Washington Carver, Hala Moddelmog...
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African Americans in South African-American Diplomacy: A Case Study in Race and Citizenship Debates, 1895-1925
Present in southern Africa since at least the 1780s, African Americans became increasingly influential in the 1890s. In addition to Orpheus McAdoo's Virginia Jubilee Singers, black Christian missionaries associated with the African Methodist Episcopal...
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Before the Revolution: Crisis within the Philadelphia and Chicago NAACP, 1940-1960
Between 1940 and 1960, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) attained its greatest victories as a civil rights organization. Nevertheless, during this period, the organization also experienced problems that made it appear...
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African American Naval Officers: Gaining Recognition through Art
In the interpretive painting Watson and the Shark by John Singleton Copley (173 8-1815) the black sailor represents the millions of black men who worked their entire lives alongside white sailors, but who were still perceived as slaves. Copley tells...
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Vol. 60, No. 4, October-December

The African Diaspora and the 'Black Atlantic': An African American Perspective
Introduction Since the late 1800s, the term "African Diaspora" has been applied to the forced migration of millions of enslaved Africans into Europe, the Americas, and Asia that occurred between 1441 and the abolition of slavery in Brazil on May...
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The Middle Passage and the Classroom Teacher: A Journey into Learning
The first object which saluted my eyes when I arrived on the coast was the sea, and a slave ship, which was then riding at anchor, and waiting for its cargo. These filled me with astonishment which soon converted into terror when I was carried on board....
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The Middle Passage Web Site
The Middle Passage Web Site -- http://3 mill.bitshop.com -- began as a teacher's action project, the culminating activity for The Middle Passage: The Making of the Atlantic World, a National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) summer institute for educators...
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Vol. 60, No. 3, July-September

The NEA Update
This column and future articles using the caption "The NEA Update" are designated by ASALH's national president, Dr. Edward Beasley, to acknowledge and recognize the National Education Association (NEA) for the contribution and support this organization...
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A Question of Freedom: African Americans and Ghanaian Independence
Between the cold war years of 1957 and 1961, the specter of independence in British West Africa, specifically Ghana, caught the attention of the world. These latter years of Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidency also marked increased African American...
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American Exported Black Nationalism: The Student Coordinating Committee, the Black Panther Party, and the Worldwide Freedom Struggle, 1967-1972
For the most part, the image of American black nationalism in the twentieth century depicts it as the product of foreign influences that extended from Marcus Garvey and Franz Fanon to Che Guevera and Mao Tse Tung. Such images create the impression...
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Vol. 60, No. 2, April-June

Lilly Endowment Awards $2.2 Million to Historically Black Colleges
Eleven independent historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) were awarded $2.2 million from Indianapolis-based Lilly Endowment Inc. in its Strengthening Institutions Program. Forty-six schools were invited to participate in the competition...
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After Martin Bernal and Mary Lefkowitz: Research Opportunities in Classica Africana
by Michele Valerie Ronnick Associate Professor, Department of Classics, Greek, and Latin Wayne State University It is time for scholars and educators to look beyond the personalized and specific focus of the Martin Bernal-Mary Lefkowitz debate, and...
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Documenting Family History: The Diary of Mary Sprow
"You a worriation. A miration to no end, girl." Mary Johnson Sprow's soft but excited voice greeted me when she reminded me "for the better part of a year you've been a worriation; had me looking high and low to lay my hands on my old diary. So, just...
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Vol. 60, No. 1, January-March

Charles Walker Thomas: June 11, 1921 - April 22, 1996
A native Washingtonian, Dr. Charles Walker Thomas, son of the late Spencer Thomas and the late Molly Thomas, received his early education in the District of Columbia Public School System: Deanwood (Now Carver) Elementary School and Paul Laurence Dunbar...
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Lorraine A. Williams, August 6, 1923 - May 21, 1996
Dr. Lorraine A. Williams, beloved wife, educator, consultant, lecturer, traveler, philanthropist, and humanitarian, died Tuesday, May 21, 1996 at Georgetown University Hospital. Daughter of Allen and Alice Winston Anderson, she was born in Washington,...
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Benjamin A. Quarles, January 23, 1904 - November 16, 1996
Benjamin A. Quarles, Ph.D., scholar, teacher, administrator, mentor, role model and gentleman, remains a major force in the legacy of historically Black colleges and universities. Dr. Quarles is known nationwide among historians, primarily because...
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African-American Women on the Western Frontier
African Americans have been in the American West for as long as European-Americans have been. Africans came to the New World with Columbus and other Spanish explorers in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In the early nineteenth century,...
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Vol. 59, No. 4, October-December

Genealogical Research in Manuscript Repositories
The kinds of repositories which are likely to contain records for genealogical research and family histories can be divided into four broad groups: research centers; 1. Academic, public and special libraries and 2. State, municipal and county...
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The Ex-Slave Pension Movement: Some Historical and Genealogical Notes
When America moved from a society with slaves to a society based on slavery, human life descended to its lowest depth. Slavery emerged as a strict dehumanization process for Africans and contaminated the humanity of Europeans who migrated to the new...
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Genealogy Notes: The Southern Claims Commission, a Source for African American Roots
"My name is John Monroe. I was born in Liberty County (Georgia). I was a slave but purchased my freedom of my master two years before the war closed. I paid $4200.00 for myself and my wife. I don't know how old I am, but I think about 36 years old....
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Visual History and African American Families of the Nineteen Century
When photography was introduced to the world in 1839, it revolutionized the way in which Americans perceived themselves and how they would be perceived by others. Originally, the process of making photographs was only made known to artists and scientists....
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Black Tree, White Roots: White Tree, Black Roots: The Descendants of Two Brothers
Growing up, all of my extended family (grandparents, aunts, uncle, and cousins) lived in distant cities. As happens in many families we rarely saw them unless significant events -- usually a death or marriage -- brought the family together. I can...
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January-September

