Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe : JEMIE

The journal is a multi-disciplinary journal which addresses minority issues across a broad range of studies, such as ethnopolitics, democratization, conflict management, good governance, participation, minority issues and minority rights. It is devoted to comparative analyses of current developments in minority-majority relations in the wider Europe.

Articles

Vol. 14, No. 1, 2015

Social Integration of "Old" and "New" Minorities in Europe in Views of International Expert Bodies Relying on Human Rights: Contextual Balancing and Tailoring
The emergence of "new" minorities within states as a result of international migration constantly changes the societal diversity of European states. Additionally, the existence of "old" minorities and relationships between kin-state and kin-minority...
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Britain and the Other: Moral Perceptions of the Right to Free Movement in the European Commission and in the UK
As a result of the enlargement of the European Union (EU), the number of migrants from Eastern and Central European countries has expanded in the "old" Member States, after which some politicians and political parties have started to question the rationale...
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What's in a Name? Peoples, Minorities, Indigenous Peoples, Tribal Groups and Nations
International law has accepted groups and endowed them with certain rights and obligations. A group's categorization determines exactly which rights it has. If a group is defined as a people, it has the right to self-determination. An indigenous people...
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Remembering Homeland in Exile: Recollections of IDPs from the Abkhazia Region of Georgia
The Georgian-Abkhazian conflict (1992-1993) resulted in the displacement of thousands of ethnic Georgians from the Abkhazia region of Georgia. IDPs as a "mnemonic community" have a shared experience of hardship from civil wars and forced migration that...
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Vol. 13, No. 4, 2014

A Language That Forgot Itself
In this essay, as a background, I reflect on how the German language was liquidated in post-1945 Poland's region of Upper Silesia where nowadays the country's German minority is concentrated. But the main focus is on the irony that neither this language,...
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(Out)living the War: Anti-War Activism in Croatia in the Early 1990s and Beyond
Unlike nationalism and the wars in former Yugoslavia, which have attracted considerable scholarly attention, anti-war activism has only recently started to arouse interest among academics. Nevertheless, what emerged as a reaction to war and brutality...
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Chuvash Language in Chuvashia's Instruction System: An Example of Educational Language Policies in Post-Soviet Russia
This article presents the situation of the Chuvash language in the education system of the Republic of Chuvashia and its evolution since the end of the Soviet period. The analysis relies on several sources: governmental statistics, observations on the...
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Minority Rights: An Opportunity for Adjustment of Ethnic Relations in Kosovo?
This article presents the situation of the Chuvash language in the education system of the Republic of Chuvashia and its evolution since the end of the Soviet period. The analysis relies on several sources: governmental statistics, observations on the...
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Book Review: We Belong to Them
Book Review: We Belong to ThemReview of: We belong to them. Narratives of Belonging, Homeland and Nationhood in Territorial and Non-territorial Minority Settings, by Tünde Puskás. Brussels, Bern, and Berlin: Peter Lang, 2009, 309 pp.'We belong to them....
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"Hybrid" Linguistic Identity of Post-Soviet Belarus
The issue of Belarusian language politics can be analysed across two different dimensions: as an element of nation-building strategy in post-Soviet Belarus; and as part of a linguistic human rights discourse, which refers to legal, moral as well as emotional...
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The Muslim Label: How French North Africans Have Become "Muslims" and Not "Citizens"
French North Africans face a significant problem in their ability to successfully integrate into contemporary French society: they are trapped under the "Muslim" label historically given to them by the French state. By looking carefully at past and present...
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Vol. 13, No. 3, 2014

Introduction - Rethinking Approaches to Europeanization of Minority Politics
It is today nearly impossible to understand transformations of domestic politics and legislation in European states without factoring in the process of European integration. Minority rights constitute a policy field significantly affected by European-level...
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Europeanized Hypocrisy: Roma Inclusion and Exclusion in Central and Eastern Europe
This article reflects on the outcome of Europeanization to date as it relates to Roma in Central and Eastern Europe, and seeks to explain the inherently contradictory policies and practices towards this population in the new EU member states today. It...
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Selective Europeanization: A Path Dependency Perspective on Danish Minority Policy
This article investigates the question: why has Danish minority policy shown such remarkable selectiveness with regard to Europeanization? This question is particularly pertinent given that Denmark is typically seen as an otherwise very efficient and...
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The Impact of Europeanization on Minority Communities in "Old" Member States: Italy and France
The impact of Europeanization processes on minority protection is well researched regarding "new" member states, with the way that EU conditionality influenced minority politics during the accession phase being the most prominent topic. However, Europeanization...
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Europeanization and Secession: The Cases of Catalonia and Scotland
In this article, I examine and compare discourses and strategies mobilized by pro- and anti-independence movements in the UK and in Spain in order to assess how the EU as an actor or as a political institutional context affects contemporary secessionist...
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Vol. 13, No. 2, 2014

