Forced Migration Review

Provides articles on refugee and internal displacement issues.

Articles from No. 41, December

Are Refugees an Economic Burden or Benefit?
The notion of the 'refugee burden' has become firmly rooted in the policy vocabulary of governments and humanitarian actors. Understandably, governments emphasise the negative impacts and costs but these, although undeniable and well documented, are...
Attempts to Prevent Displacement in the Occupied Palestinian Territories
Prevention has become a strategy increasingly adopted by the humanitarian community in addressing forced displacement in the occupied Palestinian territories, as well as responding to immediate emergency needs for families displaced or at risk of displacement.While...
Businesses' Human Rights Responsibilities
There is no international human rights law standard that expressly prohibits businesses' arbitrary displacement of persons. Businesses do, however, have the responsibility to avoid infringements of human rights that could lead to displacement and also...
Challenging RSD Clients' Preferences for Foreign Service Providers
Organisations that provide legal services to refugees and asylum seekers face the challenge of responding ethically to clients' requests to be assisted by foreigners as opposed to by nationals in country offices.NGOs that provide support in the Global...
Driving Displacement: Explosive Weapons in Populated Areas
Forced displacement has many drivers but one of increasing concern is the use of explosive weapons in densely populated areas. Whether in Gaza during Operation Cast Lead in December 2008 to January 2009, during the final gruelling stages of the conflict...
East African Refugees Adapting to Life in the UK
This article reflects on the first-hand life experiences of refugees of East/Horn of Africa origin on arrival in the UK. The experiences - some of which could be seen as humorous or sad - may be informative and relevant for other practitioners.In recent...
Education as an Essential Component of Prevention of Youth Re-Displacement
Given that education is seen as a factor that keeps refugees in camps or host communities rather than encouraging them to go back home, it is ironic that it is not systematically included as part of return. Our experience in Burundi is that access to...
Flooding in Thailand: Flee, Fight or Float
The severity of recent flooding in Thailand and the probability of future flooding have triggered a re-assessment of coping mechanisms employed by both the Thai population and the government.Flooding has not always been a cause for human displacement...
From a Lab in Luxembourg to Satellites in South Sudan
A new communications platform for use in humanitarian emergencies made its debut in January 2012 in South Sudan, and is now being deployed elsewhere. Emergency.lu aims to be a global inter-agency tool.The demands placed on the humanitarian community...
From the Editors
Preventing displacement is obviously a worthwhile objective. Being displaced puts people at a higher risk of being both impoverished and unable to enjoy their human rights. Such a situation is worth preventing - but not at any cost.People know that displacement...
From the Nansen Principles to the Nansen Initiative
The Nansen Initiative launched in October 2012 aims to build consensus among states about how best to address cross-border displacement in the context of sudden- and slow-onset disasters.Among humanitarians and students of international law, Fridtjof...
Lessons from Mobilisation around Slum Evictions in Tanzania
Forced evictions are a prominent challenge facing developing world communities, and a major driver of forced migration. A study of forced urban eviction in Tanzania shows that grassroots mobilisation alone may be unable to confront the challenges of...
Making Work Safe for Displaced Women
Displaced women need opportunities to make a living for themselves and their families but these opportunities should not increase their vulnerability. Understanding risk factors and protection strategies allows practitioners to ensure appropriate programme...
Natural Disasters and Indigenous Displacement in Bolivia
In Bolivia not only have recent natural disasters been the worst ever but structural patterns related to the rural agricultural sector and climate change have combined to make climate-related displacement significant. The three most affected areas are...
News from the Refugee Studies Centre
More than just an annual report...The RSC's latest annual report (for 2011-12) not only provides a round-up of the RSC's activities but also includes several short articles by RSC researchers on: deportation, by Dr Matthew J Gibney; the mobility of Roma...
North Koreans in China in Need of International Protection
In the face of continuing persecution of North Koreans who are forcibly returned to their country of origin by China, the international community needs to reconsider how it might better work towards securing protection for North Koreans. Some may be...
Overseas Cultural Orientation Programmes and Resettled Refugees' Perceptions
Despite widespread participation in cultural orientation programmes, resettled refugees often have misconceptions about their potential for self-sufficiency in the United States, and experience adjustment problems after their arrival. Making changes...
Post-Conflict Land Insecurity Threatens Re-Displacement in Northern Uganda
