Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe : JEMIE

The journal is a multi-disciplinary journal which addresses minority issues across a broad range of studies, such as ethnopolitics, democratization, conflict management, good governance, participation, minority issues and minority rights. It is devoted to comparative analyses of current developments in minority-majority relations in the wider Europe.

Articles

Vol. 11, No. 4, 2012

Introduction - Reconciliation in the Western Balkans: New Perspectives and Proposals
Dealing with a legacy of war crimes and human rights violations is a common challenge in post-conflict societies. This is particularly the case in the Western Balkan countries in which, as Sisson (2010: 172) puts it, a "decade of internecine war in the...
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Reconciliation in Kosovo: A Few Steps Taken, a Long Road Ahead
The article focuses on reconciliation between the Serb and Albanian communities in Kosovo. It explains that in northern Kosovo the necessary pre-conditions for reconciliation have not been met; there has essentially been no resolution of the conflict...
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Vetoes, Ethnic Bidding, Decentralisation: Post-Conflict Education in Macedonia
This article focuses on political elites in post-conflict Macedonia and investigates how political elites interact - to accommodate or resist each other - across ethnic lines. Theoretically, the analysis draws upon institutionalist literature, in particular...
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A Study of Perceived Parental Communication and Propensity towards Reconciliation among Youth in Vukovar (Croatia)
This paper explores some socio-psychological factors that might be indicative of the willingness of young people to establish post-conflict intergroup relationships in the city of Vukovar in Croatia. It is based on a study involving 254 students (132...
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Memory and Form: An Exploration of the Stari Most, Mostar (BIH)
This paper explores the performance of memory and forgetting through the urban palimpsest that is the Old Bridge (Stari Most) in Mostar, BiH. Drawing on the results of qualitative fieldwork done in the city in 2009/10 a framework is established to analyze...
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Working through the Past in Bosnia and Northern Ireland: Truth, Reconciliation and the Constraints of Consociationalism
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Northern Ireland represent difficult cases for theories of conflict resolution: the consociational structures of governance in each case reflect and, arguably, reproduce the segregation that characterizes everyday life. In...
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Understanding Normative Gaps in Transitional Justice: The Serbian Discourse on the Srebrenica Declaration 2010(1)
The Serbian government has often been accused of "double-speak" in confronting crimes that took place during the Yugoslav war. This behaviour is interpreted as a gap between an underdeveloped domestic norm of facing the past and the international norm...
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Vol. 11, No. 3, 2012

Introduction
Managing ethnic diversity and establishing stable minority-majority relations are of central importance for stable democracies. The ability and willingness of states to generate attachment to the polity by all citizens is a central precondition for a...
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The 'Do-No-Harm' Debate in External Democracy Promotion
This article analyzes at the neglected debate around the potential negative side effects of the European Union's (EU's) democracy promotion in the ethnically diverse Western Balkan states. Despite significant efforts by the EU to promote democracy, the...
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Montenegro's Minorities in the Tangles of Citizenship, Participation, and Access to Rights
This paper examines the relationship between citizenship, participation, cultural and socio-economic rights of minorities in Montenegro by focusing on the divergence between policies and their implementation. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, it...
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Minority Policies and EU Conditionality - the Case of the Republic of Macedonia
The EU in the Western Balkans has been significantly engaged in the promotion of improved minority protection in the framework of its political criteria for accession. Despite the EU's involvement in these policies, the question of how external pressures...
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Between the Integration and Accommodation of Ethnic Difference: Decentralization in the Republic of Macedonia
The decentralization process in the Republic of Macedonia has been widely regarded as a success story by regional and international actors alike. It is frequently considered a suitable non-territorial model of ethnic conflict management that can be replicated...
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The EU Accession Criteria in the Field of Minority Protection and the Demands of Ethnic Minority Parties1
Over the course of the democratization of post-communist Europe, minority protection has been gradually strengthened. This study compares the positions of two key actors in this process. In particular, it examines how the EU accession criteria in the...
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Vol. 11, No. 2, 2012

