Heritage Science

Heritage Science publishes articles on the use of science to further understanding of historical and cultural artifacts.


Vol. 3, October 27

Damage Function for Historic Paper. Part I: Fitness for Use
Authors: Matija Strli? (corresponding author) [1]; Carlota M. Grossi [1]; Catherine Dillon [1]; Nancy Bell [2]; Kalliopi Fouseki [1]; Peter Brimblecombe [3]; Eva Menart [1]; Kostas Ntanos [2]; William Lindsay [2]; David Thickett [4]; Fenella France [5];...
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Vol. 3, October 1

Development of a Novel Conservation Treatment of Stone Monuments with Bioactive Nanocomposites
Authors: Inez Doroth? van der Werf (corresponding author) [1]; Nicoletta Ditaranto (corresponding author) [1,2]; Rosaria Anna Picca [1]; Maria Chiara Sportelli [1]; Luigia Sabbatini [1,2] Background Biodeterioration represents one of the major degradation...
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Vol. 3, September 30

Micro-Raman Spectral Identification of Manganese Oxides Black Pigments in an Archaeological Context in Northern Chile
Authors: Marcela Sep?lveda (equal contributor) [1]; Sebasti?n Guti?rrez [2]; Marcelo Campos Vallette (equal contributor) [3]; Vivien G. Standen [4]; Bernardo T. Arriaza [1]; Jos? J. C?rcamo-Vega (corresponding author) [2] Background Manganese (Mn) is...
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Vol. 3, September 22

Innovative Tools and Modeling Methodology for Impact Prediction and Assessment of the Contribution of Materials on Indoor Air Quality
Authors: V Desauziers (corresponding author) [1]; D Bourdin [1,2]; P Mocho [3]; H Plaisance [1] Background The impact of building and decoration materials on indoor air quality (IAQ) is now well known and recognized [1], [2]. For many Volatile Organic...
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Vol. 3, September 1

Convento Di San Francesco a Folloni: The Function of a Medieval Franciscan Friary Seen through the Burials
Authors: Marielva Torino [1]; Jesper L Boldsen [2]; Peter Tarp [2]; Kaare Lund Rasmussen (corresponding author) [3]; Lilian Skytte [3]; Lisbeth Nielsen [3]; Simone Schiavone [4]; Filippo Terrasi [5,6,7]; Isabella Passariello [5,6]; Paola Ricci [8]; Carmine...
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Vol. 3, August 12

The Sulfidation Process of Sterling Silver in Different Corrosive Environments: Impact of the Process on the Surface Films Formed and Consequences for the Conservation-Restoration Community
Authors: Patrick Storme (corresponding author) [1]; Olivier Schalm [1]; Rita Wiesinger [2] Background Many historic silver objects are not made of pure silver but rather of silver alloyed with small but variable amounts of copper. For example, a typical...
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Vol. 3, August 3

Poly(vinylalcohol)-Borate Hydrogels with Improved Features for the Cleaning of Cultural Heritage Surfaces
Authors: Chiara Riedo (corresponding author) [1]; Fabrizio Caldera [1]; Tommaso Poli [1]; Oscar Chiantore (corresponding author) [1] Background Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is an attractive polymer because of its many characteristics making it suitable...
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Vol. 3, July 13

Potash-Lime-Silica Glass: Protection from Weathering
Authors: Monica De Bardi [1,2]; Herbert Hutter [1]; Manfred Schreiner (corresponding author) [1,2]; Renzo Bertoncello [3] Background Glass was widely used to embellish churches and cathedrals with colourful window panels but it is often subjected to...
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Vol. 3, June 24

Non-Destructive in Situ Spectroscopic Analysis of Greenstone Objects from Royal Burial Offerings of the Mayan Site of Palenque, Mexico
Authors: Alma A. Delgado Robles [1]; Jose Luis Ruvalcaba Sil (corresponding author) [1]; Pieterjan Claes [1]; Mayra D. Manrique Ortega [1]; Edgar Casanova Gonz?lez [1,2]; Miguel ?ngel Maynez Rojas [1]; Martha Cuevas Garc?a [3]; Sabrina Garc?a Castillo...
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Vol. 3, June 16

