Canadian Review of Social Policy

Articles

No. 77, 2017

Inner Border Making in Canada: Tracing Gendered and Raced Processes of Immigration Policy Changes between 2006 and 2015
IntroductionAs Giorgio Agamben (1995) noted twenty years ago, "The novelty of our era, which threatens the very foundations of nation-state, is that growing portions of humanity can no longer be represented within it" (p. 115). This situation is even...
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Producing Trans Economicus: Deploying Market Logic in the Fight for Trans Rights
"Why [would] a business organization ... consider becoming transgender-inclusive[?] At first glance, such an initiative might appear to be counterintuitive. After all, what could an organization realistically have to gain? Wouldn't it be disruptive to...
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Placing Health in Welfare Policy: A HIAP Approach in Ontario Canada
IntroductionA longstanding concern in the literature has been a lack of interconnectedness between health and social policies that serves as a barrier to optimizing population health. The inability to successfully support population health through purely...
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A Thirty Year Retrospective on the Income Adequacy of Canadian Provincial Social Assistance Payments to Non-Institutionalized Disabled Adults
Income security is an important contemporary policy issue especially given the rapidly shifting economy and the aging of the North American workforce (Berg, 2016; Lamarche, Hanley, Noel, & Christensen, 2016; Quinn, & Cahill, 2016). However, what...
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Interculturalism: A View from Quebec
Interculturalism: A View From Quebec by Gerard Bouchard. University of Toronto Press, 2105Debates concerning cultural pluralism have dominated the public sphere in many North American countries for the past several years. Many conservative forces seem...
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Editorial
The articles for this issue trace the ways in which social policies negatively affect vulnerable populations, and in some cases, when they are designed to assist them. The ability of seniors to pay family members for caregiving duties in Newfoundland...
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Lessons from Latin America: Innovations in Politics, Culture, and Development
Lessons from Latin America: Innovations in Politics, Culture, and Development. By Felipe Arocena and Kirk Bowman. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014. ISBN: 9781442605497Arocena and Bowman's book, Lessons from Latin America: Innovations in Politics,...
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The Ethics of Care and the Newfoundland Paid Family Caregiver Program: An Assessment
IntroductionThe province of Newfoundland and Labrador is facing significant challenges in terms of the provision of long-term care for the elderly population. Critical gaps in long-term care services, particularly in rural areas, have resulted from a...
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No. 76, 2016

L'engagement Politique et Militant De la Coalition Pour L'équité Salariale : Analyse De la Lutte De Reconnaissance Des Emplois De Proximité Occupés Par Les Femmes Au Nouveau-Brunswick
IntroductionL'article propose une analyse de l'engagement politique et militant de la Coalition pour l'équité salariale au Nouveau-Brunswick. Il vise ainsi à comprendre comment la lutte menée par la Coalition favorise ou non une reconnaissance de l'équité...
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The Case of Ashley Smith: Policy Window or Policy Failure
IntroductionIn his report, A Preventable Death, The Correctional Investigator of Canada, Howard Sapers (2008), offers a summary of the immediate events surrounding the death of Ashley Smith:On October 19, 2007, at the age of 19, Ms. Smith was pronounced...
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Housing and Stress: Examining the Physical and Mental Health Differences between Homeless and Formerly Homeless Individuals
IntroductionHousing policy influences the lives of individuals under its purview by dictating who is entitled to social housing, how entitlement changes over the course of their lifetime, and the extent to which social housing is supported in a community...
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For Professional Educators, What Is 'Meaningful Collaboration'?
A few years ago, I was invited to take part in an international conference at a venerable German university boasting one of the largest teacher education programs in that country. The conference theme was 'Meaningful Collaboration in Teacher Education'....
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Disability, Right Monitoring and Social Change: Building Power out of Evidence
Disability, right monitoring and social change: Building power out of evidence Edited by Marcia H. Rioux, Paula C. Pinto and Gillian Parekh, Canadian Scholars' Press, 2015. ISBN: 9781551307411Disability, Rights Monitoring and Social Change: Building...
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Purchase for Profit: Public-Private Partnerships and Canada's Public Health Care System
Purchase for Profit: Public-Private Partnerships and Canada's Public Health Care System by Heather Whiteside. University of Toronto Press, 2015. ISBN: 9781442651203Standing in at 203 pages, Heather Whiteside's Purchase for Profit: Public-Private Partnerships...
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Editorial/éditoriale
The articles in this issue address the various impacts of neoliberal social policy, and explore barriers to, and possibilities for, meaningful changes. Using a variety of research approaches, the articles tackle critical questions pertaining to Employment...
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Motherhood and Unemployment: Intersectional Experiences from Canada
IntroductionWhen workers become unemployed in Canada, there is an expectation that they will be able to access unemployed workers' support because they have paid into the federal Employment Insurance (EI) program while employed. However, this is not...
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Limited and Limiting Conversations about the Poor: Elizabethan Prescriptions to Poverty in the Canadian Press
IntroductionThe conversation about people living in poverty in wealthy developed countries is couched in moralistic terms such as deserving vs. undeserving poor (Raphael, 2011). This study has found that longstanding discourses are prominent in Canadian...
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No. 74, Spring

