European Studies

Articles

No. 32, 2014

Divided Fronts: The Anti-Communist and Anti-Fascist Defence of 'Democracy' and 'Europe'
IntroductionIn 1938, the German philosopher Karl Loewenstein presumed that the repression of political extremism throughout Europe was the result of transnational exchange and inspiration: 'the striking similarity of defensive measures cannot but have...
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Projector or Projection Screen? the Portuguese Estado Novo and 'Renewal' in the Netherlands (1933-1946) 1
IntroductionDuring the economic crisis of the 1930s, the ability to provide citizens with welfare provisions was one of the main arguments in the contestation for power of communism, fascism and nazism (Aly 2005, 49; Vincent and Carter 2008, 164). The...
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The Intellectual Networks of Otto Neurath: Between the Coffeehouse and Academia
You don't know Otto Neurath, the wittiest man of Vienna? You simply must come with us.(Herbert Feigl, quoted in Neider, 1973)IntroductionOtto Neurath was at the centre of various intellectual networks during the interwar period. He is perhaps most famous...
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Universalism in Action: Ideals and Practices of International Scientific Cooperation
Ideals of scientific peaceIn July 1934, the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) held its triennial General Assembly in Brussels. Delegates from all over the world and representatives of the entire spectrum of scientific disciplines gathered...
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Paris 1933 a 'Société Des Esprits' Chaired by Paul Valéry
IntroductionParis 1933. Some months after the coming to power of the Nazis a company of distinguished European intellectuals gathered in the French capital for a three-day conference (16-18 October) on the future of the European mind (L'avenir de l'esprit...
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Krleza's and Kosztolányi's Encounters: A Diagnosis of 'Typically Danubian Idiocy'?
What does the Central European writer look like? Kafka? Broch? Musil? Krleza? Kosztolányi? (Danilo Kis)When, in 1987, Danilo Kis listed Miroslav Krleza (1893-1981), who wrote in Croatian, and Deszõ Kosztolányi (1885-1936), who wrote in Hungarian, next...
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Exemplary Europeans Romain Rolland and Stefan Zweig
A Franco-German dialogueFor writers as Rolland and Zweig, who both recognized the powerful effect of words, it is not surprising that their first encounter came about through a book. In 1910, when Zweig was in his late twenties, he ran across a novel...
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Dostoevsky: A Russian Panacea for Europe
IntroductionThe bitter disillusion and sense of degeneration that spread through Europe in the aftermath of the First World War seems clearly reflected in T.S. Eliot's famous modernist poem The Waste Land (1922). In his appended notes the poet referred...
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Exhibiting, Encountering and Studying Music in Interwar Europe: Between National and International Community
Music is often described as a 'universal language'. In the nineteenth century, the French author Jean François Sudre even launched an international auxiliary language, Solresol, based on the European diatonic scale (Henry 2008, 166-72). Yet in practice,...
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'We Must No Longer Restrict Our Horizon to One Country': Neo-Calvinism and Internationalism in the Interbellum Era
IntroductionJohn Calvin (1509-1564) and his work have been trivialised and somewhat forgotten in the eighteenth century, but in the nineteenth century his works were rediscovered, and a real Calvin research industry took off. The translation of Calvin's...
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In Search of a Suitable Europe: Paneuropa in the Netherlands in the Interwar Period
IntroductionThe Paneuropa Union, founded in Vienna in 1923, called for cooperation among the nations of Europe - first in the political, then in the economic field. In order to avoid future war and to prevent Europe's demise, the idea of Europe had to...
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Introduction: European Encounters Intellectual Exchange and the Rethinking of Europe (1914-1945)
Looking back on the intellectual scene of the 1920s, the German critic and literary translator Ernst Robert Curtius recalled the intensive crossborder encounter of the period:How many paths and encounters there were in the spiritually relaxed Europe...
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Interbellum: A Europe of States and Statelessness
HomelessnessThe title of this volume speaks of 'encounter', 'exchange', and 'rethinking'. Let me give a twist to this 'friendly' perspective by confronting you with a different encounter:(On the day when I was) arrested, there had been three occasions...
