Change Over Time

Articles

Vol. 5, No. 2, Fall

CLIMATE CHANGE AND LANDSCAPE PRESERVATION: Rethinking Our Strategies
As we lean into the headwinds of this era of climate change, preserving cultural landscapes can sometimes seem confusing, difficult, and thorny. How might those who are committed to resource preservation, protection, and continuity respond and adjust...
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Integrating Components of Resilient Systems into Cultural Landscape Management Practices
Cultural landscapes are historically significant properties that show evidence of human interaction with the physical environment. In the United States National Park Service (NPS), their significance is evaluated based on their physical integrity and...
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HEADING INTO THE WIND: Climate Change and the Implications for Managing Our Cultural Landscape Legacy
For many of us, the most easily envisioned effect of climate change will be a rise in sea levels that conjures visions of truncated coastlines, battered summer cottages, and half-submerged cities, such as New York and Miami. As we slowly accept the reality...
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MANAGING COASTAL CHANGE IN THE CULTURAL LANDSCAPE: A Case Study in Yankeetown and Inglis, Florida
IntroductionClimate change, including the related phenomenon of global sea level rise, is transforming landscapes, exacerbating risks to human settlements and economies, and forcing societies not only to seek ways to mitigate changes, but also to adapt...
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ENTANGLED CULTURE AND NATURE: Toward a Sustainable Jackson Park in the Twenty-First Century
IntroductionThe Jackson Park GLFER project seeks to advance park landscape adaptation and resilience to the anticipated regional effects of climate change, the most common being increased temperatures and drought, while supporting a full range of urban...
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Toward an Ecology of Cultural Heritage
IntroductionDisasters, both natural and human-induced, will have an increasing effect on the world's population, particularly with the added impacts of climate change.1 From Hurricanes Katrina's and Sandy's effects on New Orleans and New York, to the...
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A Conditional Preservation for Ephemeral Sites
IntroductionThe ephemerality of the built environment exists through a multitude of lenses and questions the presumed need for traditional trajectories of preser vation and longevity. Established processes tend to focus on ephemerality in terms of growth...
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Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring

Introduction: Vandalism
Some people become cops because they want to make the world a better place. Some people become vandals because they want to make the world a better looking place.-Banksy, Wall and Piece (2007)July, 2014i The world watches in horror as once again a jihadist...
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The Arch of Titus in the Roman Forum
IntroductionVandalism, usually the destruction, defacement, or desecration of a historical monument or a work of art, is undoubtedly disturbing.1 It is so disturbing, in fact, that often the first reaction to an act of vandalism may be to try to undo...
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Bamiyan, Vandalism, and the Sublime
The shock caused by the image of such destruction can easily inhibit thought on the event.1-Jean François-ClémentI. IntroductionIn March 2001, on the heels of some serious back-and-forth posturing and plenty of high-stakes bluster, the Taliban, ignoring...
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A Hollow Where the Vandals Were
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)A young person I know asked recently about assassinations and their relation to simple murder. My answer was that anyone may be killed, while not just anyone may be assassinated. It requires special status-a celebrity...
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Images in the Piazza
The Destruction of a Work by Maurizio Cattelan (Milan, May 2004)The one thing to say about art and life is that art is art and life is life.-Ad Reinhart, 1962In May 2004, a case of iconoclasm occurred in Milan that mobilized the city and the local and...
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The Licit and Illicit Vandalizing of San Francisco's Early Garages
IntroductionIn San Francisco, common, underutilized commercial buildings of historical significance sustain a variety of deleterious physical changes, including graffiti, building modifications, and demolition. Of the three, graffiti is the most pervasive...
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Vandalism of Cultural Heritage
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)IntroductionVandalism, or acts of deliberate destruction, has occurred throughout history. Irrespective of vandalism's social, political, or religious intent, the act itself constitutes damage upon the...
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Vandalism (Miami Style)
It is a muggy early June morning in South Florida, the sort of cloudless, sunny day that overwhelms you with its heat and glare. At the Miami Marine Stadium, a waterfront grandstand that opened in 1963, closed in 1992, and has been overrun by graffiti...
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Literature Review
The Destruction of ArtThe most cursory of glances at the recent literature on the topics of vandalism and iconoclasm reveal that The Destruction of Art, Iconoclasm and Vandalism Since the French Revolution by Dario Gamboni (1997), is a seminal work on...
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Vol. 4, No. 2, Fall

