International Journal of Design

Articles

Vol. 11, No. 2, August

Capturing the Value of Design Thinking in Different Innovation Practices
IntroductionRecently, practitioners and scholars in an array of non-design sectors have become interested in the concept of design thinking, because they want to tap into designers’ problem-solving strategies and benefit from design as an agent of change...
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Travelling from Fascination to New Meanings: Understanding User Expectations through a Case Study of Autonomous Cars
IntroductionWhat seems natural to us is probably just something familiar in a long tradition that has forgotten the unfamiliar source from which it arose. And yet this unfamiliar source once struck man as strange and caused him to think and to wonder....
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The Design Innovation Spectrum: An Overview of Design Influences on Innovation for Manufacturing Companies
IntroductionThe role of design in businesses has expanded over the years: no longer simply about enhancing aesthetics and functionalities, it now makes a critical contribution to fostering organisations’ innovation, to enable companies to increase their...
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Graphic Designer Wanted: A Document Analysis of the Described Skill Set of Graphic Designers in Job Advertisements from the United Kingdom
IntroductionIn this paper, we address the scope and content of graphic designers’ work through an analysis of job advertisements from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK). The specific research question that we address through...
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Vol. 11, No. 1, April

Instruments of Inquiry: Understanding the Nature and Role of Tools in Design
IntroductionThe use of tools pervades most forms of interaction design practice. Not only do designers employ them to create future products and services, they also draw upon them to understand the design situation and the problem at hand, and to explore...
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Auditory and Visual Contributions to Affective Product Quality
IntroductionInteractions with products inherently facilitate a multisensory experience with a certain quality (Özcan & van Egmond, 2009; Schifferstein & Spence, 2008). Based on this experience, people can exhibit an affective response. For example,...
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Adaptation Profiles in First-Time Robot Users: Towards Understanding Adaptation Patterns and Their Implications for Design
IntroductionWith every new product entering the market, an adaptation process takes place. From a human-centered design perspective, this raises important questions: How far does our understanding reach as to how people actually come to accept and adapt...
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Vol. 10, No. 3, 2016

Influence of Curvature and Expertise on Aesthetic Preferences for Mobile Device Designs
IntroductionHumans prefer curved visual objects (Bar & Neta, 2006), known as the curvature bias. However, other research found a curvilinear relationship that is dependent on the prototypical shape for the category of the object (Blijlevens, Carbon,...
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When 'Feeling Good' Is Not Good Enough: Seven Key Opportunities for Emotional Granularity in Product Development
IntroductionThe role of emotions in human-product interactions and the benefits of design that evokes positive emotions have been discussed extensively in the design research literature (e.g., Crilly, Moultrie, & Clarkson, 2004; Desmet & Hekkert,...
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The Barriers and Enablers of Co-Design for Services
IntroductionThe growing scale and complexity of design problems has engendered a move towards more open and collective design activity where multiple stakeholders, particularly the end users but also professionals from other fields, are included as equal...
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Vol. 10, No. 2, 2016

Design for Behaviour Change as a Driver for Sustainable Innovation: Challenges and Opportunities for Implementation in the Private and Public Sectors
Introduction: Design and the Need for Responsible ChangeDesign for behaviour change (DfBC) is seen as a potent way to tackle some of the biggest problems in the world around us. Already, individual examples appear to have much impact, enabling us to...
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Vol. 10, No. 2, August

The Interaction-Attention Continuum: Considering Various Levels of Human Attention in Interaction Design
IntroductionOver two decades ago, Weiser (1991) set out his influential vision for the 21st century in which computers of all sizes and functions are integrated in the everyday environment. In recent decades, the presence of computing technology in everyday...
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The Role of Designers in Integrating Societal Value in the Product and Service Development Processes
IntroductionIn recent years, along with the ever-strengthening regulations around the world, the term corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become a buzzword in the business world. However, its practical meaning and application are still unclear....
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A Systematic Analysis of Mixed Perspectives in Empathic Design: Not One Perspective Encompasses All
IntroductionThe work presented in this paper is set up in the context of empathic design, in particular design for people in mourning situations. It seems almost a truism to say that designing for a situation as delicate, emotional, and complex as mourning...
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Visitor Attention and Communication in Information-Based Exhibitions
IntroductionWhile early exhibitions were for the collection and preservation of objects and limited to people of a particular class or to intellectuals, exhibitions became an effective tool for research and education and became popular with the general...
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Vol. 10, No. 1, April

