Africa Policy Journal

Articles

Spring

The Democratic Republic of Congo: The Blind State
In his book Seeing Like a State, James S. Scott discusses how the modern state came to be, primarily by making its "territory knowable," meaning that aspects of a territory or a state need to be measured, assessed, or quantified to allow government programs...
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The Climate Change Challenge That No One Is Talking About: Its Impact on Africa
As voices for action against climate change grow around Europe and North America through movements such as Extinction Rebellion, the recent Global Climate Strike, and discussion of a Green New Deal, a fundamental piece of the story remains largely absent...
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Patrick Loch Otieno (PLO) Lumumba
The Africa Policy Journal sat down with Patrick Loch Otieno (PLO) Lumumba for an interview during his recent visit to Harvard Law School for an event with the Harvard African Law Association. Lumumba served as the Director of Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission...
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Tax Base Erosion: A Cautionary Tale of the DRC
IntroductionThe Democratic Republic of Congo (DNC) is a major resource-rich country in Africa that remains exposed to critical political, security, economic, and financial challenges. The rise in taxation of the extractive sector is one of the key challenges...
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Africa's Next Decade of Public Policy Development Is Being Led by Technology Innovators
In March 2018, young entrepreneurs, technology enthusiasts, and an invited government official gathered for a meet-up at the Impact Hub in Ikoyi, Lagos, Nigeria. At events featuring such people, participants usually exchange entrepreneurship stories:...
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The Politics of Biafran Separatism in Nigeria: Spikes and Falls in the Intensity of the Agitatio
IntroductionAbout 50 years ago, Nigeria's southeast region comprising Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo, as well as other adjoining ethnic groups, formally announced its break away from Nigeria and proclaimed itself a new nation called Biafra.1 The...
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Why the Kenya-Somalia Maritime Dispute Is Far from over, Regardless of the International Court of Justice Ruling
IntroductionTerritorial and boundary disputes are not a new phenomenon in Africa. The 1884-1885 Berlin Conference, for instance, "set out (among other things) the conditions under which territory might be acquired on the coast of Africa."1 While the...
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Editors' Remarks
We are proud to bring to you the 14th edition of the Africa Policy Journal. This year's issue is a reflection of the uneven picture painted by the major political and economic events that shaped the continent in 2019.Sudan is a perfect embodiment of...
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African Infrastructure with Chinese Characteristics
AbstractChina's bet on infrastructure in Africa rests on an assumption that African development will be similar in a macro trajectory and techno - logical path to Chinese development from 1952 till now.i Thus far, this has proven relatively accurate....
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Vol. 14, Spring

A Discourse on the Legacy of Colonialism for Women in Africa
IntroductionThe ideology of the struggle for women in the West has failed to take into account the distinctive socio-historical context of women's role and their place in African societies. Thus, with this paper, I aim to shed light on the issue by analyzing...
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Situational Analysis of Revenge Pornography in Kenya
Introduction and Terminology"Revenge pornography, "cyber rape," or "non-consensual pornography" is a global phenomenon that affects women disproportionately, both in terms of the number of women affected and the amount of social stigma attached.1 This...
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Changes in Global Health Governance Are Needed for Sustainable Health Development in Africa
Professor Agnes Binagwaho, MD, M(Ped), PhD is a Rwandan pediatrician who returned to Rwanda in July 1996, two years after the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi. Since then, she has provided clinical care in the public sector as well as held a number of...
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How Africa Can Adopt a Pan-African Migration and Development Agenda
Introduction: Why Should Policymakers Develop a Pan-African Migration and Development Agenda?Migration is a critical driver of socio-economic development in Africa. A study by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the International...
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The Quest for Hydro Hegemony and the Changing Power Relation in the Eastern Nile Basin
IntroductionThe Eastern Nile basin is characterized by a number of asymmetries, ranging from water endowment to exploitation and geopolitical power.2 The Eastern Nile river basin guides the formation of national strategies surrounding water resource...
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Interview with Oby Ezekwesili
APJ: Today we are sitting down with Madam Oby Ezekwesili, who has previously served as Minister of Education and Minister of Solid Minerals within the Nigerian government. Madam Ezekwesili, you spent several years in the World Bank and you are, of course,...
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Vol. 13, 2017