Foreword: The Venice Charter at Fifty
2014 marks thß fiftieth anniversary of the Second International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments and the adoption of the International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites, known today as the...
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HISTORIC CITIES AND THE VENICE CHARTER: Contributions to the Sustainable Preservation of Urban Heritage
The Preservation of Urban Heritage: An Idea from Modern TimesThe Opening statements of the International Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Monuments and Sites-commonly known as The Venice Charter 1964-tell us about the scope and depth of...
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FROM INTERNATIONAL TO COSMOPOLITAN: Taking the Venice Charter beyond the "State-Party" Politics of Experts
It Stands as a truism that the present condition of heritage preservation is more complicated than it was in the past. That is the case today, as it was at least as early as the midnineteenth century. When industrialism was changing the landscapes of...
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DECONSECRATING A DOCTRINAL MONUMENT: Raymond M. Lemaire (1921-1997) and the Revisions of the Venice Charter
In the 1960s, Raymond M. Lemaire established himself as a key figure of the international preservation world.2 Educated as an art historian in the 1940s, he soon learned of contemporary preservation problems thanks to his uncle, Canon Raymond Lemaire,...
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LEARNING FROM A LEGACY: Venice to Valletta
Changing Principles on and Approaches to HeritageWhat iS now called 'cultural heritage management" has in the past primarily focused on the protection of monuments and areas designated as cultural heritage.1 Cultural heritage has seen a shift in theory,...
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Spain under the Venice Charter
Any diSCUSSion of restoration in Spain around 1964 inevitably points to a very peculiar moment in the country's history. The first three decades of the twentieth century had represented an extremely fruitful moment for Spanish restoration, which, through...
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The Place of the Venice Charter Principles in the Context of National Cultural Revival in Ukraine after 1991
Due to Cold War complications, Soviet specialists had very limited involvement with the development of the Venice Charter. Instead, they developed an independent system of rules and regulations in the preservation and restoration of cultural heritage...
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THE VENICE CHARTER DOWN UNDER: Its Legacy in Landscape Preservation
The Venice Charter, which resulted from the deliberations of practitioners about the restoration of flood-damaged buildings in Venice in 1964, has become the fundamental reference for cultural heritage conservation policies.1 The aim of conservation...
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THE VENICE CHARTER AND CULTURAL LANDSCAPES: Evolution of Heritage Concepts and Conservation over Time
Adopted in 1964, the Venice Charter is considered the philosophical foundation for the field of heritage preservation. Revered, discussed, criticized, and lamented, it, along with its predecessor-the 1931 Athens Charter-has simultaneously influenced...
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European Industrial and Engineering Heritage as an Illustration of Current Challenges in Defining Heritage and Its Uses
As European industry has globalized and shifted production to emerging countries, it has left high unemployment and many shuttered production plants in its wake. This trend, coupled with declining birth rates in most countries, will lead to a decline...
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THE CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF HISTORIC HINDU TEMPLES IN INDIA: An Examination of Preservation Policies Influenced by the Venice Charter in Non-Judeo-Christian Contexts
The Venice Charter has now been in existence for five decades, and in that time, the charter has significantly influenced the preservation practices of countries across the world.1 The charter's birth in 1964 was propitious for its widespread application...
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CIVILIZATION-MAKING AND ITS DISCONTENTS: The Venice Charter and Heritage Policies in Contemporary China
Any examination of the impact of the 1964 International Charter for the Conservation and Preservation of Monuments and Sites (more commonly known as the Venice Charter) on cultural heritage preservation over the past five decades must begin with a key...
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The Concept of Historic Authenticity and Its Methdology for Preservation of Historic Urban Areas in Chinese Contexts
The notion of "historic authenticity" was initially mentioned in a series of cultural relics textbooks edited by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1990. Referred to in Chinese as Lishi Zhenshixing,...
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Riegl's "Modern Cult of Monuments" and the Problem of Value
The Venice Charter (1964) reaffirmed the historicist principles of the Athens Charter (1931), recasting them in terms of universal values. Since then, critics of the Venice Charter have attacked many of its premises, in particular, its focus on material...
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AUTHENTICITY: Principles and Notions
Authenticity has bGGn recognized as a theoretically and practically complex and important issue, on which numerous articles have been published. For example, the Bibliographic Database of the ICOMOS Documentation Centre shows almost six hundred hits...
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Is There a Need for a Charter on . . . the Wise Use of Charters and Conventions?
The Venice Charter of 1964, in only sixteen articles, adopts general principles for preservation and restoration, but the preamble also proposes a framework for future international cooperation. On one hand, given the "unity of human values," "ancient...
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The Venice Charter: A Bibliography
"The Actuality of the Venice Charter." Scientific Journal: The Venice Charter 1964-2004: ICOMOS 4 (ICOMOS, 1994).This article is a summary of the commentaries made during the 1990 International Symposium. It reviews the praises and critiques of the Venice...
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Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring

The Paradox of Urban Conservation in France, 1830-1930
Throughout Westorn Europe, the historical process of modernization entailed, among many other transformations, rapid urbanization. The stresses on existing built environments exerted by growing population density brought forth any number of redevelopment...
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THE CLOSED VERSUS THE OPEN CITYSCAPE: Rival Traditions from Nineteenth-Century Europe
AttitlldGS toward old cities in Europe fit into two distinct narratives. Both can be traced back to the remarkable transformation of Paris wrought by Emperor Napoleon III and his prefect, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, during the 1850s and 1860s. The first...
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GUSTAVO GIOVANNONI: A Theory and a Practice of Urban Conservation
As a pivotal figure in the fields of architecture and urban planning, Gustavo Giovannoni (1873-1947) developed both a theory and specific rules for urban conservation. Although he worked exclusively in Italy, his influence extended beyond the country's...
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Changing Ideas of Urban Conservation in Mid-Twentieth-Century England
The significant bomb damage suffered by many English towns and cities during World War II required urgent and large-scale rebuilding. It is generally thought that many of today's ideas and practices of town conservation emerged in this period, but their...
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CONSERVATION ON THE EDGE: Periurban Settlement Heritage in China
How do we resist seeing urban form as a finite thing, a complicated object, pitted against an irreconcilable, and allegedly inferior, rural context?Spiro Kostof, "Junctions of Town and Country"(1989)The superstitious belief in the Earth God is gradually...
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CONSERVING URBAN WATER HERITAGE IN MULTICENTERED REGIONS: An Historical-Geographic Approach to Early Modern Delhi
Early modsrn CitiGS in South Asia are renowned for their exquisite architectural waterworks, which included tanks, stepwells, garden channels, pools, and fountains.1 What is less widely appreciated is that these structures were situated within urban...
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CASE STUDY: HISTORIC ALEXANDRIA: The Next Fifty Years
The Alexandria, Virginia, historic district has been considered one of the best national examples of the application of historic preservation principles to guide development of a city while preserving historic resources. A superficial examination finds...
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Foreword: Whence Urban Conservation, Via Lewis Mumford
The city is both a physical utility for collective living and a symbol of those collective purposes and unanimities that arise under such favoring circumstance. With language itself, it remains man's [sic] greatest work of art.Lewis Mumford, "What is...
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The Idea of the Historic City
In itS early years, conservation (called historic preservation in the United States) focused on the protection of "monuments": that is, individual buildings deemed to be of exceptional historical and artistic value. As the canon of art history expanded,...
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Vol. 3, No. 2, 2013