From Protection to Empowerment through Participation: The Case of Trentino-A Laboratory for Small Groups
This article analyses the legal framework for the protection and promotion of three linguistic groups with a historical presence in the Province of Trentino, Italy, namely: Ladins, Mòcheni and Cimbrians. By assuming the need for a normative approach...
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Adapting Administrative Structures to (Small) Minority Areas: Trentino as a Laboratory Rather Than a Model
This article addresses the question of how to reconcile, in institutional form, the (re)organization of administrative structures and the emerging demands of the linguistic groups to be represented in the public administration, while bearing in mind...
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National Minorities between Protection and Empowerment: Towards a Theory of Empowerment
It is widely assumed that national minorities can experience a transition from protection to empowerment. This is also the assumption of most normative instruments aimed at protecting national minorities. Theoretically, however, there is no coherent...
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Decoupled Empowerment: Minority Representation and the Implementation of Language Rights in Romania
This article examines to what degree minority empowerment, understood as representation in political and administrative decision-making, leads to the implementation of minority protection policy. As a case study, it examines the implementation of minority...
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Minority Politics in Practice: Protection and Empowerment in the Danish-German Border Region
This article examines how the members of national minorities in the Danish-German border region are protected and empowered. This is done through an analysis of the institutions and mechanism with which the state and land governments preserve the minority...
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Introduction - National Minorities between Protection and Empowerment
This special issue examines some of the complexities intrinsic to the journey from the protection of national minorities to their empowerment, both at the theoretical level, and through the analysis of empirical data from three case studies. The special...
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Vol. 13, No. 1, 2014

Introduction - Minority Participation in Estonia and Latvia
High levels of active political participation are considered to be indicators of stable democracies. Low levels of participation, in turn, are related to disaffection with the political process and the political system more generally (Agarin, 2013; Pharr...
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Granting Local Voting Rights to Non-Citizens in Estonia and Latvia: The Conundrum of Minority Representation in Two Divided Democracies
This paper analyzes the Estonian and Latvian policy-making process with regard to non-citizens' right to vote in local elections. While in Estonia the right of all permanent residents to vote in local elections was already enshrined in the 1992 constitution,...
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The Ethnic Participation Gap: Comparing Second Generation Russian Youth and Estonian Youth
The political and civic participation of citizens is essential for "making democracy work". The nationalizing approach to state-building adopted by Estonia in the early 1990s limited the political participation of its large Russian-speaking minorities....
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The Influence of Party Competition on Minority Politics: A Comparison of Latvia and Estonia
The aim of the research presented in this article is to highlight differences in inter-ethnic political relations on minority issues in Latvia and Estonia, and how the varied structures of their political party competitions have affected the ethno-political...
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Vol. 12, No. 2, 2013

Introduction - New Perspectives for the Basque Country in a Post-Conflict Scenario
On 20 October 2012 the Basque organisation ETA announced a permanent end to more than 40 years of armed activity. Three days earlier, at a conference held in San Sebastian, an array of prominent international figures, led by Kofi Annan and Basque sovereignist...
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Human Rights and Politically-Motivated Violence in the Basque Country
The Basque Region has experienced politically-motivated violence in different forms for decades. However, public policies and legal tools utilized in addressing this violence have centered on counterterrorism strategies, while bypassing, or even covering...
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Transitional Justice versus Traditional Justice: The Basque Case
Transitional justice is often understood as a field or a toolkit that facilitates the establishment of "justice" and rule of law in post-conflict societies. It is also the interdisciplinary understanding and study of that toolkit or field. This article...
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Basque and Spanish Identity in a Changing Context
Subjective national identity has been a widely studied phenomenon, and presents several implications. Membership in a specific "imagined community" and the collective adhesion of the citizens to that community are related to many aspects: economic, cultural...
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A New Political Status for the Basque Country?
The Basque Country can be said to have entered a new post-violence political scenario in 2012. In this context, a new opportunity for debating about the political status of the Country re-emerges. Electoral behavior and additional social evidence show...
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Vol. 12, No. 1, 2013