Quintessence of Macroeconomic Uncertainty in the DR Congo
IntroductionDespite its rich endowment of natural resources, the DR Congo remains primarily a commodity export economy. After the end of the Second Congolese War (1998-2003), the donor community gradually cooperated with the DR Congo. From 2004 to 2014,...
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A Framework for Transforming African Economies through University-Led Innovations
Introduction and BackgroundAfrican economies are under pressure to grow at a rate fast enough to raise living standards and provide jobs for the continent's rising young population. And there is a specific call to African universities to transform into...
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Interview with H.E. John Mahama
The African Development Conference at Harvard University hosted a keynote speech with H.E. John Dramani Mahama, the former president of the Republic of Ghana. President Mahama had previously served as vice president of the Republic of Ghana under the...
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Connected Security: The Missing Link in the Evolving Regional Approach to Countering Violent Extremism in West Africa
IntroductionViolence and armed conflict are not new to the West African region. From the pre-colonization and colonial eras to the post-independence and post-Cold War periods, the causes, nature, methods, scale, and effects of violent conflict have been...
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In Memoriam
We dedicate volume XIII to Peter Ngozi Nwaneri & Professor Calestous Juma.Peter Ngozi Nwaneri (1987-2018)As this edition of the APJ went to print, we received the terrible news that a member of our team, Peter Ngozi Nwaneri, had passed away unexpectedly....
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Mitigating the Sahel Security Conundrum: The Need for a Strategic Paradigm Shift
IntroductionThe Sahel security conundrum, a crisis emanating from the old-fashioned political order and risky arrangements of the region, now not only generates a deeper and wider self-destructive momentum, but also is sending far-reaching shockwaves...
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A New Face of the State: The Role of Telecom Providers in African Politics
Why Focus on the Corporate Actor?This paper treats the corporate actor - specifically, telecom providers - as the key variable of analysis. However, the structural and political role of telecom providers is remarkably under-theorized in political economy...
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Unequal Partners: American Foundations and Higher Education Development in Africa
Fabrice Jaumont, Unequal Partners: American Foundations and Higher Education Development in Africa (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016)In Unequal Partners: American Foundations and Higher Education Development in Africa, Fabrice Jaumont focuses on American...
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Enhancing South Sudan's Prospects through Advancing an Ambitious Security-Development Agenda
IntroductionSince independence in 2011, the stability of South Sudan has been extremely fragile; in fact, South Sudan was considered the most fragile country in the world in 2014. This has especially been the case after it began experiencing internal...
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Modernization Theory and the Metaphor of the Development Ladder
I. IntroductionThe debate in economics, and specifically in development studies, about how to move a society and its industries forward has a longstanding history. The colonial conquest was partly justified as bringing development, modernization, and...
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Vol. 12, 2016

Construction of Multidimensional Poverty Index of Kenya Using the Alkire-Foster Method
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionBackgroundDefining poverty as a phenomenon of multiple dimensions goes back to the seminal work of Amartya Sen. In practice, however, the vast majority of empirical work on poverty uses a onedimension...
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Going beyond the Model: Reimagining Education Policy in Africa
Africa is not in the business of retrofitting. In his Chatham House address, economist Carlos Lopez discusses the opportunity for Africa to develop not just in spite of, but because of, its "latecomer" status. Lopez refers to the continent's economic...
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Historical Antecedents and Paradoxes That Shaped Kenya's Contemporary Information and Communication Technology Policies
IntroductionThe Global Entrepreneur Summit, which took place in Nairobi in July 2015, marked a global watershed recognition of Kenya's quantum leaps in the ICTs sector and its impact on rapid economic growth. The impressive facts and statistics reveal...
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Economic Integration in Africa: Past, Present, and Future
IntroductionRegional integration has been a long-standing objective of African political leaders. Policy experts have, for years, emphasized the need for regional economic integration. In this case, integration means the reduction of tariffs and other...
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The Anatomy of Government Neglect in Nigerian Maritime Industry
IntroductionThe 2015 Nigerian Maritime Expo (NIMAREX) left Nigerians with numerous reflections, including the unpleasant state of Nigerian seafarers, ineffective implementation of Coastal and Inland Shipping (Cabotage) Act 2003, and foreign dominance...
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Globalization and the Diffusion of Media Policy in Africa: The Case of Defamation of Public Officials
IntroductionGlobalization and the interconnection of nations, cultures, and peoples through information and communication technologies has resulted in a global society, which, despite political, economic, cultural, social, and religious differences,...
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The End of the Commodities Super-Cycle and Its Implications for the Democratic Republic of Congo in Crisis
IntroductionIn Central Africa, the DR Congo is a major rent-based economy, which is overwhelmed by crises. First, the country, a fragile state, has been embroiled in political and electoral crises since 2015. In addition, it faces a longstanding security...
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Vol. 11, 2015