EDITORIAL: Interpretation, Experience, and the Past
Any Consideration of the interpretation and display of heritage sites demands reflection on three critical questions:* How should we experience a place, especially one that is fragmented, accreted, and possibly illegible?* How does intervention affect...
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Storyscapes and Emplacement, Layer by Layer
At first sight, it is imposing, stately, and above all incongruous. On the banks of the Delaware River, in a working-class neighborhood next to Philadelphia International Airport, stands a 180-foot-long, three-story brick building fronted by a Doric-colonnaded...
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WORLD'S FAIRS: Language, Interpretation, and Display
From the second half of the nineteenth century until the psychological catastrophe of World War I, the great world's fairs were forums of progress and culture, competitions of all branches of art, quality contests for company products, periodical gatherings...
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HOUSING THE BELL: 150 Years of Exhibiting an American Icon
Mitchell/Giurgola's Liberty Bell Pavilion in Philadelphia was a small yet extraordinary modernist building whose short life encapsulated many of the complexities associated with postwar modernism: new expressive formalism, innovative technology, and...
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With "Feelings of Reverence for Departed Greatness"
It ÍS interesting that even today, the home of our nation's first president, Mount Vernon, is referred to as a shrine. The opening paragraph of Robert and Lee Dalzell's book, George Washington's Mount Vernon: At Home in Revolutionary America, refers...
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THE DISPLAY OF RUINS: Lessons from the Ghost Town of Bodie
Bodie is located in California's eastern Sierra; Yosemite National Park stands to the west, Mono Lake to the south, and Nevada to the east. In setting and climate Bodie is noteworthy. Built above the timber line at eight thousand feet, it occupies a...
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HOW HERITAGE'S DEBATE ON VALUES FUELS ITS VALORIZATION ENGINE: The Side Effects of Controversy from Alois Riegl to Richard Moe
Discussions of values and valuation constitute a substantial portion of the recent theoretical and policy discourse of heritage conservation. The contrast between many preservationists' proclivity for broad inclusiveness and economists' quest for specifiable...
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Vol. 3, No. 1, 2013

What Is Wrong with Nostalgia Anyway?
Nostalgia haunts US. Its incidence is widespread, beyond its particular role in historic preservation, not least because loss is a human condition and in learning to confront it, nostalgia may play a vital role. It may occasionally enliven our lives...
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Nostalgia, Architecture, Ruins, and Their Preservation
What's wrong With nostalgia? Indeed. It would depend on the meaning we chose for this multifarious term. Should we stick to some of its stricter readings, everything could go to rack and ruin, literally. "Nothing can be restored," and, "Nothing can be...
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The Spirit of Campus Past
Just before it Crosses Hill Field at the northeast edge of the University of Pennsylvania, Woodland Walk passes between two unremarkable red brick structures, a Tudorbethan fraternity house and a brick academic building. Most students, if they notice...
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GARDENS, MEMORY, AND HISTORY: The Shakespeare and Modern Elizabethan Garden
The experience of a garden seems at first quintessential^ present: the encounter intensely engages the senses, especially sight and smell, and demands our living in the moment. But every garden has a past: some are short-lived, but others have histories...
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MELANCHOLY, MEMORIES, AND SIX NOSTALGIAS: Postquake Christchurch and the Problems of Recalling the Past
Christchurch, New Zealand's MelancholyChristchurch's inner city presently bears an uncanny resemblance to a De Chirico painting. The abandoned streets, isolated structures and air of a time past bring to mind images such as Mystery and Melancholy of...
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The Use of History in Landscape Architectural Nostalgia
In hiS Tredtise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening Adapted to North America (1844), Andrew Jackson Downing wrote that, "To attempt the smallest work in any art, without knowing either the capacities of that art, or the schools, or modes,...
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"CERTAIN OLD AND LOVELY THINGS, WHOSE SIGNIFIED IS ABSTRACT, OUT OF DATE": James Stirling and Nostalgia
We are looking at the back wall of a large building that we come across from a minor street on a slope (Fig. 1). There is a wide pavement and a small parking bay in front of the wall. Two bulging air vents, of nautical or industrial form, appear to ventilate...
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Literature Review
On October 28, 1963, after a rancorous and protracted battle between New York City preservationists and the Pennsylvania Railroad, demolition began on McKim, Mead & White's 1910 Pennsylvania Station. A pink marble colossus spanning four city blocks...
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Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012