Identification of Carbon-Based Black Pigments in Four South American Polychrome Wooden Sculptures by Raman Microscopy
Authors: Eugenia P Tomasini [1,5]; Blanca G?mez [1]; Emilia B Halac [2,3]; Mar?a Reinoso [2,3,5]; Emiliano J Di Liscia [2]; Gabriela Siracusano [4,5]; Marta S Maier (corresponding author) [1,5] Background Carbon-based pigments are a group of dark-colored...
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Vol. 3, June 3

Vibrational Spectroscopy for the Study of Chilean Cultural Heritage
Authors: Marcelo M Vallette Campos (corresponding author) (equal contributor) [1]; Tom?s Alvarado Aguayo (equal contributor) [1] Background Techniques that involve micro-sampling or non-destructive are important aspects to consider when dealing with...
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Vol. 3, May 25

Marine Organisms as Source of Bioactive Molecules Applied in Restoration Projects
Authors: Giovanna Barresi [1]; Enza Di Carlo [1]; Maria Rosa Trapani [1]; Maria Giovanna Parisi [2]; Chiara Chille [1]; Maria Francesca Mule [1]; Matteo Cammarata [2]; Franco Palla (corresponding author) [1] Findings Great progress has recently been...
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Vol. 3, May 11

An Investigation of the Lead Tin Yellows Type I and II and Their Use in Bohemian Panel Paintings from the Gothic Period
Authors: Radka ?efc? [1]; ?t?p?nka Chlumsk? [1]; Alena Hosta?ov? (corresponding author) [1] Introduction In the presented article we would like to introduce the results of our survey focused on the painting techniques used during the High and Late Gothic...
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Vol. 3, May 1

XEOM 1 - A Novel Microscopy System for the Chemical Imaging of Heritage Metal Surfaces
Authors: Mark Dowsett (corresponding author) (equal contributor) [1]; Matt Hand [2]; Pieter-Jan Sabbe (equal contributor) [3]; Paul Thompson (equal contributor) [4]; Annemie Adriaens (equal contributor) [3] Background One effect of the bombardment of...
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Vol. 3, April 16

Technological Study of the Gilded Haft-Rang Tiles of the Imamzadih Ismail Mausoleum in Qazvin, Iran
Authors: Moslem Mishmastnehi (corresponding author) [1]; Parviz Holakooei [2] Background The use of gold leaf on silica-based substrates may be dated back to the Roman period [1]. In the Islamic era, however, gilding on glassy substrates appears first...
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Vol. 3, April 15

Identification of Artificial Orpiment in the Interior Decorations of the Japanese Tower in Laeken, Brussels, Belgium
Authors: Marc Vermeulen (corresponding author) [1]; Jana Sanyova [1]; Koen Janssens [2] Introduction and historical context In characterization studies of arsenic sulfide pigments, there is a high probability that conclusions regarding the exact nature...
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Petro-Archaeometric Characterization of Potteries from a Kiln in Adrano, Sicily
Authors: Erica Aquilia (equal contributor) [1]; Germana Barone (equal contributor) [1]; Paolo Mazzoleni (equal contributor) [1]; Simona Raneri (corresponding author) (equal contributor) [1]; Gioconda Lamagna (equal contributor) [2] Background The formation...
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Vol. 3, April 1

Study of Stability of Brown-Gray Inks on Paper Support
Authors: Milena Reh?kov? (corresponding author) [1]; Michal ?eppan (equal contributor) [1]; Katar?na Viz?rov? (equal contributor) [1]; Andr?s Peller (equal contributor) [2]; Danica Stojkovi?ov? (equal contributor) [3]; Monika Hrickov? (equal contributor)...
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Vol. 3, March 25

Archaeological and Archaeometric Study of the Glass Finds from the Ancient Harbour of Classe (Ravenna- Italy): New Evidence
Authors: Sarah Maltoni (corresponding author) [1]; Tania Chinni [2]; Mariangela Vandini [3]; Enrico Cirelli [2]; Alberta Silvestri [4]; Gianmario Molin [1] Introduction The present study is part of a wider research project about glass production, trade...
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Vol. 3, March 13