Staff
ALICIA BELLO is a Co-Editor-in-ChiEf of the Africa Policy Journal (APJ) and a joint degree candidate at John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and Harvard Law School. She is a member of the Law and International Development Society...
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Editor's Remarks
We are excited to present the 2015-2016 edition of the Africa Policy Journal (APJ). 2015 was an eventful year for the continent and we are happy to publish a breadth of articles on a range of topics, from elections in Nigeria to refugee rights in Kenya...
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Pathways to Inclusive Growth: Corner Store 2.0
Growing up in the 1980s in South Africa, it was common for low-income households to visit the city once a month to buy their supply of groceries. The corner stores catered for their grocery needs throughout the month. For the business owner, a typical...
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Boko Haram: Police Practices, Corruption, and Governance in Nigeria
We were off to dinner and drinks during my first visit to Lagos, Nigeria. I was in Lagos to speak at a conference about improving the relationship between police, prosecutors, and the community. The car ride was long-there was traffic, a lot of honking,...
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Law and Justice: Reviewing Positive Law in Post-Apartheid South Africa
Introduction: Defining Natural Law and Positive LawPositive law places an emphasis on the sources of the law, rather than its substance and "merits."1 Positive law reinforces a restricted legal culture and continuously endeavors to rid the law of ethical...
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Regulating the Inflationary Cost of Nigeria's Democracy
IntroductionOn 28 March 28 and 11 April 2015, general elections for political offices across the federal, state, and local government levels were held in Nigeria. The elections were generally considered a success and victory for democracy in a country...
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Unlocking Financing for Slum Redevelopment: The Case of Mukuru
IntroductionOver 60 percent of the 3.5 million people in Nairobi, Kenya, live in slums.1 These informal settlements are characterized by extensive economic poverty, substandard housing, and limited access to basic ser vices.The linkage between access...
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Redressing HIV/AIDS Discrimination in Nigeria: The Implications of the Anti-Discrimination Act of 2015
IntroductionSystemic discrimination continues to be the most pressing issue affecting people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) in Nigeria. In 2015, the Nigerian government decided to address this problem by enacting the HIV and AIDS (Anti-Discrimination)...
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Enhancing the Protective Space for Refugees in Kenya and Uganda
Refugee Protection in East AfricaThe number of refugees in the world has surged over the past decade. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated around 14.4 million refugees worldwide in 2014.1 Figures in East Africa are continuously...
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Hakeem Belo-Osagie: Be Bold, Be Courageous
Hakeem Belo-Osagie spoke with the Africa Policy Journal (APJ) and shared advice for young Africans seeking to make a change across the continent. Below is an edited version of the conversation.APJ: What advice do you have for students contemplating a...
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View from Dangote Group: Strategy and Policy for Doing Business in Africa
The Africa Policy Journal ( APJ) sat down with key members of Dagote Group's team during their visit to Boston to talk about doing business in Africa and the policy changes necessary to spur growth. We spoke with Chief of Strategy Abdu Mukhtar, Group...
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Vol. 10, 2014