For many in northern Uganda, access to land and property remains an unresolved issue that threatens peace and sustainable returns.Peace negotiations between the Government of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) ushered in relative peace in northern...
Predicting Disasters and Protecting Rights
In order to prevent or reduce disaster-related displacement, we need to address some clear gaps in both knowledge and capacity by improving research on and awareness of disaster risks and associated human rights, and the capacity to address them.Disaster-related...
Preventing Displacement
The figures speak for themselves. As of December 2011, more than 26 million people were internally displaced, forced from their homes by armed conflict and insecurity, while millions more had sought refuge abroad. In addition, an estimated 15 million...
Preventing Re-Displacement through Genuine Reintegration in Burundi
Displacement is often part of a cyclical process of conflict and displacement. Preventing displacement, therefore, is not only about preventing new displacement but about ensuring that people do not get re-displaced.As soon as a conflict is resolved...
Property Restitution in Colombia
Fragility of land tenure and property rights has both caused and exacerbated displacement in Colombia. In response, the government has established a legal framework to address the problem and, ultimately, to prevent further displacement. The rebuilding...
Recognising the Land Rights of Indigenous Peoples and Rural Communities
Current global trends are putting increasing economic pressure on land and natural resources, raising the risk that new waves of internal displacement may be caused by the combined forces of climate change and large-scale investment in agriculture.When...
Shelter Interventions Prevent and Mitigate Displacement
In hazard-prone developing countries, shelter interventions are an important way to prevent or mitigate natural disaster-induced displacement. To be effective, however, they need to be multi-faceted and carried out with the involvement of the communities...
The Conveniently Forgotten Human Rights of the Rohingya
As stateless Rohingya in Burma face containment in IDP camps and within their homes and communities in what is effectively segregation, their human rights are on the whole being ignored by countries keen either to support reform in Burma or to return...
The History and Status of the Right Not to Be Displaced
The many existing fragments of law relating to arbitrary displacement have a common thread running through them, revealing a human right not to be displaced. The existence of such a right might seem obvious but it has not yet been recognised in any international...
The ICRC Approach in Situations of Pre-Displacement
The International Committee of the Red Cross prioritises the need to prevent displacement-triggering events when possible. Their experience from around the world of working in this 'pre-displacement' phase - preventing violations of international humanitarian...
The Management of Climate Displacement
Many of those who have fought against displacement now find themselves being advocates for resettlement and relocation. Knowing that displacements will occur as a result of climate change, the humanitarian community will need to work pre-emptively with...
The Role of Women Defenders of Human Rights in Colombia
Women in Colombia are increasingly being attacked because of their efforts to defend human rights and to bring an end to the conflict and displacement in their country.Violence against women defenders of human rights is rarely recognised for what it...
The 'Tool Box' at States' Disposal to Prevent Displacement: A Swiss Perspective
A harmful action that is looming and has not yet taken place is difficult for third-party states to denounce or counter. Nevertheless, a whole range of measures and methodologies is at their disposal enabling them to contribute to the prevention of forced...
The UN Security Council and Prevention of Displacement
Respecting the prohibitions against forced and arbitrary displacement could significantly reduce the risk of, or prevent, displacement in situations of armed conflict, as could insisting on accountability for violations of these prohibitions that amount...
To Prevent or Pursue Displacement?
The repertoire of survival actions of at-risk civilians includes both avoiding and attempting displacement. But there are also overlaps, combinations and tacking back and forth between the two, while trying to mitigate the risks that any choice entails.The...
Towards a Uniform Legal System of Protection
There exists a set of inter-related normative texts for the protection of the environment and for the prevention and reduction of disasters, as well as for ensuring respect for human rights in all circumstances. Taken together these standards constitute...
Undermining Development: Forced Eviction in Bangladesh
Development projects remain one of the primary causes of displacement worldwide. Evictions are commonly involuntary. The case of a proposed coalmine in Bangladesh clearly illustrates the potential for human rights violations in such projects, the need...
Voluntariness to Remain
In the context of prevention of further displacement or re-displacement (specifically, preventing returnee refugees becoming refugees again), two elements are particularly important: post-repatriation activities in the return destination countries to...

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