Analysis of Natural Dyes and Metal Threads Used in 16.Sup.Th.Sup. -18.Sup.Th.Sup. Century Persian/Safavid and Indian/Mughal Velvets by HPLC-PDA and SEM-EDS to Investigate the System to Differentiate Velvets of These Two Cultures
Authors: Nobuko Shibayama (corresponding author) [1]; Mark Wypyski [1]; Elisa Gagliardi-Mangilli [2] Background/Introduction Textile productions such as velvets, printed and painted textiles, brocade, carpets and shawls from Safavid/Persian culture and...
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Vol. 3, March 2

Innovative Consolidating Products for Stone Materials: Field Exposure Tests as a Valid Approach for Assessing Durability
Authors: Irene Natali (corresponding author) [1]; Patrizia Tomasin [3]; Francesca Becherini [2]; Adriana Bernardi [2]; Chiara Ciantelli [1]; Monica Favaro [3]; Orlando Favoni [4]; Vicente J Forrat P?rez [5]; Iulian D Olteanu [6]; Maria Dolores Romero...
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Vol. 3, February 26

Thermographic Inspection of Cracks in the Mixed Materials Statue: Ratto Delle Sabine
Authors: Maria C Di Tuccio (corresponding author) (equal contributor) [1,2]; Nicola Ludwig (equal contributor) [1]; Marco Gargano (equal contributor) [1]; Adriana Bernardi (equal contributor) [2] Introduction In order to preserve the ?Ratto delle Sabine?...
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Vol. 3, February 19

Black Earths from Veneto and Piedmont (Northern Italy): Origin, Composition and Potential Use in Different Painting Techniques
Authors: Giovanni Cavallo (corresponding author) [1,2]; Karin Gianoli Barioni [3] Introduction ?Black earth? is a term that designates a large variety of black pigments including inorganic and organic compounds, such as mineral black (graphite), (black)...
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Vol. 3, February 3

X-Ray Tomography of a Soil Block: A Useful Tool for the Restoration of Archaeological Finds
Authors: Alessandro Re (corresponding author) [1,2]; Jacopo Corsi [1,2]; Marco Demmelbauer [3,4]; Margherita Martini [1]; Giorgia Mila [1,2]; Chiara Ricci [3] Introduction X-ray imaging provided important contributions to archaeology, especially in the...
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Vol. 3, January 21

Thin-Sections of Painting Fragments: Opportunities for Combined Synchrotron-Based Micro-Spectroscopic Techniques
Authors: Emeline Pouyet (corresponding author) [1]; Barbara Fayard [1,2]; Murielle Salom? [1]; Yoko Taniguchi [3]; Francesco Sette [1]; Marine Cotte [1,4] Introduction As exemplified by the very high attendance to the 2013 Technart conference, the study...
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Vol. 3, January 20

Micromorphological and Chemical Elucidation of the Degradation Mechanisms of Birch Bark Archaeological Artefacts
Authors: Sibilla Orsini [1]; Erika Ribechini (corresponding author) [1]; Francesca Modugno [1]; Johanna Kl?gl [2]; Giovanna Di Pietro [3]; Maria Perla Colombini [1,4] Introduction Birch bark is obtained from several Eurasian and North American birch...
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Vol. 3, January 15

Consolidation of Porous Carbonate Stones by an Innovative Phosphate Treatment: Mechanical Strengthening and Physical-Microstructural Compatibility in Comparison with TEOS-Based Treatments
Authors: Gabriela Graziani [1]; Enrico Sassoni (corresponding author) [1]; Elisa Franzoni [1] Introduction Natural stones and mortars used in architecture and sculpture and exposed to outdoor conditions are affected by weathering phenomena hampering...
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Vol. 2, December 13

Use of Nano Gold Obtained by Laser Ablation for SEIRA Analyses of Colorants
Authors: Silvia Prati (corresponding author) [1]; Marta Quaranta [1]; Giorgia Sciutto [1]; Irene Bonacini [1]; Lucio Litti [2]; Moreno Meneghetti [2]; Rocco Mazzeo (corresponding author) [1] Introduction In 1980 Harstein et al. [1] discovered that when...
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Vol. 2, December 4

Simultaneous Capture of the Color and Topography of Paintings Using Fringe Encoded Stereo Vision
Authors: Tim Zaman (corresponding author) [1]; Pieter Jonker [2]; Boris Lenseigne [2]; Joris Dik [3] Introduction The amount and variety of applied scientific research on paintings has intensified over the past decade. The impact of research on the material...
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Vol. 2, November 26

