Cityscape

Articles from Vol. 17, No. 3, 2015

Changing Contexts and New Directions for the Use of Testing
IntroductionTesting has long been a powertul instrument tor documenting housing discrimination. It is a valuable research method ior understanding housing market practices and the varied experiences oi particular groups oi homeseekers. In the iair housing...
Civil Unrest and Marginalization in Baltimore
The map in exhibit 1 illustrates incidents of civil unrest that occurred in Baltimore, Maryland, on April 27, 2015. Incident locations were mapped relative to the 2010 U.S. census tracts designated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development...
Commentary: Expanding the Fair Housing Testing Landscape
In my 12 years as a fair housing nonprofit organization CEO, I have never read more thorough and indepth analyses of fair housing testing than those presented in these several articles. Although I have occasional disagreements, the authors succeed in...
Commentary: Housing Discrimination Research in the 21st Century
Housing discrimination continues to be a significant problem in America nearly a half century after the passage of the Fair Housing Act. It is estimated that, annually, 4 million people experience discrimination in the rental housing market (NFHA, 2015)....
Commentary: Some Thoughts on Field Experiments on Housing Discrimination from a European View
Discrimination violates the basic human right of equal treatment, adopted, for example, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in 1948. Discrimination is without doubt a threat against the cohesion in a society and leads to...
Commentary: Testing Benefits Housing Providers and the Industry
Paired testing is useful for detecting discriminatory differences in treatment and can be used to address cases of alleged discrimination, to assess market levels of discrimination, or to educate the housing industry so it can monitor itself and make...
Discrimination as an Object of Measurement
IntroductionFor nearly four decades, the Office of Policy Development and Research (PD&R) in the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has sponsored large-scale, paired-testing studies to rigorously measure the incidence and forms...
Do the GSEs Meet the Credit Needs of Underserved Communities of Color?
IntroductionIn light of the severe distress recently experienced by the government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs; that is, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac) and in a time of great uncertainty in the direction and extent of housing finance reform, this article...
Fair Housing Testing: Selecting, Training, and Managing an Effective Tester Pool
IntroductionSince the late 1970s, the paired-testing methodology has been used in housing discrimination studies funded by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to measure patterns of adverse treatment across the housing market....
Housing Discrimination among Available Housing Units in 2012: Do Paired-Testing Studies Understate Housing Discrimination?
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionIn 2012, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development launched the fourth major nationwide Housing Discrimination Study (HDS2012), with the goal of measuring housing discrimination in rental...
Measuring Neighborhood Opportunity with AFFH Data
IntroductionThe Fair Housing Act (Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968) prohibits housing discrimination based on race, color, national origin, religion, or sex.1 Amendments to the Act in 1988 further banned discrimination against families with...
Other Protected Classes: Extending Estimates of Housing Discrimination
IntroductionDuring the past four decades, paired testing has proven to be an effective tool for measuring the incidence and forms of discrimination against minority homeseekers. The matched pairs directly control for other factors (like income, wealth,...
Predicting Local Crime Clusters Using (Multinomial) Logistic Regression
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionThe use of spatial statistical methods in criminology is becoming increasingly popular with the recognition that spatial relationships exist in crime data that complicate traditional statistical estimation....
Preparing Our Housing for the Transition to a Post-Baby Boom World: Reflections on Japan's May 26, 2015 Vacant Housing Law
IntroductionAlthough Japanese welfare and social planners developed policies during the 1980s and 1990s to address health and welfare issues related to aging, they only recently began to address the significant increase in vacant and abandoned housing...
Rural America: Perceptions of Residential Energy Retrofits
Status QuoMultiple surveys since the 1990s demonstrate national trends of consumers' preterence tor renewable energy. Further U.S. Department of Energy research at the regional and state levels confirmed that residential customers tavor renewable sources...
Targeting Disability Discrimination: Findings and Reflections from the National Study on Housing Discrimination against People Who Are Deaf and People Who Use Wheelchairs
IntroductionThe primary goal of the first national paired-testing study of housing discrimination against people who are deaf or hard of hearing and people who use wheelchairs, Housing Discrimination Study-Disabilities (HDS-Disabilities), was to produce...
What Happens to Housing Assistance Leavers?
IntroductionHousing assistance1 in the United States is unusual: unlike many other forms of public assistance, it is not an entitlement and serves only about one-fourth of eligible households (Turner and Kingsley, 2008). In many jurisdictions, waiting...
What Have We Learned from Paired Testing in Housing Markets?
IntroductionIn-person paired testing is a methodology explicitly designed to observe differential treatment of equally qualified homeseekers in different groups-that is, to observe discrimination. Testing is also called auditing; we use the two terms...
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