Introduction - National Cultural Autonomy in Theory and Practice
Non-territorial autonomy (NTA) has attracted much academic interest in recent years, both among scholars (Kymlicka, 2007; Nimni, 2005; Nimni, 2007; Roach, 2005; Smith and Cordell, 2008) and, as Osipov and Smith note in this volume, among the governments...
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Non-Territorial Autonomy during and after Communism: In the Wrong or Right Place?
Paradoxically, the concept of non-territorial autonomy (NTA) is in relatively high demand in post-Communist countries, although it is at the same time an environment that seems hostile to it. Marxism-Leninism had rejected the idea of NTA for decades....
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Non-Territorial Autonomy and Political Community in Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe
The last two decades have seen the adoption of laws on non-territorial autonomy (NTA) by several states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), as well as debates on the applicability of this concept to other countries of the region. This development has...
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Reclaiming Identity: Rethinking Non-Territorial Autonomy
This paper puts debates over identity within non-territorial autonomy scholarship in conversation with those located within feminist thought. It is done for two reasons. First, it is suggested that the concern with identity-based claims has less to do...
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De-Territorializing Minority Rights in Europe: A Look Eastward
The increasing mobilization of non-territorial groups raises questions about European states' ability to cope with collective claims that cannot be categorized under the traditional instruments of minority protection developed under the nation-state...
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Vol. 11, No. 4, 2012

Introduction - Reconciliation in the Western Balkans: New Perspectives and Proposals
Dealing with a legacy of war crimes and human rights violations is a common challenge in post-conflict societies. This is particularly the case in the Western Balkan countries in which, as Sisson (2010: 172) puts it, a "decade of internecine war in the...
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Reconciliation in Kosovo: A Few Steps Taken, a Long Road Ahead
The article focuses on reconciliation between the Serb and Albanian communities in Kosovo. It explains that in northern Kosovo the necessary pre-conditions for reconciliation have not been met; there has essentially been no resolution of the conflict...
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Vetoes, Ethnic Bidding, Decentralisation: Post-Conflict Education in Macedonia
This article focuses on political elites in post-conflict Macedonia and investigates how political elites interact - to accommodate or resist each other - across ethnic lines. Theoretically, the analysis draws upon institutionalist literature, in particular...
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A Study of Perceived Parental Communication and Propensity towards Reconciliation among Youth in Vukovar (Croatia)
This paper explores some socio-psychological factors that might be indicative of the willingness of young people to establish post-conflict intergroup relationships in the city of Vukovar in Croatia. It is based on a study involving 254 students (132...
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Memory and Form: An Exploration of the Stari Most, Mostar (BIH)
This paper explores the performance of memory and forgetting through the urban palimpsest that is the Old Bridge (Stari Most) in Mostar, BiH. Drawing on the results of qualitative fieldwork done in the city in 2009/10 a framework is established to analyze...
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Working through the Past in Bosnia and Northern Ireland: Truth, Reconciliation and the Constraints of Consociationalism
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Northern Ireland represent difficult cases for theories of conflict resolution: the consociational structures of governance in each case reflect and, arguably, reproduce the segregation that characterizes everyday life. In...
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Understanding Normative Gaps in Transitional Justice: The Serbian Discourse on the Srebrenica Declaration 2010(1)
The Serbian government has often been accused of "double-speak" in confronting crimes that took place during the Yugoslav war. This behaviour is interpreted as a gap between an underdeveloped domestic norm of facing the past and the international norm...
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Vol. 11, No. 3, 2012

