Forced Migration Review

Provides articles on refugee and internal displacement issues.

Articles from No. 33, September

Activism among a New Generation of Palestinian Exiles
Despite their history of protracted and fragmented displacement, we should not mistake Palestinians for vulnerable, powerless and minor actors in their own tragedy.In contrast to most situations of refugee flight, it is not individual persecution or...
Addressing Core Problems
Somalia is a country where problems seem to outnumber solutions. At least half the country is experiencing a food and livelihoods crisis, blurring the distinction between needy settlements of IDPs and the flourishing city where they are located. There...
A Missing Element of 'Camp Management'
Collective centres are often overlooked as a settlement option for IDPs in displacement crises.Camp management has developed as a key concern within the humanitarian community as part of the humanitarian reform agenda, alongside the more traditional...
A Regime at a Loss?
"Protracted situations cannot and should not be allowed to fester."So stated UN High Commissioner for Refugees Antonio Guterres in closing the Dialogue on Protracted Refugee Situations (PRS) in 2008. The Dialogue itself focused on a number of existing...
Burundi: Seven Years of Refugee Return
Before UNHCR started its facilitated return programme in spring 2002 Burundi ranked second (after Afghanistan) in UNHCR's global 'country of origin' statistics, despite its small size. With the return of half a million refugees and the majority of the...
Community Resilience in Rural East Timor
East Timor's tumultuous history of colonisation (and military occupation has been accompanied by waves of displacement and relocation of communities. Many of those forcibly relocated have had to adopt a variety of strategies to secure a viable existence...
Comprehensive Solutions: A 'Whole-of-Government' Approach
In response to the complex nature of protracted refugee situations, the Government of Canada is developing a 'whole-of-government' approach built on its specific areas of expertise and policy priorities.The issues surrounding refugees and forced displacement...
Confidence-Building Measures in Western Sahara
Despite the fact that a long-term solution to the extended displacement of Sahrawi refugees still seems far off, there is at least now an opportunity for some Sahrawi families to be briefly reunited.As Spain was preparing to relinquish control and withdraw...
Crisis and Displacement in Somalia
Can displacement shocks offer opportunities to change the parameters of response to protracted refugee situations?Somalia epitomises for many a situation of constant crisis, a 'black hole' of death and disaster undergoing a process of 'development in...
Darfur: A Way of Life Lost
The impact of displacement on Darfuris is especially severe because of the genocidal nature of the violence. It not only affects those millions who are currently displaced but will continue to shape the lives of Darfuris for generations to come.Compared...
Daring to Dream of an End to Exile in Sub-Saharan Africa
Almost 98% of the refugees in Africa today could be considered as in protracted refugee situations. We need concerted efforts to draw as many as possible to a close.People from eight nations are represented among the 2.3 million refugees in sub-Saharan...
Displacement, Decentralisation and Reparation in Post-Conflict Peru
More effective planning and investment are needed in Peru in order to meet the needs of the country's long-term IDPs and to foster sustainable economic development.Since the end of its internal conflict in 2000, Peru has integrated humanitarian statutes...
Displacement Shock and Recovery in Cyprus
Long-term study of displaced Cypriots suggests that most have transcended the shock of displacement.In 1974, following nearly twenty years of intermittent violence between Greek and Turkish Cypriot nationalist militias and an attempted coup d'état by...
Doubly Forgotten
The plight of over four million people displaced by the conflict in Colombia fits into the definition of a protracted situation regarding numbers, duration, chronic character and lack of adequate response by local governments and the international community....
Durable Solutions for Burundian Refugees in Tanzania
The comprehensive solution currently underway for the so-called '1972 Burundian refugees' in Tanzania can offer important lessons for other protracted refugee situations.The first major wave of mass displacement in Burundi's recent history followed the...
Europe's IDPs Still Marginalised
To bring an end to displacement for some 2.5 million IDPs in Europe, governments' focus on return must be broadened to include support and assistance for local integration and settlement elsewhere in the country.As those IDPs able to do so have returned...
From the Editors
Some two-thirds of displaced people in the world today are not in classic emergency situations but are trapped in protracted displacement - situations characterised by long periods of exile and separation from home. When people remain displaced for a...
Hope and Opportunities for Young People
Displaced youth urgently need education and training in marketable skills so that they can be participants and leaders in the rebuilding of their communities.While in theory displacement is meant to be short term, in reality that is rarely the case and...
IDP Health in Colombia: Needs and Challenges
Providers of reproductive health care to displaced communities in Colombia need to plan not only for the immediate needs of IDPs but also for their longer-term needs.Situations of protracted displacement require a shift in mindset from immediate, crisis-based...
Importance of Access to Financial Services
When there is no clear end to displacement in sight, there is a great need to support both short- and long-term coping mechanisms which promote self-sufficiency.Improved access to financial services may be an effective household coping strategy in situations...
Internal Displacement and Peace Mediation