Light and Anoxia Fading of Prussian Blue Dyed Textiles
Authors: Claire Gervais (corresponding author) [1]; Marie-Ang?lique Languille [2,3]; Solenn Reguer [4]; Chantal Garnier [3]; Martine Gillet [3] Background The pigment Prussian blue (PB) was synthesized accidentally in 1704 by the colormaker Diesbach...
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Vol. 2, November 22

A Potential Scavenger of Carbon Radicals for Ancient Carbonized Silk Fabrics: Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)
Authors: Xiaojian Bai [1]; Yuxuan Gong [1]; Haiyan Yang [1]; Decai Gong (corresponding author) [1] Introduction The production of silk fabric was a great invention in the history of human civilization. Numerous archaeological excavations have proved...
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Vol. 2, October 2

Methodology for Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Sandwich Multilayer Samples of Historical Materials
Authors: Ivana Kopeck? (corresponding author) [1]; Eva Svobodov? [1] 1 Introduction In the field of conservation-restoration of works of art and in the forensic analysis of works of art it is often necessary to analyse multilayer materials (e.g. formation...
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Vol. 2, September 30

Analysis of Dyes in Textiles from the Chehrabad Salt Mine in Iran
Authors: Chika Mouri [1]; Abolfazl Aali [2]; Xian Zhang [1]; Richard Laursen (corresponding author) [1] 1 Introduction During the period 1993 ? 2005, the mummified remains of several individuals were found in an ancient salt mine at Chehrabad, near Zanjan,...
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Vol. 2, September 17

A Scientific Study of the Pigments in the Wall Paintings at Jokhang Monastery in Lhasa, Tibet, China
Authors: Zhimin Li [1,2]; Lele Wang [3]; Qinglin Ma (corresponding author) [3]; Jianjun Mei [2] 1 Introduction The identification of pigments is one of the most important analytical tasks in the characterization of ancient paintings, as it provides a...
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Vol. 2, August 29

Investigations by Raman Microscopy, ESEM and FTIR-ATR of Wall Paintings from Qasr El-Ghuieta Temple, Kharga Oasis, Egypt
Authors: Hussein H Marey Mahmoud (corresponding author) [1] Archaeological background Kharga Oasis Kharga Oasis is located to the west of the Nile valley, about 550?km to the South of Cairo. Kharga, is the largest oasis of the Libyan desert and consists...
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Vol. 2, August 23

The Louvre Crucifix by Giotto - Unveiling the Original Decoration by 2D-XRF, X-Ray Radiography, Emissiography and SEM-EDX Analysis
Authors: Myriam Eveno (corresponding author) [1]; Elisabeth Ravaud [1]; Thomas Calligaro [1]; Laurent Pichon [1]; Eric Laval [1] Introduction The Crucifix by Giotto and his workshop conserved at the Louvre museum (MI357) is one of the very few crosses...
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Vol. 2, July 24

Mediterranean and near East Obsidian Reference Samples to Establish Artefacts Provenance
Authors: Pasquale Avino (corresponding author) [1]; Alberto Rosada [2] Background Obsidian is a volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock (SiO[sub.2] as main component ranging between 66% and 75%) that was used by Neolithic people (around 10000?3500?B.C.)...
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Vol. 2, July 3

A Multidisciplinary Materials Characterization of a Joannes Marcus Viol (16.Sup.Th.Sup. Century)
Authors: Letizia Bonizzoni (corresponding author) (equal contributor) [1]; Claudio Canevari (equal contributor) [2]; Anna Galli (equal contributor) [3,4]; Marco Gargano (equal contributor) [1]; Nicola Ludwig (equal contributor) [1]; Marco Malagodi (equal...
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Vol. 2, June 17

Towards a New Method for Coating Heritage Lead
Authors: Rosie A Grayburn (corresponding author) [1,2]; Mark Dowsett [1]; Michel De Keersmaecker [2]; Dipanjan Banerjee [3]; Simon Brown [4,5]; Annemie Adriaens [2] Introduction Heritage metals are often coated as part of a conservation treatment to...
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Vol. 2, May 30