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Still Relevant in the Information Age?
The impact of new information and communication technologies on European societies could not have been foreseen at the time the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) was adopted two decades ago. Although the text of the ECRML contains...
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Swedish in Finland: Pushed Back in the Cyberspace?
This article provides an insight into the dynamics of language use among Swedish-speaking Finns regarding two specific aspects of internet use: browsing and blogging. The data was collected from persons with Swedish as their registered mother tongue...
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Some Reflections on the New Media and Lesser Used Languages
Scientific or technological inventions are neither good nor bad in themselves. It is how they are used by us that makes them either good or bad for humankind. Nuclear power immediately springs to mind as a classic example. Man's ability to fly is another....
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Poland and the Silesians: Minority Rights à la Carte?1
The Silesians are an ethnic or national group that coalesced in the nineteenth century. During the subsequent century, they survived repeated divisions of their historical region of Upper Silesia among the nation-states of Czechoslovakia (or today its...
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From Language Revival to Language Removal? the Teaching of Titular Languages in the National Republics of Post-Soviet Russia
Minority language education has been planned in post-Soviet Russia for two decades. During this period, language policy in education has shifted from compulsory to voluntary study of native languages in school. The effect of this move in policy and its...
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Renewed Circassian Mobilization in the North Caucasus 20-Years after the Fall of the Soviet Union
The renewed ethnic mobilization among Circassians in the North Caucasus region in Russia that has unfolded since the latter half of the 2000s is illustrated by the establishment of new civil society organizations and a substantially increased number...
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Vol. 11, No. 1, 2012

Introduction to the Special Issue: Political and Economic Obstacles of Minority Language Maintenance
Over the past decades, problems related to linguistic minorities and their well-being, as well as to minority languages and their maintenance, have developed as an independent branch of minority studies. Studies of language in society and sociolinguistics,...
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The Education Reform in Russia and Its Impact on Teaching of the Minority Languages: An Effect of Nation-Building?
Public minority-language schools have a crucial role in the preservation of the societal culture of the minorities. This article explores the institutional position of the languages of the minorities of the Russian Federation in the education system...
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Maintenance of South Estonian Varieties: A Focus on Institutions
Institutions are seen as the societal rules of the game in the broadest sense. Institutions include informal norms and formal laws, which are not necessarily functional, but shape human interaction by both prohibiting and enabling it. In language maintenance,...
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Latgalian in Latvia: A Continuous Struggle for Political Recognition1
This article discusses the situation of the Latgalian language in Latvia today. It first provides an overview of languages in Latvia, followed by a historical and contemporary sketch of the societal position of Latgalian and by an account of current...
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The End of Minority Languages? Europe's Regional Languages in Perspective
The European Union (EU) today counts 23 national languages with as many as 65 regional and minority languages, only a few of which enjoy recognition in the EU. We assess the perspectives of regional and, particularly, endangered languages in Europe in...
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Land and Language: The Struggle for National, Territorial, and Linguistic Integrity of the Oneida People
The ability to maintain a living community is a functional requirement for the natural transmission of culture and language. The Oneida Indians, aboriginal people of what is now the State of New York, have struggled for more than two centuries to sustain...
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Why Care about Lënapei Lixsëwakàn? Ethnography of the Lenape Language Loss
The Delaware Tribe of Oklahoma, which originated in the Northeastern Woodlands, today struggles to preserve the Lenape language of their ancestors, whose last fluent native speaker died in 2002. The tribe's language reclamation efforts are in large part...
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Vol. 10, No. 1, 2011

