McGill International Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy

The McGill International Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (JSDLP) provides a forum in which the world’s leading scholars exchange ideas on the intersection between law, development, the environment, economics, and society.

Articles

Vol. 11, No. 1, Fall

Evaluating the Effectiveness of the European Union Emissions Trading System to Reduce Emissions from International Civil Aviation
1. INTRODUCTION 2. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE EU ETS 3. THE MOTIVATING FACTORS FOR INTRODUCING THE EU ETS 4. THE AUTHORITY OF THE EU TO ADOPT UNILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES: A BRIEF ANALYSIS 4.1 STATES' SOVEREIGNTY OVER THEIR TERRITORIAL...
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Evaluating the Effectiveness of the European Union Emissions Trading System to Reduce Emissions from International Civil Aviation
5.4 EU Unilateralism: the Case of Noise Emissions from Aviation As previously mentioned, the EU had previously acted unilaterally in the field of aviation to regulate aircraft noise before it adopted Directive 2008/101 to include aviation in the...
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From Justiciability to Justice: Realizing the Human Right to Food
1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE RIGHT TO FOOD AND THE RESURGENCE OF THE FOOD SECURITY MOVEMENT 2.1. HUNGER AND SYSTEMIC INEQUALITY 2.2. THE RIGHT TO FOOD 2.2.1. STATES' OBLIGATIONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW 2.2.2. INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL...
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The Role of Strategic Environmental Assessments in Improving the Governance of Emerging New Industries: A Case Study of Wind Developments in Nova Scotia
1. INTRODUCTION 2. POLICY CONTEXT 3. THE EA PROCESS 3.1. ELEMENTS OF THE EA PROCESS 3.2. REGULATORY CONTEXT 3.3. RECENT TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS IN NOVA SCOTIA 4. MUNICIPAL CASE STUDIES KINGS COUNTY ...
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Zimbabwe's Odious Inheritance: Debt and Unequal Land Distribution
1. A BRIEF HISTORY 2. LEGAL THEORY REGARDING STATE SUCCESSION TO SOVEREIGN DEBT 2.1 STATE SUCCESSION TO PUBLIC DEBT AND NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES 2.2 ODIOUS DEBT 2.2.1 THE ODIOUS DEBT DOCTRINE 2.2.2 THE ODD'S ANTECEDENTS: WAR AND SUBJUGATION...
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Vol. 10, No. 2, Spring

Tax Transparency and the Marketplace: A Pathway to State Sustainability
INTRODUCTION 1. MEASURING ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION VIA TAX DISCLOSURE 1.1 Starbucks 1.2 Arguments Against Tax Disclosure 1.2.1 TAX INFORMATION ALREADY DISCLOSED IN ACCOUNTING STATEMENTS 1.2.2 PRIVACY ARGUMENTS 1.3 Conclusion 2....
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The Canada-FIT Case and the WTO Subsidies Agreement: Failed Fact-Finding, Needless Complexity, and Missed Judicial Economy
1. INTRODUCTION 2. RELEVANT BACKGROUND 3. FAILED FACT-FINDING AND THE UNEXPLAINABLE ABSENCE OF THE 2011 ONTARIO AUDITOR GENERAL REPORT 4. THE BENEFIT ANALYSIS REACHED AN UNDULY COMPLICATED LEVEL 4.1 The Quixotic Quest for a Perfect Market Benchmark...
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L'effectivite De L'urbanisme a L'epreuve De la Transition Energetique En France
1. LA COMPLEXITE DES RAPPORTS ENTRE L'URBANISME ET LA TRANSITION ENERGETIQUE 1.1 De la resistance historique a la prise en compte des enjeux environnementaux 1.1.1 L'EMPRISE DE L'URBANISME SUR L'ENVIRONNEMENT 1.1.2 LE DEBAT...
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The Role of Substantive Equality in Finding Sustainable Development Pathways in South Africa
INTRODUCTION 1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SUBSTANTIVE EQUALITY 1.1 "Sustainable Development" as a Politically Fuzzy Concept 1.2 Sustainable Development Implementation in South Africa 1.3 Substantive Equality 2. INSTITUTIONALIZING SUBSTANTIVE...
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Vol. 10, No. 1, Fall

