Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy

Policy journal focusing on energy, environment, economic development, and science and technology.

Articles from Vol. 13, No. 3, Fall

Asia-Pacific Airborne: Six Futuristic Mega-Airports, Including Hong Kong International, Will Handle Unprecedented Growth in Air Travel in the Asia-Pacific Region
Asia-Pacific represents a region stretching from China, Korea, and Japan to Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia, and across to Australia and New Zealand. Over the next decade the Asia-Pacific region will witness the development of several mega-airports...
Brain Scan: Studying the Human Brain Reveals Complex Issues
In 1989, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution designating the 1990s as the "Decade of the Brain."(1) In citing its justification for this resolution, Congress noted that 50 million Americans are affected each year by disorders and disabilities involving...
Challenging Risk Assessment: Traditional Toxicological Testing Cannot Detect the Adverse Effects of Very Low Doses of Environmental Chemicals
Current methods of risk assessment for some manufactured chemicals may not accurately predict the risks of exposure to humans and animals. In fact, we are beginning to realize that very low levels of exposure to some chemicals present in the environment...
Charting a New Course: Pollutant Trading Can Play a Key Role in Improving Water Quality
Following the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, most of the attention devoted to improving water quality in the United States has focused on reducing pollution from industrial and municipal facilities. Over the years, the U.S. Environmental Protection...
Damming the Yangtze
Will China's controversial dam project prove an environmental disaster or an economic boon? Walls of stone will stand upstream to the west To hold back Wushan's clouds and rain Till a smooth lake rises in the narrow gorges. The mountain goddess...
Disruptive Behavior
Are environmental pollutants the real culprits in declines in male fertility and increases in the incidence of breast cancer? The jury is still out. Since the late 1980s, researchers have been collecting evidence of adverse effects on wildlife populations...
Downwind, Downstream: Multicountry Megaprojects Remediate Pollution Seeping across National Boundaries
Despite stunning examples of progress on many fronts, the 20th century has also been attended by enormous global environmental degradation.(1) As we near a new millennium, the world community is slowly coming to grips with the problem. To that end,...
Endocrine Disruptors and Breast Cancer
Researchers from the Silent Spring Institute search for clues to explain the higher incidence of breast cancer on Cape Cod. The hypothesis that endocrine-disrupting chemicals affect the risk of breast cancer is a short, logical step away from what...
Europe's Final Frontier
The future of European space exploration rides on the success - or failure - of its joint agency, ESA. When most people reflect on the early days of space exploration, their minds turn to the highly publicized programs of the former Soviet Union...
Marketing Water Rights: A New Trading System Is Developing in the American West to Accommodate Increasing Demands for This Scarce Resource
Unlike other valuable and productive assets, free-flowing water is not bought and sold through markets.(1) Rather, individuals and entities hold rights to use water under publicly sanctioned rules and customs, now largely written into law and administered...
Mission Control: Politics, Not Size, Is the Real Threat to Megaprojects at NASA
From its earliest trays, the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been considered by many to be the principal home - if not the founder - of "big science" and "megaprojects" in the United States. Political scientist Paul...
Profile of a Two-Fisted Fighter
"Whether you're one-breasted or two-breasted, this is a two-fisted fight." - Bella Abzug When Cheryl Osimo was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1991, she was surprised... and scared. This 41-year-old mother of two had no close relatives with the...
Regulating Runoff: A Minnesota Company Shows How Pollutant Trading Can Help Improve Water Quality throughout the Nation
We've come a long way during the past quarter century in cleaning up our nation's waters. The days when creeks were open sewers and rivers could catch on fire are largely history. Today, lakes and streams are cleaner than they have been in generations,...
The Precautionary Approach: As Researchers Painstakingly Explore the Exact Mechanism of Endocrine Disruption, We Should Consider Suspect Chemicals Guilty until Proven Innocent
Are synthetic organic chemicals used in pesticides, industrial production, and consumer products putting people and wildlife at risk by interfering with their endocrine systems? This hypothesis has been debated within the scientific community for about...
The State of the Debate: While Scientists Agree That Some Synthetic Chemicals Can Mimic Hormones, Consensus on a Course of Action Remains Elusive
In the past decade, there has been growing concern that environmental chemicals may be disrupting normal endocrine processes. Since the developing fetus is highly influenced by hormones that orchestrate male and female sexual development, transient...
Tunnel Vision: Transportation Planners Share the Dream of a Global Rail System Linking the Continents
Today's revolution in surface transportation is spurring transportation planners throughout the world to consider construction of railroad tunnels on a scale unsurpassed in human history. Eurotunnel, which links England to the European continent via...
Undamning Dams: Despite Bad Press, Dams Are Critical to the Nation's Clean Water Program
On October 18, 1997, Vice President Gore introduced a major new initiative, the Clean Water Action Plan, commemorating the 25th anniversary of the Clean Water Act.(1) The action plan was designed to fulfill the promise of the Clean Water Act that all...