Playing with Motherhood: The Politics of Leisure and the Transition to Motherhood in Montreal and Toronto
IntroductionThe role of the mother in political economies is well documented. Moreover, the ways in which motherhood is constituted - through its discursive and material effects - within policy assemblages has long been explored within the social sciences.1...
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Decolonizing Employment: Aboriginal Inclusion in Canada's Labour Market
Decolonizing Employment: Aboriginal Inclusion in Canada's Labour Market. By Shauna MacKinnon. Winnipeg, Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press, 2015. ISBN-978-0887557811Shauna MacKinnon's book, Decolonizing Employment: Aboriginal Inclusion in Canada's...
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Northern Communities Working Together: The Social Economy of Canada's North
Northern Communities Working Together: The Social Economy of Canada's North Edited by Chris Southcott. Toronto, On: University of Toronto Press, 2015, 304 pp. ISBN 9781442614185The "social economy", as a conceptual framework, seeks to capture the value...
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Editorial
The articles in this issue provide new insights into several social policy and/or social welfare programs that so far have received little critical attention. All of them address vulnerable categories of people in Canadian society and shed further light...
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Homelessness among Older People: Assessing Strategies and Frameworks across Canada
IntroductionThe number of older people who are homeless is expected to rise as a result of population aging (see Edmonston & Fong, 2011), and the compounded impacts of poverty, inequality, and rising housing costs in Canada and elsewhere (Crane &...
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Participation Des Personnes Assistées Sociales À la Mesure De Formation De la Main D'oeuvre (MFOR): Caractéristiques et Résultats De Fin De Participation
IntroductionAu Québec, un ensemble de mesures actives d'aide à l'emploi ont pour objectif de favoriser l'insertion en emploi et le développement de l'employabilité des personnes exclues du marché du travail, notamment chez les individus inscrits au régime...
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Aboriginal Child Welfare in British Columbia and Unequal Power Relations: A Critical Discourse Analysis
IntroductionIn November 2013, the Representative for Children and Youth, Mary Ellen Turpel-Lafond, released a Special Report entitled When Talk Trumped Service: A Decade of Lost Opportunity for Aboriginal Children and Youth in B.C. The purpose of the...
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No. 75, 2016

Editorial/éditorial
CRSP is pleased to launch our first issue devoted to the scholarship of graduate students in Social Policy / Social Work. We began this project in the Fall of 2015, with the ambitious goal of publishing the issue by Spring of 2016, in time for the School...
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"The Brains of a Nation": The Eugenicist Roots of Canada's Mental Health Field and the Building of a White Non-Disabled Nation
IntroductionEugenicist movements in the United States, and most infamously in Nazi Germany, have been understood to be important actors in the establishment of various social policies that are linked to nationalist goals of racial purity and the elimination...
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(Re)constructing and (Re)habilitating the Disabled Body: World War One Era Disability Policy and Its Enduring Ramifications
IntroductionThe First World War, fought from 1914 to 1919, was different from other wars Canada had previously participated in. The sheer scale of this war was unparalleled in history. In addition to the roughly 61,326 dead, 172,950 injured soldiers...
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"Journey to Freedom Day Act": The Making of the Vietnamese Subject in Canada and the Erasure of the Vietnam War
IntroductionOn April 30th, 2015, Canada marked its first Journey to Freedom Day (Bill S-219), an Act "respecting a national day of commemoration of the exodus of Vietnamese refugees and their acceptance in Canada" (Bill S-219, 2015, p.1). I am interested...
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Inspection, Policing, and Racism: How Municipal By-Laws Endanger the Lives of Chinese Sex Workers in Toronto
IntroductionPublic debate on the laws and regulations pertaining to sex work has ensued since before living memory and it continues today. Radical feminists describe sex workers' experiences in terms of sexual violence and psychological harm, which are...
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Affirmative Governmentality and the Politics of Youth Inclusion: A Critical Analysis of Youth Voice and Engagement in Dominant Political Discourse in Ontario
IntroductionWhile a robust literature tracks the ways in which racialized and marginalized youth are excluded from dominant spaces, little attention has been paid to the effects of policies and programs that invite them. This article addresses this issue...
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What's Happened to Politics?
What's Happened to Politics? By Bob Rae, Canada: Simon & Schuster, 2015. ISBN: 9781501103414In the newly released book, "What's Happened to Politics?" former politician Bob Rae sets out a critical analysis of the current state of Canadian politics....
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No. 71, 2015