Environmental Monitoring and Ecosystem Management in the Oil Sands: Spaceship Earth or Escort Tugboat?
1. INTRODUCTION 2. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT 2.1 Environmental Monitoring 2.1.1 A Different Kind of Environmental Monitoring 2.1.2 Challenges to Effective Public Environmental Monitoring 2.1.3 Some Potential...
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Environmental Monitoring and Ecosystem Management in the Oil Sands: Spaceship Earth or Escort Tugboat?
2.1.3 SOME POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS In the final part of his paper, Biber explores various solutions to the above-noted constraints, similarly divided into internal and external ones. On the internal side, adequate and appropriately structured funding...
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L'etonnante Construction Juridique De L'energie Eolienne Au Quebec
1. INTRODUCTION 2. UNE CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTIONNELLE EN VERSANTS 3. LE VERSANT INTERNATIONAL 3.1 LE QUEBEC EXPORTATEUR D'ELECTRICITE : UN POINT D'ANCRAGE A LA CONTINENTALISATION DE SA POLITIQUE ENERGETIQUE 3.2 LE DEVELOPPEMENT DURABLE ET...
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Waiting for Commercial Viability: Legal Incentives to Produce Cellulosic Biofuels and Their Consistency with the WTO Regime
1. INTRODUCTION 2. AMBIGUOUS SIGNALS FROM THE CANADIAN GOVERNMENT 3. ADDRESSING CELLULOSIC BIOFUELS IN LEGISLATION GOVERNING RENEWABLE FUELS 3.1 European Union 3.2 United States 4. THE CONSISTENCY OF LEGAL INCENTIVES TO PRODUCE CELLULOSIC...
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L'influence Du Principe De Precaution Sur la Responsabilite Civile En Droit Francais : Un Bilan En Demi-Teinte
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 LA SPECIFICITEE FRANCAISE DU DROIT DE LA RESPONSABILITE CIVILE 1.2 RAPPEL DES SOURCES 1.3 RAPPEL DU SENS 1.4 L'INFLUENCE DU PRINCIPE DE PRECAUTION EN DROIT DE LA RESPONSABILITE CIVILE FRANCAIS 1.4.1...
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Vol. 9, No. 2, Spring

Building Sustainability into a Changing Arctic
The year 2012 saw Arctic sea ice retreat to a new record low, and the melting of permafrost as far north as Ellesmere Island. The changes in our climate that we were told would take place over decades are, instead, happening over years. We in Nunavut...
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Searching for Synergies in International Governance Systems Developed in the Circumpolar North
1. INTRODUCTION 2. MAJOR GOVERNANCE SYSTEMS DEVELOPED IN THE CIRCUMPOLAR NORTH 2.1 THE ARCTIC COUNCIL 2.2 THE BARENTS EURO-ARCTIC COUNCIL 2.3 THE BARENTS REGIONAL COUNCIL 2.4 THE NORTHERN FORUM 3. LEGAL STATUS OF THE GOVERNANCE SYSTEMS IN...
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The Canadian Submission to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf
1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL REGIME GOVERNING THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF 2.1 THE EXTENDED CONTINENTAL SHELF 2.2 THE TEST OF APPURTENANCE 2.3 DELINEATING THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF 2.4 POSITIVE FORMULA LINES 2.5 ESTABLISHING...
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Environmental Justice as Spatial and Scalar Justice: A Regional Waste Facility or a Local Rubbish Dump out of Place?
1. INTRODUCTION 2. ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE, SPATIAL JUSTICE, AND SCALAR JUSTICE 3. THE ORANGE WASTE PROJECT AND ITS OBJECTIONS 4. COMMENT ON METHOD--A FORM OF NOMOSPHERIC INVESTIGATION 5. MOLONG AND ORANGE 6. THE COURT CASE AS A NOMIC DISTURBANCE...
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Reconciling Aboriginal Rights with International Trade Agreements: Hupacasath First Nation V. Canada
1. BACKGROUND 1.1 DUTY TO CONSULT AND ACCOMODATE 1.2 BILATERAL INVESTMENT AGREEMENT 1.3 HUPACASATH FIRST NATION 2. FACTS OF CASE AND DECISION 2.1 GROUNDS OF THE APPLICATION 2.2 APPLICATION OF THREE-PART TEST 2.2.1 SIGNIFICANT CHANGE...
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Vol. 9, No. 1, Fall