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German Intellectuals and the Crisis of Culture (1918-1940)
IntroductionAfter the First World War Europe was tangled up in a deep political, cultural and moral crisis. Because of the catastrophic war and the heated tensions in Europe as a result of the Treaty of Versailles the position of European intellectuals...
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No. 30, 2013

Introduction
The collapse of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 caused a chain of major events in European history: the unification of Germany in 1990, the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the so-called fourth and fifth enlargement of the European Union, encompassing...
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The House of Terror and the Holocaust Memorial Centre: Resentment and Melancholia in Post-89 Hungary
AbstractThe Terror Háza (House of Terror, 2002) and the Holocaust Dokumentacios Kozpont es emlekgyujtemeny (The Holocaust Documentation and Memorial Centre, 2004) opened in Budapest within two years of each other. Together, these two museums are illustrative...
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Institutional Entrepreneurs of a Difficult Past: The Organisation of Knowledge Regimes in Post-Soviet Lithuanian Museums
AbstractThis chapter responds to recent critiques of the public uses of histories of the Holocaust and communist crimes in Lithuania by exploring the creation of the Museum of Genocide Victims and Vilna Gaon Jewish Museum in Vilnius. It has become a...
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Implementing Post-Communist National Memory in the Czech Republic and Slovakia
AbstractThis chapter contains an analysis of two similar attempts to institutionalise 'national memory' in the Czech Republic and Slovakia after the fall of Communism and dissolution of Czechoslovakia. The study focuses on two documents that create a...
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Coming to Terms with Anti-Semitism: Jan T. Gross's Writings and the Construction of Cultural Trauma in Post-Communist Poland
AbstractSince 1989 the Polish have struggled with their history and memory. The most heated debates were provoked by two historical books, Neighbors Sasiedy 2000) and Year (2006, Strach, Polish trans. 2008). The author of these books, Jan T. Gross, challenged...
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The Moral Witness in Post-89 Romania
AbstractAn exploration of the nature of testimonies about the communist dictatorship in Romania enables this chapter to outline the particular stance of the moral combative witness. The analysis employs Avishai Margalit's concept of the moral witness...
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From the Holocaust to the Gulag: The Crimes of Nazism and Communism in Swedish Post-89 Memory Politics
AbstractIn comparison with many other European countries, Sweden constitutes a special case when dealing with Europe's dark past. Each country has a characteristic feature in this respect, but Sweden differs in several ways. A distinctive feature is...
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Finland at War on Screen since 1989: Affirmative Historiography and Prosthetic Memory
AbstractThis chapter deals with Finnish cultural memory post-89 through an analysis of Finnish war films and their reception during the years 1989-2007. The discursive formation of Tuntematon Sotilas (The Unknown Soldier) is used as a point of departure...
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Memory, Melodrama and History: The Return of the Past in Contemporary Popular Film in Germany
AbstractThe explosion of cinematic memory work in Germany since the turn of the twenty-first century has been significant, seemingly inspired by the efforts of Gerhard Schröder's Red-Green coalition after 1998 to encourage a more 'normal' engagement...
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Austria's Post-89: Staging Suppressed Memory in Elfriede Jelinek's and Thomas Bernhard's Plays Burgtheater and Heldenplatz
AbstractThe Austrian memory device doubtlessly changed after the so called Wende in 1989. However, the decisive shift did not take place in 1989 but in the years before. On a political level the Waldheim affair brought about lasting changes of Austria's...
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The Eternal Great Power Meets the Recurring Times of Troubles: Twin Political Myths in Contemporary Russian Politics
AbstractThis chapter advances the idea that two potent political myths, one about Russia's historically preordained great power status and the other about the frequent inhibitions to the great power aspirations due to domestic weakness, foreign intervention...
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No. 31, 2013

Dutch Civic Virtues, Protestant and Enlightened: Anti-Catholicism and Early Cultural Nationalism in the Netherlands around 1800
AbstractThis article investigates Dutch manifestations of and-Catholicism as a constitutive aspect of early forms of cultural nationalism during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In these decades the process of Dutch nation-building...
