Forced Migration Review

Provides articles on refugee and internal displacement issues.

Articles from No. 52, May

An Age-Sensitive Approach to Durable Solutions
There are few interventions catering to the needs of the displaced elderly, and their situations in conflicts and disasters are seldom documented. The invisibility of the displaced elderly within data and subsequent programming reflects the limited profiling...
A New Approach to Old Problems: The Solutions Alliance
The question of how to engage the development sector - actors, ideas and resources - in responses to refugee and IDP situations is not new. There is already a history of initiatives aiming to overcome the humanitarian-development divide in order to empower...
A Perspective from the World Bank
The World Bank's value added is not in identifying and addressing the protection or short-term humanitarian needs of displaced persons, a focus which is well served by other agencies. Instead, as a development institution, the World Bank's lens is focused...
A Role for Market Analysis
Host governments and communities are often concerned with the impact refugees will have on their economy. One idea for addressing this concern is to guide response - from the moment of refugees' arrival - in a way that capitalises on refugees' economic...
Assisted Voluntary Return: Implications for Women and Children
Assisted Voluntary Return (AVR) programmes are schemes to assist asylum seekers to return to their countries of origin. The programmes normally help refugees by arranging their travel and providing them with some financial support for establishing a...
Causes and Consequences of Canada's Resettlement of Syrian Refugees
Canada's pledge in late 2015 to accept 25,000 Syrian refugees for resettlement came at a time when certain other countries were considering measures such as confiscating assets of refugees, registering Muslim refugees entering their country or closing...
Communication of Information on the Thai-Burma Border
Roughly 110,000 camp residents - mostly ethnic Karen - live in nine camps on the Thai-Burma border, where humanitarian programmes now focus on preparedness for return. The general consensus among the humanitarian community is that conditions in Burma...
Conceptual Challenges and Practical Solutions in Situations of Internal Displacement
As of January 2015 there were an estimated 38 million persons internally displaced by conflict and another 19.3 million displaced by disasters in 2014 alone.1 The parameters of internal displacement - from its causes to its solutions - are broadly clear...
Development Cooperation and Addressing 'Root Causes'
Following the significant increase in the number of refugees entering Europe, calls to address the 'root causes' of displacement through development cooperation have become louder across the European Union (EU), and several EU member states have dedicated...
Displacement and Development Solutions in Tanzania
Tanzania's refugee integration could serve as a blueprint for expanding the framework of durable solutions globally. In 2007, Tanzania developed a Comprehensive Solutions Strategy in coordination with UNHCR (the UN Refugee Agency) to create a lasting...
Doing Business in Ecuador
Esmeraldas, one of Ecuador's least developed provinces, has seen the arrival of over 6,000 refugees and 18,000 asylum seekers in the past ten years, mostly from the Pacific Coast of Colombia. Their considerable humanitarian needs have only increased...
Energy Solutions with Both Humanitarian and Development Pay-Offs
Energy services are essential to the most basic human needs. Whether for eating (fuel to cook), moving (fuel for transportation of people and goods), maintaining a liveable temperature (heating or cooling), education (light to read by) or earning a living...
Family Allowance Extended to Refugees in Brazil
The Brazilian government has extended an allowance, which was created to assist poor Brazilian families, to refugees. The family allowance (Bolsa Família) consists of a small cash transfer programme granted to poor families. Established in 2004,1 it...
Forced Displacement: A Development Issue with Humanitarian Elements
There are currently an estimated 60 million refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the world. The related social, economic and fiscal challenges are further amplified if one also takes affected host and return populations into account. In...
Forgotten People: Former Liberian Refugees in Ghana
Although exile can be interminably protracted, refugee status is not granted permanently. According to the 1951 Refugee Convention, when the circumstances under which people were recognised as refugees no longer exist (the premise of 'ceased circumstances'),...
From the Editors
Our belief in the need for and the efficacy of humanitarian action is partly based on its actual effectiveness over the years in addressing the needs of, among others, forced migrants. But this belief is tempered by the obvious and manifold failures...
Gendered Limits to the Returnee Village Programme in Burundi
Following conflict in 1972, and then a decadelong civil war beginning in the 1990s, over a million Burundians sought refuge in neighbouring countries, predominantly Tanzania. After the signing of peace accords in 2000, subsequent ceasefires and changing...
Humanitarian Action and the Transformation of Gender Relations
When the Women and Girls Oasis Centre opened in Za'atari refugee camp in Jordan in late 2012, it was a dusty, barren plot, surrounded by prefabricated trailers and a fence. By the end of 2014, the Oasis compound was filled with colourful murals, hanging...
Imprisonment and Deportation of Iraqi Refugees in Lebanon
The lack of legal status for Iraqi refugees in Lebanon has a variety of unwelcome consequences. For example, if they find themselves exploited or abused - by employers or landlords - they are unable to approach the legal authorities to file a complaint....
Labour Mobility as Part of the Solution
Syrian refugees have very limited options for supporting themselves. Resettlement in other countries is only available for a very small percentage of the most vulnerable refugees and there appear to be no options either for long-term integration in the...
Limitations of Development-Oriented Assistance in Uganda
The idea of linking refugee protection and assistance programmes with development aid is far from a new idea, with its potential as a win-win situation for donors and asylum states and, in theory at least, for refugees as well. As long ago as the 1960s,...
Naturalisation of Burundian Refugees in Tanzania
In 2007 the Tanzanian government, in partnership with the Burundian government and UNHCR (the UN Refugee Agency), adopted the Tanzania Comprehensive Solutions Strategy (TANCOSS) which outlined a plan for durable solutions for the Burundian refugees who...