Social Design: An Introduction
IntroductionSocial design has gained momentum in design research during the last ten years, a development which can be seen as having several roots. Some of these roots go back a few decades, to the writings of Victor Papanek, Nigel Whiteley, and Victor...
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Vol. 9, No. 3, December

Temporal Form in Interaction Design
IntroductionInteraction design is distinguished from most other design disciplines through its temporal form. Temporal form is the computational structure that enables and demands a temporal expression in the resulting design. When programming computers...
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Using Phenomenological Hermeneutics to Gain Understanding of Stakeholders in Healthcare Contexts
IntroductionHuman-centered design represents an overall perspective wherein human needs and concerns are the foremost drivers for the development of technologies. As such, human-centered design research deals with people who use or who are potential...
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A Touching Experience: Designing for Touch Sensations in Online Retail Environments
IntroductionConsumers' experiences with retail offerings are intrinsically multisensory in nature (Rahman, 2012; Wastiels, Schifferstein, Wouters, & Heylighen, 2013). A product design can instantly stimulate multiple sensory modalities. Take, for...
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Vol. 9, No. 1, April

Under Cover and Close at Hand: Embodied Metaphor in Packaging Design
IntroductionThe idea that products, services, and the communications surrounding them should connect to deep-seated consumer needs is widespread. Underlying usage of social media and communication devices, for instance, there may be a need to belong...
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Types of Embodiment in Design: The Embodied Foundations of Meaning and Affect in Product Design
IntroductionIn the past three decades, it has become increasingly common in scholarly literature to explain human language use, evaluations of stimuli and behaviors in terms of their embodied origins. For instance, a linguistic utterance such as 'we're...
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Viewer Knowledge: Application of Exposure-Based Layperson Knowledge in Genre-Specific Animation Production
IntroductionProduct designers are able to design their products so that users recognize the intended functions and expressions of those products. It can be assumed that users acquire knowledge about specific features of any product type by repeated exposure...
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Fashion Thinking: Fashion Practices and Sustainable Interaction Design
IntroductionBroadly defined, "fashion" refers to the symbolic, aesthetic, and cultural meanings that objects carry, especially the ways in which people use objects to express their taste, lifestyle, social status and belonging to a community. We don't...
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Vol. 9, No. 1, 2015

Effect of Visual Quality and Animation of Concept Representations on Users' Responses to Early Design Concepts: A Study on the Adaptive Patient Room Concept
IntroductionIn the early phases of the design process designers question whether they are working on the "right" design concept, i.e., whether a proposed concept would meaningfully fit in the lives of people (Buxton, 2007). One way to answer this question...
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The Aesthetic Appeal of Prosthetic Limbs and the Uncanny Valley: The Role of Personal Characteristics in Attraction
IntroductionIn addition to the physical change, the amputation of a limb can generate unpleasant psychological consequences (Horgan & MacLachlan, 2004; Price & Fisher, 2007; Shukla, Sahu, Tripathi, & Gupta, 1982; Whyte & Niven, 2001)....
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Effects of Visual Expectation on Perceived Tactile Perception: An Evaluation Method of Surface Texture with Expectation Effect
IntroductionSurface texture is a design factor that consists of physical attributes created by a variety of materials and surface finishes--attributes such as roughness, glossiness, color, and hardness. People perceive and/or predict a surface's characteristics...
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Vol. 8, No. 3, December