Minority Consultative Bodies in Kosovo: A Quest for Effective Emancipation or Elusive Participation?
This paper examines the extent to which effective political participation can be achieved through minority consultative bodies, and what obstacles and shortcomings can potentially occur in practice. It explores the Kosovo case, where a variety of minority...
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The Dilemma in the Nation-Building Process: The Kazakh or Kazakhstani Nation?
This article analyses the nation-building strategy that Kazakhstan's government has implemented since independence. It examines why the nation builders have taken the decision to create two nations, the ethnic Kazakh nation and the civic Kazakhstani...
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Tatar Nation Building since 1991: Ethnic Mobilisation in Historical Perspective
This study analyses the process of ethnic mobilization in the Soviet and post-Soviet eras and assesses the way in which history, memory and the treatment of the Volga Tatars by the Soviet state, especially under Lenin and Stalin, affected their long...
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Homogenisation and the 'New Russian Citizen': A Road to Stability or Ethnic Tension?
This article investigates the phenomenon of homogenizing policies in post-Yeltsin Russia. This consists of a series of measures that have effectively downgraded ethnicity and increased uniformity. First, the article outlines theories linking multiculturalism...
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The Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union: Focus on the Neighbourhood and on a European Roma Strategy
This article attempts to offer a concise overview of the main developments relating to the Hungarian presidency, notably in the areas of regional stability and interethnic relations.The first year in office of the new Hungarian government-elected with...
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Vol. 9, No. 2, 2010

Rethinking the Concept of Effective Participation: Are Minorities Similar to Women?
The slogan 'participation of minorities' has long been a powerful concept in the vocabulary of human rights activists. Today it is also embraced by politicians and other actors promoting democratic developments in European societies. Those who propagate...
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A Self-Governing Group or Equal Citizens? Kurds, Turkey and the European Union
This study shows how the theoretical debate between liberal egalitarianism and multiculturalism corresponds to the problem of minorities in Turkey. The differentiated group rights supported by the latter are contrasted with liberal egalitarianism policies...
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Bosnian Elections and Recurring Ethnonationalisms: The Ghost of the Nation State
To an impartial observer, any of the post-Dayton elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina might look like an exercise in conflict between forces of integration and disintegration. Structurally, this is not so different from other patterns of viewing and interpreting...
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Vol. 9, No. 1, 2010

The New European Union: Integration as a Means of Norm Diffusion
Although European shared norms can be identified through the Copenhagen Criteria, few scholars have examined what methods the European Union employs to ensure norm diffusion. This study examines the impact of EU norm diffusion on both member and candidate...
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Civil Society's Role in Peace-Building: Relevance of the Cypriot Case
This article argues that the rationale of the current conflict resolution strategy for resolving the Cyprus problem is problematic. Time and energy should be spent more on peace-building efforts that penetrate into ideas and identities of the Cypriots,...
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Serving the Evolving Communities: Functions of Turkish Diasporic Web Sites in Germany
The central objective of this research is to shed light on the role of the diasporic web sites in terms of fulfilling various needs and expectations of diasporic communities, in which an evolving hybridity in structure has been revealed in recent years....
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Elections in Latvia: Status Quo for Minorities Remains?
This article comments on the results of the recent parliamentary elections in Latvia and related implications for ethnic minorities. The authors examine in detail the pre-election programs, follow the developments before and after the elections, and...
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No. 2, 2009

Human Rights, Anthropology and Securitization: Reclaiming Culture
I. IntroductionIn Raymond Williams's renowned adage, culture is "one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language".1 Within a legal setting,2 the rhetoric on culture goes beyond a purely abstract significance to potentially having...
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"Root Causes": The Inversion of Causes and Consequences in Civil War
IntroductionIt appears as something of a paradox in the social sciences of culture, such as anthropology which is the discipline I represent in these pages, when scholars refuse vehemently to consider the role of culture in causing and sustaining organised,...
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Minority Participation in Public Life: The Case of Greece
AbstractThis article examines Greece's stance towards minorities in the light of the recent UN Report of the Independent Expert on Minority Issues regarding her mission to Greece. The epicentre of the paper is the jurisprudence of the European Court...
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Towards 'Consociationalism Light'? the EU's, the Council of Europe's and the High Commissioner on National Minorities' Policies regarding the Hungarian Minorities in Romania and Slovakia
AbstractThis paper concerns how three organisations, namely the Council of Europe, the European Union and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) including its High Commissioner on National Minorities, have addressed the issue...
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No. 1, 2009