Introduction
Managing ethnic diversity and establishing stable minority-majority relations are of central importance for stable democracies. The ability and willingness of states to generate attachment to the polity by all citizens is a central precondition for a...
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The 'Do-No-Harm' Debate in External Democracy Promotion
This article analyzes at the neglected debate around the potential negative side effects of the European Union's (EU's) democracy promotion in the ethnically diverse Western Balkan states. Despite significant efforts by the EU to promote democracy, the...
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Montenegro's Minorities in the Tangles of Citizenship, Participation, and Access to Rights
This paper examines the relationship between citizenship, participation, cultural and socio-economic rights of minorities in Montenegro by focusing on the divergence between policies and their implementation. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, it...
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Minority Policies and EU Conditionality - the Case of the Republic of Macedonia
The EU in the Western Balkans has been significantly engaged in the promotion of improved minority protection in the framework of its political criteria for accession. Despite the EU's involvement in these policies, the question of how external pressures...
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Between the Integration and Accommodation of Ethnic Difference: Decentralization in the Republic of Macedonia
The decentralization process in the Republic of Macedonia has been widely regarded as a success story by regional and international actors alike. It is frequently considered a suitable non-territorial model of ethnic conflict management that can be replicated...
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The EU Accession Criteria in the Field of Minority Protection and the Demands of Ethnic Minority Parties1
Over the course of the democratization of post-communist Europe, minority protection has been gradually strengthened. This study compares the positions of two key actors in this process. In particular, it examines how the EU accession criteria in the...
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Vol. 11, No. 2, 2012

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: Still Relevant in the Information Age?
The impact of new information and communication technologies on European societies could not have been foreseen at the time the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) was adopted two decades ago. Although the text of the ECRML contains...
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Swedish in Finland: Pushed Back in the Cyberspace?
This article provides an insight into the dynamics of language use among Swedish-speaking Finns regarding two specific aspects of internet use: browsing and blogging. The data was collected from persons with Swedish as their registered mother tongue...
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Some Reflections on the New Media and Lesser Used Languages
Scientific or technological inventions are neither good nor bad in themselves. It is how they are used by us that makes them either good or bad for humankind. Nuclear power immediately springs to mind as a classic example. Man's ability to fly is another....
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Poland and the Silesians: Minority Rights à la Carte?1
The Silesians are an ethnic or national group that coalesced in the nineteenth century. During the subsequent century, they survived repeated divisions of their historical region of Upper Silesia among the nation-states of Czechoslovakia (or today its...
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From Language Revival to Language Removal? the Teaching of Titular Languages in the National Republics of Post-Soviet Russia
Minority language education has been planned in post-Soviet Russia for two decades. During this period, language policy in education has shifted from compulsory to voluntary study of native languages in school. The effect of this move in policy and its...
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Renewed Circassian Mobilization in the North Caucasus 20-Years after the Fall of the Soviet Union
The renewed ethnic mobilization among Circassians in the North Caucasus region in Russia that has unfolded since the latter half of the 2000s is illustrated by the establishment of new civil society organizations and a substantially increased number...
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Vol. 11, No. 1, 2012

Introduction to the Special Issue: Political and Economic Obstacles of Minority Language Maintenance
Over the past decades, problems related to linguistic minorities and their well-being, as well as to minority languages and their maintenance, have developed as an independent branch of minority studies. Studies of language in society and sociolinguistics,...
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The Education Reform in Russia and Its Impact on Teaching of the Minority Languages: An Effect of Nation-Building?
Public minority-language schools have a crucial role in the preservation of the societal culture of the minorities. This article explores the institutional position of the languages of the minorities of the Russian Federation in the education system...
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Maintenance of South Estonian Varieties: A Focus on Institutions
Institutions are seen as the societal rules of the game in the broadest sense. Institutions include informal norms and formal laws, which are not necessarily functional, but shape human interaction by both prohibiting and enabling it. In language maintenance,...
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Latgalian in Latvia: A Continuous Struggle for Political Recognition1
This article discusses the situation of the Latgalian language in Latvia today. It first provides an overview of languages in Latvia, followed by a historical and contemporary sketch of the societal position of Latgalian and by an account of current...
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The End of Minority Languages? Europe's Regional Languages in Perspective
The European Union (EU) today counts 23 national languages with as many as 65 regional and minority languages, only a few of which enjoy recognition in the EU. We assess the perspectives of regional and, particularly, endangered languages in Europe in...
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Land and Language: The Struggle for National, Territorial, and Linguistic Integrity of the Oneida People
The ability to maintain a living community is a functional requirement for the natural transmission of culture and language. The Oneida Indians, aboriginal people of what is now the State of New York, have struggled for more than two centuries to sustain...
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Why Care about Lënapei Lixsëwakàn? Ethnography of the Lenape Language Loss
The Delaware Tribe of Oklahoma, which originated in the Northeastern Woodlands, today struggles to preserve the Lenape language of their ancestors, whose last fluent native speaker died in 2002. The tribe's language reclamation efforts are in large part...
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Vol. 10, No. 1, 2011