Emma Frances Grayson Merritt: Pioneer in Negro Education
Emma Frances Grayson Merritt was born on January 11, 1860, in Dumphries [sic], Prince William County, Virginia, one of seven children, the third of four daughters of John and Sophia Merritt. When she was three years of age, her parents moved to Washington,...
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Catherine Ferguson: Black Founder of a Sunday School
The life of Catherine Ferguson, who was often called Katy (1) by those who knew her, warrants attention because she founded an early Sunday school in New York City which sought to provide the poor with the basic rudiments of an education. She was also...
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Nineteenth Century Woman's Rights Movement: Black and White
The nineteenth century movement for women's rights began, almost without a doubt, as a white middle-class movement centered in the North. Its leaders were largely from the North, more accurately from the Northeast, with a scattering towards the West,...
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Highlights from America's Black Broadway
Dance is an art form and cultural representation expressed through integrated body movement or movements linked together in a sequence in order to emote a certain feeling, desire, or idea. Dance, unfortunately, has not warranted much scholarly attention....
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Preserving History-Everyone Has a Role: A Personal View
In 1983 when I began researching the history of black women in the military with an emphasis on the Navy's World War II female reservists, some scholars did not exactly encourage me. They argued that there was probably not enough interest to get an...
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A Model for Tomorrow: Using Paul Robeson to Teach Human and Gender Rights. (Activity)
The following unit is designed to help students practice reading, writing and listening skills while learning about an important person in American history and his ideas about some important problems (racial discrimination and gender inequality) that...
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African American Women: A Selected List of Books
Alexander, Amy. Fifty Black Women Who Changed America. Secaucus, N. J.: Carol Publishing Group. 1998, 256p. Allen, Carol. Black Women Intellectuals: Strategies of Nation, Family & Neighborhood in the Works of Pauline Hopkins, Jessie Fauset and...
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Colored Women as Wage Earners. (Documents)
I shall not take time to discuss ideal situations on the speculative side. There may be those who think that woman has no business to enter the struggle for existence as a wage-earner; who think that she should be as the lilies of the field, and should...
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In Defense of Black Women. (Documents)
In Defense of Black Women reprinted from "The Double Task: The Struggle of Negro Women for Sex and Race Emancipation," Survey Graphic 6:6 (March 1915): 691 A study of the Negro woman and her contributions to any community, throughout America, would...
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On Being Young-A Woman-And Colored. (Documents)
On Being Young--a Woman--and Colored. by Marita O. Bonner reprinted from The Crisis (December 1925) Marita O. Bonner, winner of the first prize essay in our contest was born and educated in Brookline, Massachusetts. In her junior year at Radcliffe...
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Vol. 51, No. 1-12, December

African Americans and World II: A Pictorial Essay
African Americans made an auspicious entry into World War II when messman, Doris (Dorie) Miller's acts of valor at Pearl Harbor went well beyond the call of duty. Messman Miller, an African American from Waco, Texas, braved strafing enemy planes to...
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USA 50th Anniversary of World War II Commemoration Committee
Although the Secretary of Defense was asked to establish a 50th Anniversary of World War II Commemoration Committee in 1989, the Committee actually took shape with personnel and funding in mid-1991. In October 1992, the Committee became the United...
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The Black Corps of Engineers and the Construction of the Alaska (ALCAN) Highway
Miles and miles of nothing but miles and miles. Temperatures of sixty below zero and dropping. More snow than a southerner or northerner could ever imagine..and the people... where are the people? So describes the welcome which greeted the black...
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The Black Press: Setting the Political Agenda during World War II
CREDO FOR THE NEGRO PRESS I Shall Be A Crusader... I Shall Be An Advocate... I Shall Be A Herald... I Shall Be A Mirror And A Record... I Shall Have Integrity... I Shall be a crusader and an advocate, a mirror and a record, a herald...
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Wilber Miller's Story: Black Air Force Civilians in World War II
Wilber Britt Miller is an outstanding example of the balck civilians in the American South who helped to "keep them flying" during the Second World War. As one of the few qualified black aircraft mechanics in federal civil service at the start of the...
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Serving My Country
Upon returning from my 1942 summer classes at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health, I was asked by the Kansas City, Missouri chapter of the American Red Cross to recruit black nurses for the Army Nurse Corps. In 1941, prior to the...
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A Time to Live; a Time to Die: The Sad Saga of Staff Sergeant Ruben Rivers
The crash of artillery fire kept nerves taut as the men in Captain David J. Williams' Company A, 761st Tank Battalion (Negro) prepared to undergo their baptism of fire at daybreak on November 8, 1944. When the order to move finally came, First Lieutenant...
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"Keep 'Em Rolling": African American Participation in the Red Ball Express
Technical Sergeant Emanuel Wilson Greene of the 3989th Motor Transport Company served two years, ten months, and twenty-two days in the U.S. Army during World War II. All but ten months of that time he spent in the European Theater of Operations as...
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Africans and World War II: An Annotated Bibliography
Anderson, Trezzvant W. Come Out Fighting: The Epic Tale Of The 761st Tank Battalion, 1942-1945. Salzburg, Germany: Salzburger druckerei and verlag, 1945, 135p. The 761st was selected for an occupational role in Germany after originally being scheduled...
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