Meet the Staff
Ngozika (Zika) Amalu is the Editor-in-Chief of the Africa Policy Journal. She is a second-year Master in Public Policy student at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Previously, Zika was the Machel-Mandela fellow at the Brenthurst...
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Editor's Remarks
The 2014/2015 year has seen the expansion of the Africa Policy Journal (APJ), particularly to include a young, politically active, and tech-savvy, online African community. I am proud of our accomplishments and grateful to those who have seen us through...
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The Business of Government: Why Governments Need to Work Together with Business in Sub-Saharan Africa
Taabul! Wahaka!. Troble! If you speak he lingo in various African capitals, this might be how you hear businesses, particularly multinational firms, describe governments.In return, many a government across the continent typically deign enterprise- related...
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Seeking the Political Kingdom: Changing the Way We Deliver Humanitarian Aid
The United Nations has recently launched the largest ever appeal for funds to deal with humanitarian emergencies in its history, asking the international community for $16.4 billion in donations.1 While a large portion of the funds are to address the...
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Private Sector: Protect Your Bottom Line and Invest in African Health Systems
for any resident of Malawi wanting to operate a vehicle legally, time at the road traffic department is a rite of passage. Perched at my favorite lunch spot across the street from the building, I pay particular attention to the tell-tale indicators of...
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The Bright Continent: Breaking Rules and Making Change in Modern Africa
The Bright Continent: Breaking Rules and Making Change in Modern Africa by dayo Olopade (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014)rEViEWEd by ALiciA OLAyinKA bELLOdayo Olopade's first book is a buoyant foray into the ingenuities that make the African continent...
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The Cost of Devolution in Kenya: A Cost Analysis of the New Governance Framework Introduced by the 2010 Constitution of Kenya and Its Impact on the Country's Public Finance
BackgroundThe centralized system of government that Kenya had until 2010 is largely blamed for promoting and sustaining poor governance in Kenya. Yash Pal Ghai argues, "There was wide-scale perception, which statistics support, that the centralized state...
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Reductive Sampling: A Framework for Victim Participation and the Reparations Phase of the ICC Trial
The International Criminal Court (ICC), established by international treaty to prosecute serious crimes that are of concern to the international community, delivered its first verdict in March 2012 in the case of Lubanga.1 The court found Lubanga guilty...
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The Ebola Challenge: West and Central Africa's Containment Strategy
Ebola ChroniclesThe First Recorded Ebola OutbreakOn 27 June 1976 in a southern township in Nzara, Sudan, the Ebola disease takes its first Sudanese casualty, a factory storekeeper.1 This day marks the start of the world's first recorded epidemic of the...
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Interview with Dr. Donald Kaberuka, President of the African Development Bank
APJ Editor-in-Chief Ngozika Amalu and Senior Editor for Interviews Elizabeth Bennett had the opportunity to sit down with Dr. Donald Kaberuka, President of the African Development Bank (AfDB), on the occasion of his visit to the John F. Kennedy School...
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Vol. 9, 2013