Editorial/éditorial
For this special issue of the Canadian Review of Social Policy/Revue canadienne de la politique sociale, we invited both key experts and new scholars to tackle the topic of social policy and the Harper government. The resulting papers address a range...
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Prime Minister as Moral Crusader: Stephen Harper's Punitive Turn in Social Policy-Making
AbstractStephen Harper has been Canada's Prime Minister since 2006, heading three Conservative administrations; two minority governments (2006-08, and 2008-11) and one majority government (2011- to the present). Harper's time in power has spanned periods...
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The Conservative Government and the Re-Emergence of Tuberculosis in First Nations and Inuit Communities
AbstractIn the 1980s, Canada thought that it had beaten tuberculosis. The disease that had reached epidemic proportions during the first half of the twentieth century had started a dramatic and steady decline from the 1950s to the mid-1980s. However,...
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Orchestrating Austerity: Impacts & Resistance
Orchestrating Austerity: Impacts & ResistanceDonna Baines & Stephen McBride (Eds.), Halifax & Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing, 2014.Donna Baines and Stephen McBride's edited book on austerity addresses one of the most important issues of the...
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Poverty
PovertyJim Silver, Halifax: Fernwood Books, 2014.Jim Silver's book on Poverty published by Fernwood Books in 2014 is in a series that they have titled "About Canada". It's a little book, in a format the size of a large index card, about a big subject....
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Party of One: Stephen Harper and Canada's Radical Makeover
Party of One: Stephen Harper and Canada's Radical MakeoverMichael Harris, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Viking, 2014.In the Party of One: Stephen Harper and Canada's Radical Makeover (2014), Michael Harris provides enough evidence to charge Stephen Harper...
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Austerity, Social Program Restructuring, and the Erosion of Democracy: Examining the 2012 Employment Insurance Reforms
AbstractThe austerity period in Canada, unfolding under the Harper government since 2011, has involved not just the cutting back of social programs, but a complex process of state reregulation and restructuring in the social policy area. In announcing...
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Women in Harperland: A Critical Look at Gender Inequality in Canada since 2006
AbstractThis paper critically examines and summarizes the facts on gender inequality under Stephen Harper's Conservative government. Since Stephen Harper's election in 2006, arguably, women's economic and social wellbeing has weakened, therefore increasing...
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Child Care and the Harper Agenda: Transforming Canada's Social Policy Regime
AbstractThis article examines the changing child care policy landscape in Canada, as indicative of the fundamental shiftthat is happening in Canada's social policy regime under the Harper Conservative government. It begins by reviewing the policy choices...
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No. 72/73, 2015

Editorial
The articles in this issue address the ways in which austerity, cost containment and forms of surveillance undermine the security and life chances of vulnerable populations. The government commitment to austerity has deeply penetrated the areas of child...
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Equity in Times of Austerity: Ontario's Revenue Crisis in Historical Perspective
IntroductionConcerns for health equity have found entry into social policy discussions in Canada at both the national and provincial levels of government. The concept of health equity focuses attention on the distribution of resources and processes that...
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Between the Abuser and the Street: An Intersectional Analysis of Housing Challenges for Abused Women
IntroductionConnie had it all. "I had a job, I had a house, I had 2 cars, I had a cottage" (Interview #4, Kingston). But her husband was physically and psychologically abusive. She describes how difficult it was for her to decide to leave her children...
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Risk and Protective Factors of Precarious Housing among Indigenous People Living in Urban Centres in Alberta, Canada
IntroductionPrecarious living is becoming more commonplace within Canada. This is evident in the increasing prevalence of precarious employment (such as temporary or part-time employment) and precarious housing (such as homelessness, couch surfing, below...
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Kinship Care in an Era of Cost Containment
IntroductionAlthough the provision of out-of-home care for children deemed to be at risk of abuse or neglect is a necessary component of child welfare services, the persistence of poor social, health and educational outcomes for children in care (Simms,...
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Quick to Punish: An Examination of the School to Prison Pipeline for Marginalized Youth
From surveillance cameras; to hall monitors; to an increased emphasis on student identification; to police officers stationed within schools, some Toronto-area high schools are looking increasingly similar to their American counterparts. This security-based...
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Dying from Improvement: Inquests and Inquiries into Indigenous Deaths in Custody
Dying From Improvement: Inquests and Inquiries into Indigenous Deaths in Custody by Sherene H. Razack. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press, 2015, 309 pp. ISBN 978-1-4426-2891-5Dying from Improvement includes several of Sherene Razack's recent journal...
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Mohawk Interruptus: Political Life across the Borders of Settler States
Mohawk Interruptus: Political Life Across the Borders of Settler States Audra Simpson, Durham: Duke University Press, 2014.Audra Simpson's book, Mohawk Interruptus, is an achievement of scholarship. It delivers what it promises, has a strong authorial...
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No. 70, 2014