The need to protect the rights of persons displaced by conflict and find durable solutions to their displacement is inextricably linked to achieving a viable, sustainable peace.No realistic plan for peace and reconciliation should ignore the rights and...
Listening to the Experiences of the Long-Term Displaced
This article offers insights from people who have lived in protracted displacement situations, based on evidence gathered by the Listening Project.The Listening Project stems from the belief that those who work across borders in humanitarian aid, development...
Local Integration for Refugees in Serbia
By paying particular attention to the promotion of livelihoods and self-reliance, UNHCR hopes to be able to phase out the long-standing assistance programme.The situation of Bosnian and Croatian refugees in Serbia was one of five identified for support...
Local Integration in West Africa
The ECOWAS Free Movement Protocols provide a basis for long-term refugees from Sierra Leone and Liberia to move on.Ordinarily, migration is not a 'solution' in the sense used by UNHCR. It is more often a temporary measure resorted to in order to overcome...
Peacebuilding in Displacement
Despite their knowledge and experience, and their vested interest in resolving conflicts in their countries, refugees are not yet being fully engaged as peace advocates.Opportunities to tap the potential contribution of refugees as key stakeholders in...
Protecting Housing Rights for IDPs in Sri Lanka
The return and relocation of IDPs in the East of Sri Lanka offer lessons on the critical issues that must be addressed if the housing rights of IDPs in the North are to be respected.It is estimated that there are over 600,000 IDPs in Sri Lanka, of whom...
Protracted Muslim Displacement in Sri Lanka
In order for the protracted displacement of the IDPs in Puttalam to end, the government and humanitarian community will have to prioritise this group.Despite having few prospects of returning home or finding other durable solutions, people living in...
Refugee Resources: Sri Lankan Tamils in India
A Sri Lankan refugee community provides spontaneous and sustained assistance to its Indian host community in their hour of need.The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused devastation in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, with over 6,000 people and thousands...
Refugees and Mobility
The way that mobility is dealt with in respect of protracted refugee situations shows a gap between social practices and international policies.Asylum and migration are currently considered as separate policy areas. Refugees are seen as lacking agency,...
Refugees: Asset or Burden?
Studying the impact that a refugee population has on its host country's economy is important when assessing and developing government refugee strategies, particularly in protracted refugee situations.Between 1993 and 2000, Tanzania was host to almost...
Repatriation to Afghanistan: Durable Solution or Responsibility Shifting?
Despite the return of almost five million Afghan refugees to Afghanistan since 2002, about three million still remain abroad. What are their prospects of return? More to the point, what is the prospect of those who have returned remaining in Afghanistan?UNHCR...
Riding on the Back of a Tortoise
An Ethiopian community responds to protracted displacement.My name is Abebe Feyissa Demo and I was born in Addis Ababa in 1960. Before I had to leave my homeland, I was studying in the University of Addis Ababa's Department of Psychology. In 1991 1 fled...
Rights and Responsibilities in Darfur
A combined UN-military-police-humanitarian initiative has been promoting civic rights and responsibilities among IDPs in order to increase security throughout Kalma camp and its surroundings.Kalma camp was established in early 2004 as a place of refuge...
South Africa's Smugglers' Borderland
The construction of an imaginary borderland is key to smuggling along the South Africa/Zimbabwe border.A research project1 on the human smuggling industry and its effects on would-be asylum seekers revealed that of those asylum seekers who crossed a...
Sri Lanka: A Question of Rights
The Sri Lankan government's current policy of indefinitely interning IDPs is in violation of their human rights.The Sri Lankan government is currently holding around 270,000 IDPs in what are in effect internment camps in the north of the country. The...
Sudanese Refugee Youth 'Gangs' in Cairo
Belonging to a gang is a rejection of given notions of refugee life in Cairo as well as an alternative outlet for expression.Youth violence emerged from Cairo's Sudanese refugee community in 2005 in the form of self-declared gangs, which reshaped existing...
Towards a Humanitarian Climate Change Agreement
In Copenhagen in December 2009 states are expected to arrive at an 'agreed outcome' on climate change action.As long ago as 1990, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) wrote that the gravest effects of climate change may be those on human...
Understanding the Challenge
The likelihood that those in protracted exile may spend significant amounts of time either in camp-like situations or unprotected in urban settings often has negative implications for their human rights and livelihoods as well as for states' security.International...
Unfinished Business: IDPs in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Fourteen years after the war's end, renewed national and international efforts are needed to complete the work of securing durable solutions for IDPs.In Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), UNHCR broke new ground in the early 1990s by broadening its role with...
Use of Housing Vouchers in Georgia
The use of Housing Purchase Vouchers offers IDPs durable housing and community integration, while allowing them an opportunity to choose their own homes and their own durable solution.There are still hundreds of thousands of refugees and IDPs displaced...
When 'Temporary' Lasts Too Long
Though intended as temporary places of shelter, collective centres often become a place where IDPs or refugees stay for years, even decades.Commonly characterised as "overcrowded", "congested", "dilapidated", "deplorable", "degraded", even "extremely...
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