Examination of Historical Paintings by State-of-the-Art Hyperspectral Imaging Methods: From Scanning Infra-Red Spectroscopy to Computed X-Ray Laminography
Authors: Stijn Legrand [1]; Frederik Vanmeert [1]; Geert Van der Snickt [1]; Matthias Alfeld [1,2]; Wout De Nolf [1]; Joris Dik [3]; Koen Janssens (corresponding author) [1] Introduction Historical paintings are considered to be among the most precious...
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Vol. 2, May 23

Investigation of the Stabilization of Verdigris-Containing Rag Paper by Wet Chemical Treatments
Authors: Kyujin Ahn [1]; Andreas Hartl [2]; Christa Hofmann [2]; Ute Henniges [1]; Antje Potthast (corresponding author) [1] Introduction Paper objects with copper pigments are threatened since copper ions that migrate from the pigments can cause the...
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Vol. 2, April 28

Mind the Gap: Rigour and Relevance in Collaborative Heritage Science Research
Authors: Catherine Dillon (corresponding author) [1]; Nancy Bell [2]; Kalliopi Fouseki [1]; Pip Laurenson [3]; Andrew Thompson [4]; Matija Strli? (corresponding author) [1] Introduction The boundaries of what constitutes collaborative research and who...
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Vol. 2, April 25

Construction Sequence of the Koh Ker Monuments in Cambodia Deduced from the Chemical Composition and Magnetic Susceptibility of Its Laterites
Authors: Etsuo Uchida (corresponding author) [1]; Kojiro Tsuda [1]; Ichita Shimoda [2] Introduction The Khmer temples, also known as the Khmer monuments, were constructed by the Khmer people between the 9th and 15th centuries AD. These temples are distributed...
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Vol. 2, March 17

Study of Materials and Techniques in Painted Ceiling Panels from a Palace in Cremona (Italy, 15.Sup.Th.Sup. Century)
Authors: Marco Malagodi [1,2]; Tommaso Rovetta (corresponding author) [2]; Maurizio Licchelli [1] Introduction Aesthetic sensibility for interior furniture was of great importance from the 15[sup.th] century onwards and structural elements such as walls...
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Identification of Pigments by Multispectral Imaging; a Flowchart Method
Authors: Antonino Cosentino (corresponding author) [1] Introduction Multispectral imaging (MSI) [1, 2] and Hyperspectral Imaging [3, 4, 5, 6], have been suggested as methods for the non-destructive identification of pigments. Though, it is mandatory...
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Vol. 2, March 3

Setup of a Sustainable Indoor Cleaning Methodology for the Sculpted Stone Surfaces of the Duomo of Milan
Authors: Davide Gulotta (corresponding author) [1]; Daniela Saviello [1]; Francesca Gherardi [1]; Lucia Toniolo [1]; Marilena Anzani [2]; Alfiero Rabbolini [2]; Sara Goidanich [1] Introduction Cleaning is a fundamental phase of the conservation and maintenance...
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Vol. 2, February 24

Degradation of Archaeological Horn Silver Artefacts in Burials
Authors: Geraldine Marchand [1]; Elodie Guilminot (corresponding author) [1]; St?phane Lemoine [1]; Loretta Rossetti [1]; Michelle Vieau [1]; Nicolas Stephant [2] Introduction Silver was one of the first metals to be used by humans, and is found in many...
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Vol. 2, January 16

Museum Factors Affecting the Ageing Process of Organic Materials: Review on Experimental Designs and the INVENVORG Project as a Pilot Study
Authors: Petros Dellaportas (equal contributor) [1]; Effie Papageorgiou (equal contributor) [2]; Georgios Panagiaris (corresponding author) [3] Introduction A primary concern of a conservator is the safeguarding of the aesthetic, historical, structural...
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Vol. 2, January 1

Specialist ‘Restoration Mortars’ for Stone Elements: A Comparison of the Physical Properties of Two Stone Repair Materials
Authors: Clare Torney (corresponding author) (equal contributor) [1]; Alan M Forster (equal contributor) [2]; Ewan M Szadurski (equal contributor) [2] Background Masonry repair Deterioration of stone masonry is a worldwide problem, which can be addressed...
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Vol. 1, December 5

Chemical Characterisation of Museum-Curated Ethnographic Resins from Australia and New Guinea Used as Adhesives, Medicines and Narcotics
Authors: Fiona Bradshaw (corresponding author) [1] Background Since European contact, the indigenous populations of Australia and New Guinea (former Sahul) have been intensively studied through ethnography and archaeology. This has provided us with three...
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Vol. 1, November 26