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Anti-Protestantism and Anti-Catholicism in the 19th Century: A Comparison
AbstractAnti-Catholicism and anti-clericalism loom large in historical scholarship nowadays because these issues illustrate the functional patterns of bourgeois society and its tendency of secularisation. It would be a misunderstanding, however, to see...
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The Catholic Danger': The Changing Patterns of Swedish Anti-Catholicism - 1850-1965
AbstractIn the 1860s, Sweden's harsh religious legislation was liberalised. The Dissenter Act legalised conversions to other Christian denominations, but it put in place many obstacles to leaving the Established Church, and many of the legal restrictions...
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Arousing Anti-Catholic Sentiments on a National Scale: The Case of Marta Steinsvik and Norway
AbstractThis article is a case study concerned with a key figure in the history of anti-Catholicism in Norway in the 20th century, the highly profiled author and professional lecturer, Marta Steinsvik, and her critics of the Catholic Church. Her awareness...
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Lutheran Orthodoxy and Anti-Catholicism in Denmark - 1536-2011
AbstractThis article shows how anti-Catholicism has influenced Danish society and the politics of the Oldenburg Monarchy since the Reformation. Scandinavian historians have typically had a materialist approach to history but it is argued that religious...
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The Jesuit Stereotype: An Image of the Universal Enemy in Finnish Nationalism
AbstractThis chapter places Finnish nineteenth- and twentieth-century anti-Jesuit stereotypes in their European historical context. The stereotype is tracked down in a thematically diverse source material consisting of fiction, non-fiction, and political...
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Norway and the Jesuit Order: A History of Anti-Catholicism
AbstractIn 1956 the Norwegian Parliament removed from the constitution the last remnant of an anti-liberal and anti-democratic tradition, inherited from the Reformation and the confessional state of the 17th century. In 1814 Norway had received its own...
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European Anti-Catholicism in Comparative and Transnational Perspective the Role of a Unifying Other: An Introduction
Tales about treacherous Jesuits and scheming popes are an important and pervasive part of European culture. They belong to a set of ideas and practices that, when grouped under the label anti-Catholicism, represent a phenomenon as old as Protestantism...
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North Atlantic Anti-Catholicism in the Nineteenth Century: A Comparative Overview
AbstractTaking as its starting point the visit of the American George Barrell Cheever to Europe in 1844, this chapter sets up a broad comparative framework for the analysis of nineteenth-century and-Catholicism. Comparative approaches to the subject...
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Settembrini's World: German and Italian Anti-Catholicism in the Age of the Culture Wars
AbstractThis article analyses the progressive anti-Catholicism of liberal and democratic forces that was responsible for the outbreak of the culture wars in the nineteenth century. Liberals and democrats connected anti-Catholicism with projects of bourgeois...
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Healing a Whorish Heart: The Whore of Babylon and Protestant Interiority in Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Britain
AbstractThis paper examines a centerpiece of anti-Catholic rhetoric, the Whore of Babylon, in Britain from 1660 to 1789. It argues that during this era the Whore came to stand less for the Roman Catholic Church and more for Protestants' own tendencies...
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How to Look? Roman Catholic Art in Britain 1700-2010
AbstractExploring a generally overlooked aspect of anti-Catholicism this article explores how Protestants accommodated themselves to the canon of European art, which was largely dominated by Catholic religious painting. It does so by pursuing a single...
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Catholicism and the Idea of Public Legitimacy in Sweden
AbstractIn the Swedish religious and political tradition, the connection between Lutheranism and Swedish national identity stayed relevant long after the disappearance of religion as an all-encompassing norm in daily life. The current chapter investigates...
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Scottish Anti-Catholicism in a British and European Context: The 'North Pole Mission' and Victorian Scotland
AbstractAnti-Catholicism, as a part of a more general discourse on sectarianism, intolerance and national identity, has been a regularly debated topic in Scotland for centuries. Recent Scottish historiography, partly driven by contemporary debates over...