Minority Consultative Bodies in Kosovo: A Quest for Effective Emancipation or Elusive Participation?
This paper examines the extent to which effective political participation can be achieved through minority consultative bodies, and what obstacles and shortcomings can potentially occur in practice. It explores the Kosovo case, where a variety of minority...
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The Dilemma in the Nation-Building Process: The Kazakh or Kazakhstani Nation?
This article analyses the nation-building strategy that Kazakhstan's government has implemented since independence. It examines why the nation builders have taken the decision to create two nations, the ethnic Kazakh nation and the civic Kazakhstani...
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Tatar Nation Building since 1991: Ethnic Mobilisation in Historical Perspective
This study analyses the process of ethnic mobilization in the Soviet and post-Soviet eras and assesses the way in which history, memory and the treatment of the Volga Tatars by the Soviet state, especially under Lenin and Stalin, affected their long...
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Homogenisation and the 'New Russian Citizen': A Road to Stability or Ethnic Tension?
This article investigates the phenomenon of homogenizing policies in post-Yeltsin Russia. This consists of a series of measures that have effectively downgraded ethnicity and increased uniformity. First, the article outlines theories linking multiculturalism...
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The Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the European Union: Focus on the Neighbourhood and on a European Roma Strategy
This article attempts to offer a concise overview of the main developments relating to the Hungarian presidency, notably in the areas of regional stability and interethnic relations.The first year in office of the new Hungarian government-elected with...
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Vol. 9, No. 2, 2010

Rethinking the Concept of Effective Participation: Are Minorities Similar to Women?
The slogan 'participation of minorities' has long been a powerful concept in the vocabulary of human rights activists. Today it is also embraced by politicians and other actors promoting democratic developments in European societies. Those who propagate...
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A Self-Governing Group or Equal Citizens? Kurds, Turkey and the European Union
This study shows how the theoretical debate between liberal egalitarianism and multiculturalism corresponds to the problem of minorities in Turkey. The differentiated group rights supported by the latter are contrasted with liberal egalitarianism policies...
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Bosnian Elections and Recurring Ethnonationalisms: The Ghost of the Nation State
To an impartial observer, any of the post-Dayton elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina might look like an exercise in conflict between forces of integration and disintegration. Structurally, this is not so different from other patterns of viewing and interpreting...
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Vol. 9, No. 1, 2010

The New European Union: Integration as a Means of Norm Diffusion
Although European shared norms can be identified through the Copenhagen Criteria, few scholars have examined what methods the European Union employs to ensure norm diffusion. This study examines the impact of EU norm diffusion on both member and candidate...
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Civil Society's Role in Peace-Building: Relevance of the Cypriot Case
This article argues that the rationale of the current conflict resolution strategy for resolving the Cyprus problem is problematic. Time and energy should be spent more on peace-building efforts that penetrate into ideas and identities of the Cypriots,...
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Serving the Evolving Communities: Functions of Turkish Diasporic Web Sites in Germany
The central objective of this research is to shed light on the role of the diasporic web sites in terms of fulfilling various needs and expectations of diasporic communities, in which an evolving hybridity in structure has been revealed in recent years....
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Elections in Latvia: Status Quo for Minorities Remains?
This article comments on the results of the recent parliamentary elections in Latvia and related implications for ethnic minorities. The authors examine in detail the pre-election programs, follow the developments before and after the elections, and...
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No. 2, 2009

Human Rights, Anthropology and Securitization: Reclaiming Culture
I. IntroductionIn Raymond Williams's renowned adage, culture is "one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language".1 Within a legal setting,2 the rhetoric on culture goes beyond a purely abstract significance to potentially having...
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"Root Causes": The Inversion of Causes and Consequences in Civil War
IntroductionIt appears as something of a paradox in the social sciences of culture, such as anthropology which is the discipline I represent in these pages, when scholars refuse vehemently to consider the role of culture in causing and sustaining organised,...
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Minority Participation in Public Life: The Case of Greece
AbstractThis article examines Greece's stance towards minorities in the light of the recent UN Report of the Independent Expert on Minority Issues regarding her mission to Greece. The epicentre of the paper is the jurisprudence of the European Court...
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Towards 'Consociationalism Light'? the EU's, the Council of Europe's and the High Commissioner on National Minorities' Policies regarding the Hungarian Minorities in Romania and Slovakia
AbstractThis paper concerns how three organisations, namely the Council of Europe, the European Union and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) including its High Commissioner on National Minorities, have addressed the issue...
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No. 1, 2009