Editorial
The adaptation Of preexisting Structures to answer changing needs has enriched human history throughout time. Such structures - whether natural or designed artifacts - provide challenging topography for creative revitalization that can sustain and even...
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ADAPTATION AS A MODEL FOR NEW ARCHITECTURE IN HISTORIC SETTINGS: Some Observations from Rome
An essential Challenge facing living Organisms, ecosystems, and man-made built environments alike is that of negotiating permanence and change. In order to survive, all must succeed at adaptation, balancing the need for a persistent identity with the...
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TOBACCO ROW: Heritage, Environment, and Adaptive Reuse in Richmond, Virginia
On Richmond, Virginia's, east Side, late-twentieth-century adaptive reuse changed Tobacco Row from a neighborhood of abandoned former cigarette and cigar factories to a vibrant mixed-use neighborhood of residential apartments, offices, restaurants, and...
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DRAWING IDENTITY FROM CHANGE: Planning for Haverford College
American collegiate campuses are studies in adaptation. Policies and pedagogies are in constant flux, and each fall a new class of students - different, even if slightly, from those that came before - arrives on campus. Over time, existing structures...
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THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING AT-HOME: A Defense of Historic Preservation in Algeria
Must we look at historic preservation with jaded or even frightened eyes, as if protecting old buildings will doom us to cronocaos? When Rem Koolhaas coined the word, he meant to provoke fear: that preservation will rob cities of life, erasing their...
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A Note on Adaptation in Gardens
Adaptations of gardens will not necessarily function as do adaptations of buildings or interiors. Nor does adaptation, as we recognize it in buildings, seem altogether similar to what we observe in landscape architecture, for while forms can be altered...
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Literature Review
Is there any Subject within the field of architectural conservation more fraught than new design in historically sensitive contexts - more specifically, additions to historic buildings or historic districts? Within the vast topic of "adaptation," the...
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PRESERVATION BY ADAPTATION: Is It Sustainable?
You cannot ever really turn back the clock, or have things as they were. The appropriate resolution of the hard realities of necessary change are what preservation is all about. And yet every "appropriate" solution kills the old buildings a little bit...
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Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012

Twenty-Five Years of Archaeological Site Inventories in the Middle East
The Widespread introduction Of Computers in archaeological and cultural resources management activities in the Middle East is a relatively recent phenomenon and coincides with the availability of low-cost personal computers (PCs). This late start is...
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THE MIDDLE EASTERN GEODATABASE FOR ANTIQUITIES (MEGA): An Open Source GIS-Based Heritage Site Inventory and Management System
The Understanding Of heritage places that is gained through their recording and then embodied in documentary records forms the foundation of heritage decision making. Organized efforts to protect, conserve, and manage heritage places have, through most...
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HERITAGE RECORDING AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL FOR PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION, MAINTENANCE, AND MONITORING: The Approach of Monumentenwacht in the Flemish Region (Belgium)
Prevention Is Better Than CureIt is common knowledge that-with the exception of calamities such as fire, earthquakes, and other disasters-monuments decay in a gradual process and very often major damage is the result of minor accumulated damage that...
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Editorial
Innovation has always played an Important role in heritage conservation. The interdisciplinary requirements of the field have required professionals to think creatively and to employ a wide variety of techniques and methodologies. While disciplinary...
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The Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar in the Documentation and Evaluation of Iglesia San José, San Juan, Puerto Rico
AS an integral part Of the long-term assessment of Iglesia San José, several surveys using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) were conducted inside and outside the church to help determine conditions, the existence of physical evidence of building campaigns,...
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Vol. 1, No. 2, 2011