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No. 29, 2012

The Lisbon Treaty and Linguistic Diversity: Policy and Practice in the European Institutions
AbstractThe Lisbon Treaty, signed in December 2007, indicates that the EU shall respect its rich cultural and linguistic diversity, and shall ensure that Europe's cultural heritage is safeguarded and enhanced. What does the new Treaty article on linguistic...
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Multilingualism and Transnational Communication Strategies in Europe: From Hapsburg to the European Union
AbstractThe chapter discusses multilingualism in the European context and transnational communication strategies in order to accommodate the challenges of multilingualism. In the introduction, concepts defining multilingualism, transnationalism and communication...
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Language Policy and National Equality in Socialist Yugoslavia (1945-1974)
AbstractUsually the issues connected with the official language politics in Tito's Yugoslavia are a constituent part of a significant and multi-component problem - the national question in a multi-linguistic and multicultural socialist federation. Constitutional...
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Union and Unity out of Diversity
AbstractKant's universalism had a profound influence upon the formation of the modern state and on subsequent debates about the relationship between the state, language and culture. While proclaiming its own individuality each European state also subscribed...
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Minority Languages and Multilingualism in Europe and in the European Union
AbstractLinguistic rights are usually in the forefront of minority protection measures and international documents regard linguistic rights as particularly important. The most important international documents on linguistic rights: the ECRML, the relevant...
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Language Sectarianism: Regional Languages between the National Past and a European Future
AbstractThe European Union is home to national, regional and minority languages, only some of which have some recognition and the support of state language policies. To demonstrate this we proceed in three steps. First, we demonstrate that the current...
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Teachers of Italian, Spanish and French: Limitations and Possibilities of Their Education towards Multilingualism
AbstractThis paper investigates multilingualism as a new paradigm established within EU language policy. It is argued that if multilingualism is not to be merely a scientific research area and a topic of language policy discussions, but is to become...
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Into the Jungle: Migration and Grammar in the New Europe
AbstractFortress Europe, as the European Union has come to be known in official Euro-speak with reference to the multi-country juridical border control mechanisms deployed under its aegis, and fortress Europe as it is constructed and perceived in the...
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Introduction
This collection of essays seeks to understand how Europe, a multilingual and multicultural political entity, practices and theorizes multilingualism. It explores the ways in which various types of multilingualism are currently defined, encouraged or...
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Multilingualism in Europe: Policy and Practice Introduction to Part I
The European Union's language policyThe European Union has 27 Member States and 23 officially recognized languages spoken by almost 500 million inhabitants. The Union favours linguistic diversity and sanctions the use of the 23 official languages at...
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Plurilingual Europeans in a Multilingual Europe: Incomplete and Imperfect Communication Tactics Introduction to Part II
Whereas the first part of this volume focuses on the history of multilingualism in Europe and European language policies, the studies that comprise our second part emphasize the practices of subjects who use or live in the presence of several languages....
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Lingua Franca in Central Europe after the Disappearance of German
AbstractThis chapter discusses a multilingual community of writers and intellectuals who gathered around the idea of a Central European culture in the 1980s, during the last decade of the Cold War. Czeslaw Milosz, Danilo Kis, Milan Kundera, György Konrád...
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French within Europe and Beyond: The Case of 'Francophone' Writers
AbstractEnglish has not always been the obvious European lingua franca that defenders of multilingualism fear will endanger European diversity. France also has a long and strong tradition of linguistic interventionism and the attempt to impose French...
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Multilingual Europeans: Contemporary Ireland and John Carney's Film Once
AbstractBecause of the global position of English in the contemporary world order, the linguistic and cultural position of Ireland in relation to Europe is complex and the value accorded in Ireland to European linguistic and cultural diversity is no...
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French-Romani Dialogues in Gadjo Dilo: Who Teaches European Languages and Minority Cultures?
AbstractGadjo Dilo was directed in 1997 by Tony Gatlif, a French filmmaker about whom it is often specified that he is of Roma origin. The main topic of this road movie is not multilingualism but as many of the works studied in the second part of this...
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