Strategy for Developing a Future Support System for the Vasa Warship and Evaluating Its Mechanical Properties
Authors: Thomas Lechner (corresponding author) [1]; Ingela Bjurhager [2]; Robert I Kliger [1] Background The Vasa warship is one of the most important national treasures of Sweden. After the launch in Stockholm Harbour, the ?jewel? of the Swedish Navy...
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Vol. 1, November 8

Statistics of Insect Catch within Historic Properties
Authors: Peter Brimblecombe (corresponding author) [1]; Caroline Truth Brimblecombe [2]; David Thickett [3]; Dee Lauder [4] Introduction Insects have long been a problem because of the damage they can cause. In classical times there was discussion of...
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Vol. 1, October 24

Recovery of Archaeological Wall Paintings Using Novel Multispectral Imaging Approaches
Authors: Stefano Legnaioli [1]; Giulia Lorenzetti [1]; Gildo H Cavalcanti [2]; Emanuela Grifoni [3]; Luciano Marras [3]; Anna Tonazzini [4]; Emanuele Salerno [4]; Pasquino Pallecchi [5]; Gianna Giachi [5]; Vincenzo Palleschi (corresponding author) [1,6]...
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Vol. 1, October 3

Implications of Colonizing Biofilms and Microclimate on West Stucco Masks at North Acropolis, Tikal, Guatemala
Authors: Benjamin Otto Ortega-Morales (corresponding author) [1]; Seiichi Nakamura [2]; Gustavo Montejano-Zurita [3]; Juan Carlos Camacho-Chab [1]; Patricia Quintana [4]; Susana del Carmen De la Rosa-Garcia [1] Introduction Microbial communities readily...
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Vol. 1, October 1

Investigation of the Renewed Diseases on Murals at Mogao Grottoes
Authors: Jiamin Li [1]; Hui Zhang [1]; Zaixuan Fan [3,4]; Xiang He [2]; Shimin He [1]; Mingyuan Sun [2]; Yimin Ma [2]; Shiqiang Fang [2]; Huabing Zhang [3,4]; Bingjian Zhang (corresponding author) [1,2] Introduction Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, northwest...
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Vol. 1, September 16

The Use of Hand-Held XRF for Investigating the Composition and Corrosion of Roman Copper-Alloyed Artefacts
Authors: Ricardo Fernandes (corresponding author) [1,2]; Bertil JH van Os [3]; Hans DJ Huisman [3,4] Introduction Hand Held X-ray fluorescence devices (HH-XRF) and other portable XRF (pXRF) devices are regularly used in industry and are gradually being...
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Vol. 1, September 11

Assessment of Historical Polymers Using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy with Principal Component Analysis
Authors: Gemma Mitchell [1]; Fenella France [2]; Alison Nordon [1]; Pik Leung Tang [3]; Lorraine T Gibson (corresponding author) [1] Introduction Objects that contain synthetic, complex and inherently unstable modern materials, particularly polymer-based...
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Investigation of the Painting Materials in Zhongshan Grottoes (Shaanxi, China)
Authors: Ellen Egel (corresponding author) [1]; Stefan Simon [1] Introduction The Buddhist site of Zhongshan Grottoes (Figure 1) is situated on the southern foot of Zhongshan mountain, northward of Yan?an, in the valley of the Xiu Yan River (Shaanxi...
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Vol. 1, August 21

Research on the Modification of Two Traditional Building Materials in Ancient China
Authors: Li Zuixiong [1,3]; Zhao Linyi (corresponding author) [1,3]; Li Li [2]; Wang Jinua [2] Introduction In the late 1970s, a group of residential remains of the Yangshao Period were discovered at the Dadiwan site in Qin?an County, Gansu Province,...
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Vol. 1, August 15

Investigation of Sticky-Rice Lime Mortar of the Horse Stopped Wall in Jiange
Authors: Yan-Bing Luo (corresponding author) [1]; Yu-Jie Zhang [1] Background The Horse Stopped Wall, located in Liangshan village and built about three thousand years ago, is a section of Cuiyun corridor of Jianmenshudao, one of the most beautiful and...
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Vol. 1, August 2