Mind the Gap: Perceptions of Design Awards from the Wild
IntroductionDesign awards are an established part of the design landscape and an important vehicle for the promotion of design excellence and its dissemination to a wider audience (Park, Nam, & Chung, 2010; Sung, Nam, & Chung, 2010). Case studies...
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Space Affordances, Adaptive Responses and Sensory Integration by Autistic Children
IntroductionThe human body exists in its space as an active, living entity with capabilities to relate to its surroundings through the senses and movements. The human body should be considered as an integral part of its environment; the body and space...
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Product Sounds: Basic Concepts and Categories
IntroductionDesign thinking predominantly operates in the visual realm. Designers are proficient at thinking in terms of shape, size, colour, and material and at creating preliminary versions of a non-existing product in the form of visual sketches,...
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Design Concepts for Digital Diabetes Practice: Design to Explore, Share, and Camouflage Chronic Illness
IntroductionThe paper examines digital design to support daily living with the chronic illness of diabetes. The design ambition of the study is rooted in Papanek's (1984) definition of design responsibility as engagement with "real problems". This includes...
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How the Design of Socio-Technical Experiments Can Enable Radical Changes for Sustainability
IntroductionIt is commonly accepted that the dominant socio-economic development models in industrialised contexts are unsustainable. The pressure of human beings on the environment has in fact profoundly modified natural systems, and today the planet...
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Trust Inducing Factors of Generation Y Blog-Users
IntroductionBlogs are generally defined as chronological publications of personal thoughts and web links that are traditionally text-based, but also include a variety of audio and visual formats (Chai & Kim, 2010). Blogging activities on the Internet...
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Using Social Distinctions in Taste for Analysing Design Styles across Product Categories
IntroductionThe application of style in design, as well as the practice of styling, is heavily related to the commercial role of design and to efforts of companies to visually position their products in the market (Moulson & Sproles, 2000; Person,...
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Comparison of Semantic Intent and Realization in Product Design: A Study on High-End Furniture Impressions
IntroductionIn this paper, we concern ourselves with semantic intent and realization (e.g., personality, style, character, identity) in relation to pre-use product impressions, stimulated by qualities of product form and materialization (e.g., shape,...
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Examining the "Later Wow" through Operating a Metaphorical Product
IntroductionMany product designers nowadays try to create products with appearances that can both attract consumers' attention and arouse their emotion. Because the first impression usually comes from appearance, such as with most of Philippe Starck's...
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Vol. 8, No. 2, August

Changing Your Hammer: The Implications of Paradigmatic Innovation for Design Practice
IntroductionIn this paper, we describe a design framework based on four economic paradigms from a Western perspective (Figure 1). This framework was first proposed by Brand & Rocchi (2011) in a Philips Design document entitled Rethinking Value in...
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Designing to Bring the Field to the Showroom through Open-Ended Provocation
IntroductionUser-driven designers and design researchers have found it fruitful to go out into the field and collaborate with the people who may become the future users of the designs, and other relevant stake holders. However, it is rarely possible...
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Tools for Participation: Intergenerational Technology Design for the Home
IntroductionStakeholder InvolvementThe Participatory Design (PD) community widely acknowledges that participatory techniques such as workshops, storytelling, performance techniques, games and human-centred iterative prototyping, improve understanding...
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Exploring 'Immaterials': Mediating Design's Invisible Materials
IntroductionThis article emerged from five years of design practice and research in a project called Touch that investigated a technology called Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) through exploratory interaction and product design approaches. The...
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Understanding Design for Dynamic and Diverse Use Situations
IntroductionWhen designing products for many different use situations, designers need insight into the variations between these situations and the differing requirements each situation imposes on a design. For example, when designing a compact photo...
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Empathy or Inclusion: A Dialogical Approach to Socially Responsible Design
IntroductionThere are many definitions and practices that could come under the umbrella term of socially responsible design (SRD). This article presents a dialogical approach to socially responsible designing, an approach that goes beyond supporting...
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The Boundaries of Public Space: A Case Study of Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway
IntroductionJust as life changes rapidly in a modern society, so does space. As important elements of space, boundaries are generated for many reasons and are presented in many forms. It is difficult to judge whether a space generates boundaries or vice...
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Vol. 8, No. 1, April