Note from Editor-in-Chief
2013 has been a successful year for the Africa Policy Journal (APJ), and I am grateful to those who helped make it a success.Bakary Seckan, the former Editor-in-Chief made the transition seamless. Timothy Cheston, Tomoo Okubu, and Sarah Glavey helped...
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Acknowledgements
We would like to recognize and thank various people who have been tremendously helpful in producing this years journal. First and foremost, we thank Martha Foley, Assistant Director of Student Services, who provided endless amounts of guidance and patience...
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A Quiet Success in Stemming a Global Epidemic
George W. Bush ended his presidency in 2009 as the most disliked chief executive of the United States in the history of popularity polls. With an approval rating of a paltry 22 percent, Bush registered a lower level of support among the American populace...
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Morocco: A New Financial Capital?
Although the official unemployment rate stands at a mere 9 percent, it is approximately 17 percent for university graduates and nearly 30 percent for those under the age of thirty-five.It would be sad if the Arab Spring cemented more turmoil than it...
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Branding Tourism in Liberia
AbstractLiberia is still tainted by images of war and poverty, even though the country has been at peace for over a decade under the leadership of President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf. The current brand image deters tourists, business executives, and potential...
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Tracking Vulnerability in Real Time: Mobile Text for Food Security Surveys in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
AbstractMobile telephony-a rapid and cost-effective means of collecting data-has yet to be tested for household food security surveys in humanitarian settings. This article captures insights from a field test carried out in July, August, and September...
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Experiment Gone Wrong?
Experiment Gone Wrong? A Review of The Idealist: Jeffrey Sachs and the Quest to End Poverty By Nina Munk (Signal, September 2013) REVIEWED BY MPUMELELO NXUMALOJeffrey Sachs had a goal: to end poverty in Africa by 2025, and according to journalist Nina...
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Poor Numbers: How We Are Misled by African Development Statistics and What to Do about It
Poor Numbers: How We Are Misled by African Development Statistics and What to Do About It By Morten Jerven (Cornell University Press, 2013)REVIEWED BY RODRIGO GARCIA-VERDÚ1Over the past decade, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has attracted increasing attention...
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Interview with Dr. Ibrahim Assane Mayaki, CEO of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) Planning and Coordinating Agency
Mpumelelo Nxumalo and Elizabeth Bennett recently had a chance to sit down with Dr. Ibrahim Assane Mayaki, the chief executive officer of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) Planning and Coordinating Agency. Their conversation covered...
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Interview with Lise Grande, United Nations Resident Coordinator and United Nations Development Programme Resident Representative in South Sudan
THEME OF INTERVIEWIn line with Lise Grande's presentation at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University on 18 February 2014 and the mission of the Harvard Africa Policy Journal (APJ) to encourage dialogue on African policy, APJ wanted...
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Vol. 8, 2012

Symptoms of an Enduring Crisis: Prospects for Addressing Mali's Conflict Catalysts
AbstractDespite the peace agreements and disarmament processes implemented since the 1990s, conflict in Mali has proven to be resilient. Conflict symptoms pertaining to deficient governance and sustained societal discontent have recurrently generated...
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Equity and Core Concepts of Human Rights in Namibian Health Policies
AbstractDelivering health services to vulnerable populations is a significant challenge in many countries. Groups vulnerable to social, economic, and environmental challenges may not be considered or may be impacted adversely by the health policies that...
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Editor's Remarks
Dear Readers,On behalf of our editorial team we would like to present to you the 8th Volume of the Harvard Africa Policy Journal. The APJ was started in 2006 by a group of students at Harvard Kennedy School who believed that there needed to be a publication...
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At What Cost? Aid-Security Relations in East and West Africa
Meet America's new ally in Africa. With 16 million people, a per capita income of $360 (PPP),52,875 refugees, and dysfunctional neighbors, Niger seems less than the ideal partner in the growing U.S. strategic footprint in Africa, but its geographic location...
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Supporting & Strengthening Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Services Using Mobile Phones in Sierra Leone: A Research Protocol
IntroductionSierra Leone is consistently ranked among the countries with the highest maternal mortality ratio (970 per 100,000) and women in Sierra Leone have a 1 in 21 lifetime risk of dying as a result of pregnancy Despite some progress, Sierra Leone...
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Vulnerability Analysis and Policy Development in Democratic African States
The development challenges for contemporary democratic states of Africa are enormous. This somewhat sweeping phrase takes for granted the question of whether those countries claiming to be democratic are so in organisation and practice. For instance,...
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Desertec: A Fata Morgana?
In 2009, a group of academics, policy makers, and industry professionals came together and created the Desertec Industrial Initiative (Dil) and the DESERTEC Foundation with the goal of meeting 15% of Europe's electricity needs and two thirds of the Middle...
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South Sudan's Entry into the East African Community: Prospects and Challenges
On July 09, 2012, the Republic of South Sudan celebrated its first year anniversary. The previous year, on November 11, 2011, it submitted an application to formally join the East African Community (EAC), a regional organization consisting of Burundi,...
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The Red Dust of Africa: A Personal Journey
In 1961,1 received an invitation from Sargent Shriver to join the newly created Peace Corps. I was a 1959 alumna of the Experiment in International Living that had been directed by Shriver. My husband and I applied and on May 22nd of that year received...
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