Canadian Food Banks and the Depoliticization of Food Insecurity at the Individual and Community Levels
"Abstract"The political implications of food banks and food insecurity on the federal, provincial and private-sector levels have been documented and emphasized by Canadian social scientists. However, it is equally important to gain a comprehensive understanding...
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Negotiating the System: Social Workers in Home Support in New Brunswick
AbstractAs part of a larger study we conducted focus groups with social workers involved in the assessment and case management of home support services for seniors in New Brunswick. Two key findings of our research were participant feelings of being...
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Our Bodies Are Our Own: Connecting Abortion and Social Policy
AbstractIt has been 25 years since abortion was decriminalized by the Supreme Court of Canada in 1988, as the court struck down Section 251 of the Criminal Code of Canada, and abortion was made available for women to access without the consent of a doctor....
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Young Adult Experiences with Securing Employment: Perceptions of and Experiences with Employer Discrimination and Expectations Hinder Successful Labour Market Attachment
AbstractThe increasingly precarious nature of North America's labour market has created challenges for young adults in securing and maintaining adequate employment. In a study to better understand these barriers, one-to-one interviews and focus groups...
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Social Assistance Fraud and Zero Tolerance in Ontario, Canada
AbstractDuring the 1990s, the social assistance system in Ontario, Canada, underwent enormous changes in policy that included substantial reductions in welfare rates, new rules and restrictions on common-law spousal relationships, work-based welfare...
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Building Capacity for Alternative Knowledge: The Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives
"Abstract"This article presents a case study of the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) - the main left-oriented think tank of national scope in Canada. We first recount the development of the organization from 1980 to present, emphasizing...
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Look at My Life: Access to Education for the Remand Population in Ontario
AbstractRelative to other education systems across the world, access to education and the right to education in Canada do not, at first glance, appear to be denied or infringed upon. However, this is not the case for all individuals in Ontario. Despite...
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Unlikely Radicals the Story of the Adams Mine Dump War
Unlikely Radicals The Story of the Adams Mine Dump War Charlie Angus Toronto, ON: Between the Lines, 2013.Book Review by Gayle BroadNorthern and rural communities face many obstacles in organizing to challenge mega-projects - they do not have access...
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Troubling Care - Critical Perspectives on Research and Practices
Troubling Care - Critical Perspectives on Research and Practices Eds. Pat Armstrong and Susan Bradley Toronto,ON: Canadian Scholars Press, 2013.Reviewed by Brigitte KitchenGrowing old is often considered a problematic stage in the life cycle. The need...
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No. 68/69, 2012