What Drivers Really Want: Investigating Dimensions in Automobile User Needs
IntroductionDuring the last decades digital artifacts have changed our ways of living and interacting with products. Computers and smartphones support numerous frequent activities, and are now an inherent part of everyday life. Similarly, the technology...
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Pragmatism and Design Thinking
Introduction"Even on a cursory inspection, just what design thinking is supposed to be is not well understood, either by the public or those who claim to practice it" (Kimbell, 2011, p. 286).The concept of design thinking has been the center of much...
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Everyday Design as a Design Resource
IntroductionMany people believe that design skills belong only to designers possessing exclusive knowledge honed at art/design schools. However, several scholars have stated that designing is a fundamental process for most creative work. For example,...
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Uprooting Products of the Networked City
IntroductionCulturally Connected DevicesToday an increasing number of everyday domestic products are being fitted with WiFi connections and are becoming a part of the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). Used by research initiatives, industry and design...
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Evocative Balance: Designing for Interactional Empowerment
IntroductionCamilla is a 42-year-old single woman living in a suburb of Stockholm from where she commutes to her work in the city centre. She has recently separated from her husband, a life-changing event, causing practical problems as well as emotional...
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Package Design: Colour Harmony and Consumer Expectations
IntroductionBackgroundColour plays an important role in design. It is a trigger to arouse viewers' emotions and a carrier that designers use to deliver information. Colours that are viewed together and produce pleasing affective responses are considered...
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Kitchen Living in Later Life: Exploring Ergonomic Problems, Coping Strategies and Design Solutions
IntroductionThe kitchen environment needs to be both comfortable and usable if it is to support independent living for older people. The Transitions in Kitchen Living (TiKL) study presented here, was a project within the UK Research Council's New Dynamics...
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Materializing Movement-Designing for Movement-Based Digital Interaction
Andrew Morrison is the Director of the Centre for Design Research at The Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO). He has a BA in English and Law, BA(Hons) and MA in English, MSc in Applied Linguistics and PhD in Media Studies. He has published widely...
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Vol. 7, No. 3, December

Technology, Wellbeing, and Freedom: The Legacy of Utopian Design
IntroductionImplicitly or explicitly, designers always affect the lives and wellbeing of users and of society at large. This is true in a trivial sense, since products are meant to fulfill existing and conscious needs. But it is also true in a less obvious...
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How Designers and Marketers Can Work Together to Support Consumers' Happiness
IntroductionA business's raison d'être is to generate profit for its owners. Therefore, concepts such as sales, marginal value, customer retention, and lifetime value are of utmost importance to marketers when they set goals for their investments. In...
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The Role of Subjective Well-Being in Co-Designing Open-Design Assistive Devices
IntroductionAssistive technology enables people with disabilities to accomplish daily living tasks and helps them in communication, education, work or recreation activities. Despite all efforts and good intentions, the majority of assistive devices are...
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Special Issue Editorial: Design for Subjective Well-Being
AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank all of the authors for their tremendous efforts in creating the body of research that is represented in this issue of International Journal of Design and for carefully modifying their articles based on reviewer...
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Designing Moments of Meaning and Pleasure. Experience Design and Happiness
IntroductionThe pursuit of individual happiness is central to life. Surprisingly, psychology did not study it extensively until only a decade ago. In 2000, Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi noted: "[P]sychologists have scant knowledge of what makes life...
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Positive Design: An Introduction to Design for Subjective Well-Being
IntroductionIn the past, TV commercials for the Dutch national lottery traditionally featured ordinary people enjoying expensive luxury products after winning big on the lottery. (Picture a local farmer driving a Lamborghini: see www.youtube.com/watch?v=MWWkysK7FGo.)...
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Vol. 7, No. 2, August

An Application of Implementing a Cognitive Structure Model to Obtain Consensus from Consumers
IntroductionIn order to satisfy consumers' needs, many product manufacturers adopt consumer-oriented design guidelines. Kramer (2003) has proved that, assuming all other variables remain constant, products co-produced with participating consumers will...
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A Holistic Framework for Conceptualizing Customer Experiences in Retail Environments
IntroductionCompeting in today's global economy is becoming increasingly difficult. As customers often perceive products and services as homogeneous, retailers and designers try to differentiate themselves from competitors by directing the retail design...
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Innovation Is Appreciated When We Feel Safe: On the Situational Dependence of the Appreciation of Innovation
IntroductionAesthetically based evaluation of the environment seems to be a key functionality of the human brain (Faerber & Carbon, 2012). The latest research shows the clear adaptive quality of aesthetic appreciation (Carbon, 2011, 2012). Major...
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Beyond Kansei Engineering: The Emancipation of Kansei Design
IntroductionAcknowledging the relevance of kansei engineering both in the industrial and the academic worlds, the current situation in the field of kansei research seems ready for the emancipation of other disciplines that are actually numerous and already...
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Rhetorical Strategies for Sound Design and Auditory Display: A Case Study
IntroductionAuditory Display (AD) and Sonic Interaction Design (SID) are fast growing research domains. The former investigates strategies and modalities for providing information by means of non-verbal sounds. The latter deals with the use of sound...
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Tourism Sociabilities and Place: Challenges and Opportunities for Design
IntroductionThe shape of tourism has altered significantly since the halcyon days of packaged destinations, having long grown beyond venerated branded images such as Copenhagen's The Little Mermaid or the Sydney Opera House. Whether we journey for work,...
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Vol. 7, No. 1, April