Protecting Taxpayers and the Environment through Reform of Canada's Offshore Liability Regime
1. INTRODUCTION AND CONTEXT 1.1 Purpose and Structure 1.2 Background 1.3 Heeding the BP Wake-up Call 1.4 The Need for Liability Reform 2. THE LIABILITY REGIME FOR OFFSHORE OIL OPERATIONS IN CANADA 2.1 Various Statutes and Regulations...
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The Next Stage of CSR for Canada: Transformational Corporate Governance, Hybrid Legal Structures, and the Growth of Social Enterprise
1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE PROBLEM TO BE ADDRESSED 3. MARKING A PATH FOR CANADA 3.1 Following Peoples Department Stores Inc. (Trustee of) v. Wise (2004) 3.2 Following BCE Inc. v. 1976 Debentureholders (2008) 4. ATTAINING TRANSFORMATIONAL CORPORATE...
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Constructing "Climate Migration" as a Global Governance Issue: Essential Flaws in the Contemporary Literature
1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE PHENOMENON: UNDERSTANDING THE LINKS BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE AND MIGRATION 2.1. Observing Climate Inducement to Migration 2.2. Conceptualizing "Climate Migration" 2.3. The Temptation of Conceptual Fragmentation 3. THE...
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Kivalina V. Exxonmobil: A Comparative Case Comment
1. INTRODUCTION 2. CLIMATE CHANGE GOVERNANCE IN AMERICAN COURTS 2.1 Kivalina, Climate Change and the Common Law of Public Nuisance 2.2 Kivalina v. ExxonMobil, the "Death of Environmental Common Law"? 2.3 Securing Climate Mitigation...
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Commentaire Sur Anvil Mining
Selon un rapport de la Mission de l'Organization des Nations Unis en Republique Democratique du Congo (<< MONUC >>), le 15 octobre 2004, pres de 73 personnes auraient ete tuees par l'armee dans la ville miniere de Kilwa lors de la repression...
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Vol. 8, No. 2, Spring

Natural Gas Development: Extracting Externalities - towards Precaution-Based Decision-Making
3.4 Migration of Contaminants (156) Natural gas development and waste disposal techniques have also negatively impacted agricultural and livestock farms. In New York State, a March 2011 gathering of "farmers, landowners, attorneys," and other concerned...
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Sustainable Development and Regional Trade Agreements: Toward Better Practices in Impact Assessments
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Research Methodology and Outline 2. BACKGROUND: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS AND THE RISE OF THE IMPACT ASSESSMENT 2.1 International Law on Sustainable Development 2.2 Free Trade and its Impacts: The...
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Tort Litigation in Respect of Overseas Violations of Environmental Law Committed by Corporations: Lessons from the Akpan V. Shell Litigation in the Netherlands
1. INTRODUCTION 2. DOMESTIC TORT LITIGATION REGARDING OVERSEAS CORPORATE VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: COMPARING AMERICAN WITH EUROPEAN APPROACHES 3. THE FACTS OF AKPAN VSHELL 4. THE COURT'S CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING JURISDICTION...
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Vol. 8, No. 1, Spring

Economie Verte: La Feuille De Route Du PNUE Au Regard Des Regles De l'Organisation Mondiale Du Commerce
1. INTRODUCTION 2. LA MISE EN PLACE DE CADRES REGLEMENTAIRES SOLIDES POUR FAVORISER LES MARCHES DE BIENS DURABLES 2.1 La problematique des procedes et methodes de production (PMP) 2.2 La question des mesures extraterritoriales 2.3 Les Accords...
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Corporate Sustainability and Brazilian CDM Project Governance
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Brazil's State-based CDM Governance 1.2 The Case Study Projects and Corresponding Sustainable Development Benefits 1.3 Brazilian Corporate Sustainability Programs 1.4 Legal Pluralism 2. CASE STUDY PROJECTS' SUSTAINABLE...
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Exploring the Mining "Money Trail": Assessing British Columbia's Mining Tax Regime and Unearthing Legal Tools That Foster Greater Returns for Local Communities
1. TRAILHEAD: INTRODUCING THE MINING MONEY TRAIL 1.1 Definitions and Limitations 1.2 Mapping the Trail 2. SURVEYING THE PATH: EVALUATING THE MINING TAX REGIME IN BC 2.1 Current State of Affairs 2.2 Potholes in the Trail 3. PATCHING THE POTHOLES:...
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Three's (No Longer) a Crowd: The Abandonment of the Federal Defendant Rule by the Ninth Circuit in the Context of NEPA Claims
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires every agency in the executive branch of the federal government to assess environmental consequences prior to taking actions which significantly affect the quality of the human environment. The procedural...
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Vol. 7, No. 2, Fall