Framing Aging through the State: Canada's Two Senate Committees on Aging, 1963-1966 and 2006-2009
AbstractBetween 1963-1966 and 2006-2009, the work of two Special Senate Committees on Aging helped to construct a national dialogue around the consequences of population aging. An analysis of the final reports of each Senate committee provides a revealing...
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Advancing Age-Friendly Communities in Canada
AbstractThe "age-friendly cities" concept proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) is a multi-sectoral policy approach to address demographic aging in urban settings. Canadian governments at all levels, seniors' organizations and non-governmental...
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Canada's Complex and Fractionalized Home Care Context: Perspectives of Workers, Elderly Clients, Family Carers, and Home Care Managers1
AbstractIn Canada, home care provides health and social services to an estimated one million people, most of them older adults. In the absence of national policy directives, services vary considerably from one jurisdiction to the next, in what has been...
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Gender, Race, and Immigration: Aging and Economic Security in Canada1
AbstractA growing share of the population in Canada comprised of aging immigrants lacks the financial resources for a secure retirement. Disproportionately visible minorities, many foreign-born seniors, have limited access to income security programs,...
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Prevention of Abuse of Older Women in the Post-Migration Context in Canada
AbstractImmigrants represent 28% of the Canadian population over 65, and older immigrants - more of them are women - now comprise the majority of the aging population in Canada's large metropolitan cities. Despite ample research about abuse of older...
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Quebec's Vieillir et Vivre Ensemble Policy on Ageing: A Critical outside Analysis
For a Belgian researcher, the invitation from the Canadian Review of Social Policy (CRSP) to assess Vieillir et vivre ensemble, chez soi, dans sa communauté, au Québec (ageing and living together: at home, in one's community, in Quebec), a new policy...
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Health in Rural Canada
Health in Rural Canada Judith C. Kulig, Allison M. Williams Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press, 2012.Health in Rural Canada is an interdisciplinary collection that brings together the most current health research on rural, remote, and...
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About Canada: Disability Rights
About Canada: Disability Rights Deborah Stienstra Halifax & Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing, 2012.The latest addition to Fernwood's About Canada Series is written by Deborah Stienstra, a professor of disability studies at the University of Manitoba....
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Beyond Caring Labour to Provisioning Work
Beyond Caring Labour to Provisioning Work Sheila M. Neysmith, Marge Reitsma-Street, Stephanie Baker Collins, and Elaine Porter Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012In its 10 chapters written by the four authors, with individual chapters from two...
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Understanding the Social Economy: A Canadian Perspective
Understanding the Social Economy: A Canadian Perspective Jack Quarter, Laurie Mook, and Ann Armstrong. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009The primary purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive examination of the social economy within Canada,...
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Crabbit Old Woman
First printed in Chris Searle's poetry anthology Elders (Reality Press, 1973), without attributionWhat do you see nurses, what do you see,What are you thinking when you look at me?A crabbit old woman, not very wise,Uncertain of habit, with far-away eyes,Who...
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No. 67, 2012

Controversial Policies and the Usefulness of Nonprofit, Private, and Public Sector Partnerships: Introducing an Assisted Suicide Service in Ontario
AbstractThis article addresses whether a partnership between the public, non-profit, and private sectors represents a feasible solution for dealing with contentious and symbolic public policy issues in the provision of assisted suicide service in Ontario....
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The AccèsLogis Québec Program: 15 Years of Partnership between the State and the Social Economy
AbstractOver the past 15 years, the Quebec government's public policy on social and community housing has been based mainly on the AccèsLogis program. Under this program, some 23,000 new social housing units have been developed. While the program's regulations...
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Dining on the Social Economy: Local, Sustainable Food Systems and Policy Development
AbstractAlthough the social economy has a long historical connection to food, these links have not been well explored or understood, particularly with respect to social policy. But given the well-documented range of negative impacts brought on by a world...
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Beyond Policy "Lock-In"? the Social Economy and Bottom-Up Sustainability
AbstractSocial economy innovation in sustainability is altering policy environments. The activities of green social organizations combine social and ecological missions in ways that pose new questions across sometimes discrete policy silos and levels,...
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Renewing Funding Relationships: Certifying First Nations Social Service Administrators
Governments have been key funders of both social economy (SE) organizations and First Nation communities, yet the relationships between them have not necessarily been easy to negotiate. Challenges abound for government funders and SE and First Nation...
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A Challenge to the Social Economy Ecosystem: Social Enterprise Access to Current Government Services for Small & Medium Size Enterprises (SME)
Upon recognizing the significant role that Social Enterprise has on the overall social economy ecosystem, a collaboration of social economy actors and organizations convened the BC Social Enterprise Policy Forum in late 2007. The forum brought together...
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Designing Social Value Architecture for the For-Profit Company
For-profit companies are typically excluded from analyses of the social economy, and with good reason. The concept of shareholder primacy is deeply rooted within the modern corporation's organizational design - pursuing anything other than shareholder...
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Humanizing the Economy: Co-Operatives in the Age of Capital
Humanizing the Economy: Co-operatives in the Age of Capital John Restakis Gabriola Island, B.C: New Society Publishers, 2010The world of Co-operative Studies is notoriously bereftof literature that bridges the academic and practitioner worlds. It has...
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The Resilience Imperative, Co-Operative Transitions to a Steady-State Economy
The Resilience Imperative, Co-operative Transitions to a Steady-State Economy Mike Lewis and Pat Conaty Gabriola Island, B.C: New Society Publishers, 2012In the book The Resilience Imperative, Co-Operative Transitions to a Steady-State Economy Mike Lewis...
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Health Care in Canada: A Citizen's Guide to Policy and Politics
Health Care in Canada: A Citizen's Guide to Policy and Politics Katherine Fierlbeck University of Toronto Press, 2011Universal health care has long held a prominent position in Canadian nation building. Moreover, health care will always be political:...
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