Legalization of Civil Wars: The Legal Institutionalization of Non-International Armed Conflicts
I. INTRODUCTION AND PRESENTATIONThis article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law.1 Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls, however, within the context of the legal term...
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Disaggregated Perspectives on Civil War and Ethnic Conflict: Prospects of an Emerging Research Agenda+
I. INTRODUCTIONAcademic conflict research, deeply rooted in Cold War thinking, has traditionally focused on the causes of war between states, with an analytical focus on the role of military alliances, joint land borders, arms races, nuclear deterrence,...
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A Simple Tool Needed in a Complex Situation: A Development Worker's Perspective on the Use of Vocational Training to Augment the Peace Process in Sudan
We wanted to save more boys but we couldn't. There were 4,000 of them [Darfur boys] waiting as we arrived but we could only take 180. Some tried to sneak on at night as we left Nyala but they were found at the checkpoint. Those that stay will become...
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Challenges to Civil War Research Introduction to the Special Issue on Civil War and Conflicts
From 1945 to 1999, there were roughly 130 civil wars that each killed at least 1,000 people.1 As of 2009, there are still many ongoing civil conflicts, e.g. in Sudan, Pakistan and Iraq. Civil wars and conflicts have been the subject of much research...
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The Breakup of a Composite State and the Construction of a National Conflict: Denmark and the Duchies in the 19th Century
I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDMeiner Gesinnung nach bin ich so gut Schleswiger oder Holsteiner als Däne [...] Wir lebten lange friedlich beisammen, klagten gemeinschaftlich über Druck und schwere Zeiten, aber ohne mißgünstigen Groll; in den späten Jahren...
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No. 2, 2008

Majority or Minority Languages? for a New Discourse on Languages
Enough of discriminatory terminologyThere are majority languages and there are minority languages. This distinction between the two types of language is not only made as if there was evidence to support it, but also as if it was an acceptable and accepted...
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A Plan for the Future? the Estonian State Integration Programme on National Minorities 2000-2007
Events surrounding the replacement of a Soviet bronze statue in spring 2007 in Tallinn and subsequent international tensions between the EU and Russia marked a low point in inter-ethnic relations between Russian-speakers in Estonia and ethnic Estonians...
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Kosovo Declaration of Independence and the International Community - an Assessment by the Kosovo Monitoring Task Force
AbstractThis paper provides an overview of the roles played by international organisations with relation to Kosovo independence in the months prior to the declaration of independence to March 2008, based on data collected by the Kosovo Monitoring Task...
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Making an Even Number Odd: Deadlock-Avoiding in a Reunified Cyprus Supreme Court
AbstractSubstantive talks to re-unify the island of Cyprus re-commenced in September 2008. Sadly, the gulf between the two communities remains wide. The rejected 'Annan Plan' proposed a (federal) Supreme Court that would have included three non-Cypriot...
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No. 1, 2008

The Dynamics of Ethnopolitical Conflict Management by International and Regional Organizations in Europe
I. INTRODUCTIONEthnic tensions and conflicts are prominent political phenomena. For example, several states in Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans and the Caucasus have experienced such tensions and conflicts in recent years. The nature of these...
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Political Participation and Interest Articulation of Roma in Romania
AbstractBy examining processes of political participation and ethnic mobilisation, this article assesses how Roma create organising structures of representation which they use to articulate their shared interests. The utilitarian nature of the democratic...
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Majority-Minority Relations in the Ukraine
AbstractMajority-minority relations in Ukraine, as in any other country, are a complex phenomenon. What differentiates the Ukrainian case from many old polities and from some recently established ones is that the identities of both majority and minority...
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The Stabilization and Association Process: An Engine of European Integration in Need of Tuning
AbstractThe Stabilization and Association process (SAp) was created by the European Union in 1999 as its primary contribution to the Stability Pact for Southeast Europe, thus concluding a development that had started with the Royaumont process and continued...
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