Crimes against Future Generations: Harnessing the Potential of Individual Criminal Accountability for Global Sustainability
1. THE PURSUIT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2. INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY AND GLOBAL SUSTAINABILITY 2.1 The Promise of International Criminal Justice and the Remaining Challenge of Impunity for Economic, Social, Cultural, and Environmental...
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Offences against Future Generations: A Critical Look at the Jodoin/Saito Proposal and a Suggestion for Future Thought
1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE PROPOSAL AS IT IS: LIMITS AND MERITS 2.1 Offences Against Future Generations: A Misleading Term? 2.2 The Real Goal: Dealing with Grave Harm to the Environmental, Economic and Cultural Well-Being of Populations 2.3...
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Des Crimes Contre L'humanite Aux Crimes Contre Les Generations Futures: Vers Une Transposition Du Concept Ethique De Responsabilite Transgenerationnelle En Droit Penal International?
INTRODUCTION I. PENSER: LES CRIMES CONTRE LES GENERATIONS FUTURES A. La responsabilite transgenerationnelle: terreau ethique pour penser les crimes contre les generations futures? 1. La prise de conscience d'une responsabilite ethique ...
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Disclosure of Environmental Law Enforcement in Canada: Lessons from America
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Constitutional Jurisdiction over the Environment 1.2 Fragmentation on environmental enforcement reporting 2. COMMUNITY RIGHT TO KNOW IN CANADA 2.1 Democratic Participation, Government Accountability and Transparency ...
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The Principle of Residual Liability in the Seabed Disputes: Chamber of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea: The Advisory Opinion on Responsibility and Liability for International Seabed Mining (ITLOS Case No. 17)
It is axiomatic that all states have a duty to prevent environmental harm--to ensure that activities under their jurisdiction and control do not cause harm to the environment beyond their own national jurisdiction. (1) Under the United Nations Convention...
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Vol. 7, No. 1, Spring

Rawls & Sustainable Development
1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 3. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AS A MEANS TO AN END, NOT AN END IN ITSELF 4. FAIR EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY 5. AN OVERLAPPING CONSENSUS ON INTERGENERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE 6. CONCLUSION ...
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Equality and Environmental Protection: A Constitutional Approach in the Navarro Case
In 2009, the Colombian Constitutional Court ("the Court") handed down an important decision which validated the claim of a group of recyclers from the city of Cali in order to protect their fundamental rights to work and to a life of dignity. The recyclers...
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Pour En Finir Avec la Notion De "Refugies Environnementaux": Critique D'une Approche Individualiste et Universaliste Des Deplacements Causes Par Des Changements Environnementaux
1. INTRODUCTION 2. L'INVENTION DU << REFUGIE ENVIRONNEMENTAL >> PAR ANALOGIE AVEC LE REFUGIE POLITIQUE 2.1 La divergence entre le discours et le droit : l'absence de base juridique a la notion de << refugie environnemental...
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Preserving Discursive Spaces to Promote Human Rights: Poverty Reduction Strategy, Human Rights and Development Discourse
1. INTRODUCTION 2. DEVELOPMENT AS POVERTY REDUCTION 2.1 The Concept of Development 2.1.1 Development and the World Bank 2.1.2 The "Emerging Paradigm of Development" 3. THE ROLE OF POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPERS IN REDUCING POVERTY...
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Reconciling Sustainability with Private Property Rights in Planning Law and Policy: A Review of Takings International, by Rachelle Alterman
There are important and fundamental differences between the concept of land" as shorthand for natural resources--that is, as raw mineral, chemical, water, and biotic inputs used for the production of material goods (e.g., food, fiber, minerals, energy),...
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Vol. 6, No. 2, Fall