Legalization of Civil Wars: The Legal Institutionalization of Non-International Armed Conflicts
I. INTRODUCTION AND PRESENTATIONThis article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law.1 Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls, however, within the context of the legal term...
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Disaggregated Perspectives on Civil War and Ethnic Conflict: Prospects of an Emerging Research Agenda+
I. INTRODUCTIONAcademic conflict research, deeply rooted in Cold War thinking, has traditionally focused on the causes of war between states, with an analytical focus on the role of military alliances, joint land borders, arms races, nuclear deterrence,...
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A Simple Tool Needed in a Complex Situation: A Development Worker's Perspective on the Use of Vocational Training to Augment the Peace Process in Sudan
We wanted to save more boys but we couldn't. There were 4,000 of them [Darfur boys] waiting as we arrived but we could only take 180. Some tried to sneak on at night as we left Nyala but they were found at the checkpoint. Those that stay will become...
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Challenges to Civil War Research Introduction to the Special Issue on Civil War and Conflicts
From 1945 to 1999, there were roughly 130 civil wars that each killed at least 1,000 people.1 As of 2009, there are still many ongoing civil conflicts, e.g. in Sudan, Pakistan and Iraq. Civil wars and conflicts have been the subject of much research...
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The Breakup of a Composite State and the Construction of a National Conflict: Denmark and the Duchies in the 19th Century
I. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUNDMeiner Gesinnung nach bin ich so gut Schleswiger oder Holsteiner als Däne [...] Wir lebten lange friedlich beisammen, klagten gemeinschaftlich über Druck und schwere Zeiten, aber ohne mißgünstigen Groll; in den späten Jahren...
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No. 2, 2008

Majority or Minority Languages? for a New Discourse on Languages
Enough of discriminatory terminologyThere are majority languages and there are minority languages. This distinction between the two types of language is not only made as if there was evidence to support it, but also as if it was an acceptable and accepted...
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A Plan for the Future? the Estonian State Integration Programme on National Minorities 2000-2007
Events surrounding the replacement of a Soviet bronze statue in spring 2007 in Tallinn and subsequent international tensions between the EU and Russia marked a low point in inter-ethnic relations between Russian-speakers in Estonia and ethnic Estonians...
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Kosovo Declaration of Independence and the International Community - an Assessment by the Kosovo Monitoring Task Force
AbstractThis paper provides an overview of the roles played by international organisations with relation to Kosovo independence in the months prior to the declaration of independence to March 2008, based on data collected by the Kosovo Monitoring Task...
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Making an Even Number Odd: Deadlock-Avoiding in a Reunified Cyprus Supreme Court
AbstractSubstantive talks to re-unify the island of Cyprus re-commenced in September 2008. Sadly, the gulf between the two communities remains wide. The rejected 'Annan Plan' proposed a (federal) Supreme Court that would have included three non-Cypriot...
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No. 1, 2008

The Dynamics of Ethnopolitical Conflict Management by International and Regional Organizations in Europe
I. INTRODUCTIONEthnic tensions and conflicts are prominent political phenomena. For example, several states in Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans and the Caucasus have experienced such tensions and conflicts in recent years. The nature of these...
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Political Participation and Interest Articulation of Roma in Romania
AbstractBy examining processes of political participation and ethnic mobilisation, this article assesses how Roma create organising structures of representation which they use to articulate their shared interests. The utilitarian nature of the democratic...
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Majority-Minority Relations in the Ukraine
AbstractMajority-minority relations in Ukraine, as in any other country, are a complex phenomenon. What differentiates the Ukrainian case from many old polities and from some recently established ones is that the identities of both majority and minority...
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The Stabilization and Association Process: An Engine of European Integration in Need of Tuning
AbstractThe Stabilization and Association process (SAp) was created by the European Union in 1999 as its primary contribution to the Stability Pact for Southeast Europe, thus concluding a development that had started with the Royaumont process and continued...
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