New Aid Architecture and Resilience Building around the Syria Crisis
As middle-income countries, Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey and Egypt to a large extent, and Iraq and Syria to a lesser extent, saw declining official financing flows supporting their development in the years preceding the current Syrian crisis. In middle-income...
Palestinian Professionals in Lebanon: An Exception
Palestine refugees in Lebanon, being classified as foreigners or migrants, suffer restrictions on their employment. Generally, non-Lebanese nationals who want to work in the professions in Lebanon can do so under the 'principle of reciprocity' between...
Pathway to Peaceful Resolution in Myanmar's Rakhine State
In 2012 communal violence erupted between Rakhine State's Muslim and Buddhist populations. The Muslims - known as 'Rohingya' - bore the worst of the conflict and continue to bear the brunt of the consequences. The ensuing 'solution' has involved actively...
Peace in Colombia and Solutions for Its Displaced People
Since 2012, the Colombian government has been engaged in peace talks with the country's largest guerrilla group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), amidst an armed conflict that has dragged on for over 50 years and has displaced more...
Potential of Protection Capacity Building to Assist Transition
UNHCR (the UN Refugee Agency) frequently seeks to develop protection capacity of refugee-hosting states, for example through creating or adapting national legal frameworks; assistance in registration and status determination; knowledge transfer in government...
Psychosocial Age Assessments in the UK
Age assessment is a process for determining the age of unaccompanied young people without documents (or who have not shared their documents) in countries where they are seeking refuge. As the European refugee 'crisis' continues, more unaccompanied children...
Reflecting on Liberia and Sierra Leone
Not too long ago, Liberia and Sierra Leone experienced extreme violence with both of them teetering on the brink of being failed states. Today they are on the mend, albeit struggling. What happened in their case and how were their fortunes turned around?Governments...
Refugee-Run Organisations as Partners in Development
In Kampala, Uganda, refugee-run organisations host activities which aim to foster refugee self-reliance and - with their focus on language and skills training - to actively contribute to local integration and development efforts. These organisations...
Repatriation and Solutions in Stabilisation Contexts
Primacy is normally given to voluntary repatriation as the preferred durable solution for refugees. This is for reasons that are dictated partly by the socio-political context generally surrounding refugee crises, and partly by the explicit obligation...
Responding to LGBT Forced Migration in East Africa
Over the past decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) Ugandans have sought safety and asylum in various countries but never in such numbers or with such a high degree of visibility as following the passage of Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality...
Somalia-Yemen Links: Refugees and Returnees
Many of the hundreds of thousands of Somali refugees to whom Yemen offered prima facie refugee status over the decades are having to return as a result of the fighting in Yemen. Meanwhile, uprooted Yemeni populations have been crossing the Gulf of Aden...
Sweden's U-Turn on Asylum
Sweden has long been one of the main destination countries within the European Union (EU) for people seeking protection, and almost 163,000 people - mainly from Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq - applied for asylum in Sweden in 2015. The country's good reputation...
Telling It like It Is
A central element in the search to better understand and find durable solutions for displacement - and one that regularly eludes us - is how those directly affected by displacement can best contribute towards this process. Often lost in the search for...
The Contribution of the Private Sector to Solutions for Displacement
Over recent years businesses with a social conscience have increasingly been moving from pure philanthropy and promotion of responsible business practices to business partnership models. This means the role of businesses has expanded from being donors...
The Legal Status of Iraqi Refugees in Neighbouring Countries
UNHCR (the UN Refugee Agency) estimates that approximately 4.5 million Iraqis - one sixth of Iraq's population - have been displaced. Nearly four million are internally displaced, and most of the rest are living in countries in the region, such as Lebanon,...
The Reality of Transitions
There is a well-known litany of reasons for obstacles to the engagement of development stakeholders in forced displacement and protracted situations. While factors such as differing mandates, institutional arrangements, funding instruments and programming...
The Weakness of Resettlement Safeguards in Mining
Studies of displacement and resettlement associated with mining operations continue to demonstrate consistently high levels of impoverishment among displaced people,1 and that knowledge-building and management practices within the mining industry to...
Transitional Policies and Durable Solutions for Displaced Kashmiri Pandits
The lives of those displaced by a conflict are greatly affected by the initial policies formulated to address the crisis as it unfolds. In addition to the challenge of 'starting over', groups displaced by conflict continue to be marginalised by members...
Transitional Solutions for the Displaced in the Horn of Africa
If the search for durable solutions could be disengaged from the migration agenda, rather than focusing on movement itself and its causes, it could highlight some of the economic, political and social benefits of durable solutions for countries of asylum...
Uganda's Approach to Refugee Self-Reliance
Headlines and hashtags speak of the refugee 'crisis' as if the mere presence of people from another country poses a threat. Even among humanitarians, refugees are often understood as a 'burden' to be shared. This rhetoric obscures the reality that refugees'...
We Have, I Believe, Won Acceptance for the Argument
I should like to return for a moment to the question of Africa, and to the comment I made at the beginning of my statement when I mentioned the close relationship between the High Commissioner's work and development. [...] agricultural resettlement is...
What's Going on in Nigeria?
When one thinks of Nigeria lots of things come to mind: energy, money and, increasingly, Boko Haram. The group has existed in the country's north-east for years but gained international prominence on the night of 14-15th April 2014 when over 200 girls...
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