An Act Respecting Corporate Accountability for the Activities of Mining, Oil or Gas in Developing Countries (Bill C-300): Anatomy of a Failed Initiative
An Act respecting Corporate Accountability for the Activities of Mining, Oil or Gas in Developing Countries (Bill C-300) was not doomed to failure, but by galvanizing corporate resistance its adoption became a David vs. Goliath affair, and the result...
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Wanted: A Legal Regime to Clean Up Orphaned/abandoned Mines in Canada
1. INTRODUCTION 2. BACKGROUND UPDATE: THE PROBLEM OF ORPHANED/ABANDONED MINES 3. CONSTITUTIONAL AUTHORITY WITH RESPECT TO THE CONTROL OF MINING ACTIVITY IN CANADA 4. LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY AUTHORITY EXAMINED 5. OVERALL FINDINGS ON COLLABORATION,...
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Access to Justice: The Impact of Injunctions, Contempt of Court Proceedings, and Costs Awards on Environmental Protestors and First Nations
1. INTRODUCTION 2. BACKGROUND: THE SHARBOT LAKE PROTESTS 3. LEGAL CONTEXT: THE ONTARIO MINING ACT AND THE 2009 AMENDMENTS 4. LEGAL ISSUES ARISING FROM PROTESTING MINING ACTIVITIES 4.1 Injunctions 4.2 Contempt of Court and Procedural Protections...
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Participatory Rights in the Ontario Mining Sector: An International Human Rights Perspective
1. INTRODUCTION 2. ENVIRONMENTAL DEMOCRACY--ASSESSING LEGITIMACY IN THE MINING SECTOR 3. THE ONTARIO MINING ACT (AS AMENDED) 4. THE RIGHT TO PARTICIPATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION-MAKING 5. THE RIGHT OF FREE PRIOR AND INFORMED CONSENT AND THE DUTY...
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Vol. 6, No. 1, Spring

Remembering the Honourable Mr. Justice Charles D. Gonthier
It was with some trepidation, but without hesitation, that I accepted the Journal's invitation to write a tribute to Justice Charles Gonthier, formerly a fellow member of the Journal's Advisory Board and my mentor for the wonderful year that I spent...
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Social Safeguards in REDD: A Review of Possible Mechanisms to Protect the Rights and Interests of Indigenous and Forest-Dependent Communities in a Future System for REDD
1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 2. POSSIBLE MECHANISMS AND PROCEDURES 2.1 Reporting, Monitoring and Compliance Procedures 2.2 Creating and Expanding International Bodies 2.3 Citizen Based International Complaint Mechanisms 2.4 Certification Schemes...
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Vol. 5, No. 2, Fall

Recent Developments in Social Impact Management in Extractive Resource Development in Peru
1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE FRAMEWORK GOVERNING RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT 2.1 Oficina General de Gestion Social (General Social Management Bureau) ("OGGS") 3. OGGS AND BEYOND 4. CONCLUSION: UNCERTAINTY IN THE AIR Peru is rich in hydrocarbons and other...
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A (Pre)cautionary Tale about the Kearl Oil Sands Decision: The Significance of Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development et Al V. Canada [Attorney-General] for the Future of Environmental Assessment
1. INTRODUCTION 2. BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT 2.1 The Oil Sands 2.2 The Environmental Impact of the Oil Sands 2.3 Human Health Concerns 2.4 Environmental Assessment of Kearl Oil Sands 2.5 Judicial Review Application 2.6 Response to the Judicial...
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Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring

Re-Zoning Alberta: Smart Regulation for Smart Growth
1. INTRODUCTION 2. ALBERTA'S 2008 CLIMATE CHANGE STRATEGY 3. THE PLANNING FRAMEWORK IN ALBERTA 3.1 The Federal Level 3.2 The Provincial Level 3.3 The Municipal Level 3.4 Euclidean Zoning in Depth 4. ZONING ALTERNATIVES 4.1 Form-Based Code 4.2...
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The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate: A Retreat from the Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities?
1. INTRODUCTION 2. THE UNITED NATIONS CLIMATE REGIME AND THE ASIA-PACIFIC PARTNERSHIP 2.1 The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 2.2 The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate 2.3 Claims of Consistency between the APP and...
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Legal and Institutional Dynamics of Forest Management in Pakistan
1. INTRODUCTION 2. STATE OF PAKISTAN'S FORESTS 3. GLOBAL DEBATE ON FOREST MANAGEMENT 4. FOREST MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN: AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 5. THE FORESTRY REFORM PROCESS: POLICY AND LEGAL INTERVENTIONS 6. WHY THE FAILURE? 6.1 Divergence Between...
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Promoting Sustainable Biofuels under the WTO Legal Regime
1. INTRODUCTION 2. DETERMINATION OF SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS 2.1 Sustainable Development Under International Law 2.2 Defining the Sustainability Criteria for Biofuels 3. SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS UNDER THE WTO LEGAL FRAMEWORK 3.1 International Trade Law...
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