Editorial
What is past is prologue.William Shakespeare, The TempestMany built WOrkS pass down through time. How they are received by each generation is ultimately a function of what we know and feel about them and what ultimately becomes heritage. Conservation/preservation...
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Heritage Recording and Information Management in the Digital Age (Smartdoc-Heritage)
Executive SummaryThe international symposium SMARTdoc-heritage, which was held on November 19-20, 2010 at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia (USA), provided a wide crossdisciplinary platform for educators, professionals, heritage institutions,...
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DEDICATION: Robin Letellier (1944-2007)
Robin Letellier passed away i? Philadelphia on April 20, 2007. He graduated in architecture in 1969 from Laval University in Quebec City, Canada. One of his first jobs was to prepare the as-found drawings of the Dauphine Redoubt, an early-eighteenth-century...
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METRIC CONDITION RECORDS: Does the Capture Method or the Information Need Determine the Performance of 3D Heritage Records?
What Is Heritage Documentation?Documentation iS both a process and a product Heritage documentation is most effective when it is a continuous process. In this way it best serves conservation by supplying the data necessary for understanding the condition...
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HABS DOCUMENTATION IN THE DIGITAL AGE: Combining Traditional and New 3D Methods of Recording
The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) of the National Park Service (NFS) was established in 1933 with a mandate to document for posterity America's architectural heritage through the production of measured drawings, historical reports, and largeformat,...
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Advanced 3d Recording Techniques for the Digital Documentation and Conservation of Heritage Sites and Objects
According to UNESCO, heritage can be seen as a bridge between what we inherit and what we leave behind.1 But world heritage sites (natural, cultural, or mixed) suffer from the effects of wars, natural disasters, weather changes, and human negligence,...
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PHOTOGRAPHY IN HERITAGE RESEARCH: In Search of Digital Standards for Image Capture, Image Processing, and Image Delivery
IntroductionTrained as an artist/ photographer, I have worked for over twenty years with the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and its related groups, the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) and the Historic American Landscapes Survey...
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Multispectral Sensors in Combination with Recording Tools for Cultural Heritage Documentation
Natural weathering continuously affects the integrity of cultural sites and monuments over time. Together with natural and man-made disasters, pollution, and tourist activities, these combined assaults are steadily altering the condition of the main...
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LASER SCANNING THE PAST FOR THE FUTURE: Baalbek Temple
This paper describes activities carried out by consultants from the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC) at the University of Leuven, University College St. Lieven, and Lebanon's Directorate General of Antiquities (DGA) for a...
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TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING: Imaging, Quantifying, and Monitoring Microscale Surface Deterioration of Stone at Heritage Sites
Preserving the built environment functions to define regional, national, and cultural identities while also stimulating local economic activity.1 As a result, governmental agencies, intergovernmental organizations, and advocacy groups promote the preservation...
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Vol. 1, No. 1, 2011

Historic Cities and Their Survival in a Globalized World
An Interview with Francesco Siravoby COT Editor in Chief Frank MateroIn September 2009 you delivered one of the keynote addresses to the Tenth World Congress of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in Quito, Ecuador, a group dedicated to defining...
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HERITAGE CARE: From the Tower of Babel to the Ivory Tower
All the earth had the same language and the same words. Each said to his neighbors, "let us build a city and make a name for ourselves." YHWH said, "Look, it is one people, and one language for all of them. Let us go down and confuse their speech there,...
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Literature Review
In her 2005 bOOk Repair: The Impulse to Restore in a Fragile World, the writer and philosopher Elizabeth Spelman puts forth the notion that human beings are "repairing animals" engaged continually in a "creative destruction of brokenness"1 that touches...
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Editorial
With the nearing Close of the first decade of the twenty-first century, the state of the world is far from healthy. Environmental degradation, economic malaise, cultural disjuncture, political isolation, and social strife all threaten the stability and...
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LEARNING FROM LOCAL LEADERS Working Together toward the Conservation of Living Heritage at Angkor Wat, Cambodia
The Conservation Of Our Cultural heritage, and the retention of its authenticity,1 is more likely to meet with success when we understand and evaluate the nature of change and its positive and negative effects on the resource. Conservators may develop...
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Sites of Conscience
The heritage field has long been plagued by threats of irrelevance, cast as outside the real business of society. This volume arises from concerns that "the preservation of the historic built environment has had a less effective and widespread influence,...
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Repairing the Myth and the Reality of Philadelphia's Public Squares, 1800-1850
When William Penn published his City plan, called A Portraiture of the city of Philadelphia, in 1683, he wanted to assure prospective settlers and investors that the new colony of Pennsylvania would be anchored by a healthy and well-designed commercial...
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REPAIR OF MODERN STRUCTURES: Stepping Back and Looking Forward
Repair iS a human Constant and a timeless action; preservation is a modern construct.1 Although the cycle of construction and repair has been and will always be with us, it is only in the course of the last two centuries - and especially since World...
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