The Freshwater Reservoir Effect in Radiocarbon Dating
Authors: Bente Philippsen (corresponding author) [1] Introduction Throughout the entire history of radiocarbon dating, new sources of error have appeared, have been examined, and corrections have been found. Of particular interest and complexity are...
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Building Limes for Cultural Heritage Conservation in China
Authors: Shi-bing Dai (corresponding author) [1] Introduction In the summer of 1998, during the international conference on conservation of Yungang Grottoes (listed as UNESCO cultural heritage in December 2001), Prof. Dr. Gunter Strubel from Justus-Liebig-Universitat...
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Vol. 1, July 29

Winsor & Newton Original Handbooks: A Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and Raman Spectral Database of Dyes from Modern Watercolor Pigments
Authors: Federica Pozzi (corresponding author) [1,2,3]; John R Lombardi [2]; Marco Leona [1] Introduction Founded in 1832, Winsor & Newton Ltd. has always been one of the main art materials suppliers in the world, manufacturing a wide assortment...
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Vol. 1, July 24

Micro-Stratigraphical Investigation on Corrosion Layers in Ancient Bronze Artefacts by Scanning Electron Microscopy Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Optical Microscopy
Authors: Omid Oudbashi (corresponding author) [1]; Seyed Mohammadamin Emami [1]; Hossein Ahmadi [1]; Parviz Davami [2] Introduction The long term burial conditions in soil causes various corrosion morphologies in archaeological metals, from a thin corrosion...
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Vol. 1, July 15

Effects of Surface Energies of Biomimetic Materials for Stone Conservation on Reinforcement Properties
Authors: Qiang Liu (corresponding author) [1]; Qingju Liu [1]; Jin Zhang [1]; Zhongqi Zhu [1]; Bingjian Zhang [2] Introduction Historic stone buildings and sculptures are a very valuable and important part of the cultural heritage of any country. However,...
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Vol. 1, June 3

A Study on the Painting Techniques and Materials of the Murals in the Five Northern Provinces’ Assembly Hall, Ziyang, China
Authors: Kejia Hu (corresponding author) [1]; Chongbin Bai (corresponding author) [2]; Linyan Ma [2]; Ke Bai [2]; Dongbo Liu [2]; Binbin Fan [2] Introduction The Five Northern Provinces? Assembly Hall is located in Wafangdian, 8 km west of Ziyang in...
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Vol. 1, May 28

Obsidian Use in the Mosaic of the St. Juvenal Church, Narni (Italy): Chemical Characterization and Origin
Authors: Pasquale Avino (corresponding author) [1]; Pietro Moioli [2]; Alberto Rosada [3]; Claudio Seccaroni [2] Introduction On the facade of the Oratory of San Giovenale, which is located in the Cathedral of Narni (Central Italy), is a mosaic depicting...
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Tephra, Tephrochronology and Archaeology - a (Re-)View from Northern Europe
Authors: Felix Riede (corresponding author) [1]; Mads Bakken Thastrup [1,2] Introduction The Law of Superposition and its actualization in the form of stratigraphy constitutes the foundation of archaeological dating, albeit usually in a relative rather...
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Mercury in Soil Surrounding Medieval Human Skeletons
Authors: Kaare Lund Rasmussen (corresponding author) [1]; Lilian Skytte [1]; Nadja Ramseyer [1]; Jesper Lier Boldsen [2] Introduction Medieval people were subjected to an Hg exposure, which can be divided into a global background exposure and occasional...
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Vol. 1, April 24

The Effects of Hydration on the Collagen and Gelatine Phases within Parchment Artefacts
Authors: Lee Grant Gonzalez (corresponding author) [1]; Timothy James Wess [1] Introduction Parchment artefacts are composed of collagen, its degraded form gelatine, varying minerals, lipids, and for documents inks and paints. The main structural components...
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Vol. 1, April 16

TEOS/PDMS-OH Hybrid Material for the Consolidation of Damaged Pottery
Authors: Jing Zhao (corresponding author) [1,2]; Hongjie Luo [1]; Liqin Wang [2]; Weidong Li [1]; Tie Zhou [3]; Bo Rong [3] Introduction The Qin Tombs at Dianzi, Longxian County, China, compiled by the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology is so...
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Transglutaminase-Mediated Restoration of Historic Silk and Its Ageing Resistance
Authors: Zhanyun Zhu [1,2]; Liu Liu [1,2]; Decai Gong (corresponding author) [1,2] Introduction Silk is one of the most significant inventions in the history of human civilisation. Due to the long history of silk culture in China, a large number of valuable...
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Vol. 1, April 9

Calcium Hydroxide Nanosols for the Consolidation of Porous Building Materials - Results from EU-STONECORE
Authors: Arnulf Daehne [1]; Christoph Herm (corresponding author) [2] Introduction Conservation of historical buildings, sculptures or wall paintings requires materials which are compatible with the components originally used for construction. This means...
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Vol. 1, April 6

The Distribution of Mercury and Other Trace Elements in the Bones of Two Human Individuals from Medieval Denmark - the Chemical Life History Hypothesis
Authors: Kaare Lund Rasmussen (corresponding author) [1]; Lilian Skytte [1]; Christian Pilekaer [1]; Anne Lauritsen [1]; Jesper Lier Boldsen [2]; Peter Mygind Leth [2]; Per Orla Thomsen [3] Introduction Indicators of diet, provenance, occupation and...
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Vol. 1, April 5

Comparison of Antioxidant Activity and Flavanol Content of Cacao Beans Processed by Modern and Traditional Mesoamerican Methods
Authors: Elizabeth Chin [1]; Kenneth B Miller [3]; Mark J Payne [2]; W Jeffery Hurst (corresponding author) [2]; David A Stuart [2] Introduction Cacao originated and evolved in the tropical rainforests of the upper Amazon and Orinoco Rivers in South...
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Vol. 1, April 3

Authors: Richard G Brereton (corresponding author) [1] After the Second World War, up to the 1970s and, in some parts of the world 1980s, there was a cataclysmic mass destruction of our cultural heritage, especially in European and American countries....
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Classification of Hungarian Medieval Silver Coins Using X-Ray Fluorescent Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis
Authors: Anita Racz [1]; Karoly Heberger (corresponding author) [2]; Robert Rajko [3]; Janos Elek [4] Introduction Elemental analysis is used for the examination of coins and other metal objects in the field of archeology. By determining the elemental...
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Temporal Humidity Variations in the Heritage Climate of South East England
Authors: Peter Brimblecombe (corresponding author) [1,2] Introduction Humidity is a critical threat to our material heritage. Its long term variation is thus of interest when considering damage in the past and that likely under a changed climate of the...
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Non-Invasive Analytical Techniques Applied to Characterize the Components of Ancient Golden Medallions
Authors: Jose L Perez-Rodriguez (corresponding author) [1]; Maria D Robador [2]; Maria C Jimenez de Haro [1]; Jose M Martinez Blanes [1]; Isabel Garofano [1]; Carlos Odriozola [3]; Adrian Duran [4] Background The Reales Alcazares of Sevilla is a building...
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Recovery and Examination of Sculpture Group Fugitive Slave by V. Beklemishev
Authors: Kamilla B Kalinina (corresponding author) [1]; Sander Habets [2]; Evelina A Tarasova [1]; Svetlana L Petrova [1] Introduction Vladimir Beklemishev graduated from the Saint Petersburg Imperial Academy of Arts with a Grand gold medal in 1887 [1]....
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Analytical Pyrolysis with In-Situ Silylation, Py(HMDS)-GC/MS, for the Chemical Characterization of Archaeological and Historical Amber Objects
Authors: Maria Perla Colombini (corresponding author) [1]; Erika Ribechini [1]; Marco Rocchi [1]; Paola Selleri [1] Introduction Since ancient times the unique physical properties of amber have been exploited in the production of jewels, tools, ornaments,...
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Deposition of Suspended Fine Particulate Matter in a Library
Authors: Ji?i Smolik (corresponding author) [1]; Ludmila Ma?kova [1,2]; Nad??da Zikova [1,3]; Lucie Ondra?kova [1]; Jakub Ondra?ek [1] Introduction Airborne particles deposited on cultural heritage artefacts have many negative effects. Beside soiling...
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Fine Particulate Matter in Indoor Cultural Heritage: A Literature Review
Authors: Josep Grau-Bove (corresponding author) [1]; Matija Strli? [1] Introduction Most museums, galleries, libraries and archives, as well as many historical palaces and houses, are located in urban centres, surrounded by a complex and changeable urban...
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