Impacts of Geometrical Manufacturing Quality on the Visual Product Experience
IntroductionWhen adapting a product design for manufacturability and developing it into detail, the initial design intent may be distorted. Further, once attaining a fully defined product, assigned tolerances and production capacity determine the level...
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Positively Picturing Pain? Using Patient-Generated Pictures to Establish Affective Visual Design Qualities
Introduction and Contexts of the StudyIt is vital that chronic pain self-help material be well designed and written. According to the UK's National Health Service (NHS) research (Moore & Cole, 2008) a person with a health condition spends, on average,...
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Usability and Design Guidelines of Smart Canes for Users with Visual Impairments
IntroductionThe percentage of the population with visual impairments is increasing rapidly. Every year, the number of visually impaired people grows by up to 2 million worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) estimates that there are 39 million...
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Physical Interaction in a Dematerialized World
IntroductionToday, we can witness a striking phenomenon. As the microprocessor has found its way into our lives, the use of computation in products is widespread. This process causes a lot of products to miniaturize, and seems to completely absorb others,...
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Exploring Problem-Framing through Behavioural Heuristics
IntroductionDesign for behaviour change (Lilley, 2009; Wever, 2012) is part of what Redström (2005) calls "a progression towards the user becoming the subject of design" (p. 124), with "design as an intervention into multiple and interpenetrating technical,...
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The Influence of Product Exposure on Trendiness and Aesthetic Appraisal
IntroductionPeople often use the product attribute 'trendiness' to describe product designs (Blijlevens, Creusen, & Schoormans, 2009; Creusen & Schoormans, 2005). More importantly, when people perceive a product as trendy, they will aesthetically...
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Vol. 6, No. 3, December

Designing for Perceptual Crossing: Applying and Evaluating Design Notions
IntroductionThe research focuses on designing for perceptive qualities in artefacts and is inspired by and grounded in the phenomenology of perception (Merleau-Ponty, 1958) and ecological psychology (Gibson, 1986). Both bring forward the 'active nature...
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Visualising Gender Norms in Design: Meet the Mega Hurricane Mixer and the Drill Dolphia
IntroductionEverywhere, we are constantly confronted with information that reflects society's perceptions of, and rules about, what is acceptable and what is not. The information can be obvious, informative, explanatory, or obtrusive such as in advertising,...
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Thinking beyond the Cure: A Case for Human-Centered Design in Cancer Care
IntroductionMedical technologies are designed with the intention of improving patient health, with each new development aimed at increased detection and better treatment offerings. Nevertheless, sometimes the very devices intended to improve health result...
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Weaving with Rush: Exploring Craft-Design Collaborations in Revitalizing a Local Craft
IntroductionThis study focuses on how designers can collaborate with local craftspeople to expand the market potential of a local craft. It also explores the types of contributions that designers can make to artisan communities. Local craft is a reflection...
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Sentence Completion for Evaluating Symbolic Meaning
IntroductionIn design, products have long been recognized as important carriers of meaning (Krippendorff & Butter, 1984). In addition to offering practical functions, products often act as symbols for people, providing personal meaning and communicating...
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Exploring Elastic Movement as a Medium for Complex Emotional Expression in Silver Design
Introduction: Elasticity in Silver DesignIn the context of traditional and contemporary silversmithing design (Clifford, 1993; Glanville, 2006, Goldschneider & Zapletalová, 1998, Hill & Margetts, 2003; Hund, 1995; Schadt, 1996; Valcke, Weber-Stöber,...
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Hands-On Intellect: Integrating Craft Practice into Design Research
Introduction: Craft, Design, and Practice-led ResearchCraft disciplines such as ceramics, glass, and textiles might fall into the category of applied arts, industrial arts, decorative arts, fine arts, or crafts.1 They have been understood as "medium-designated"...
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Preparing Students for (Inter-)Action with Activity Theory
IntroductionRogers (2004) points towards several discussions of if and how theory may contribute to design of new technologies. Based on her studies of how practitioners have adapted more recent theories, she points out that the practical impact currently...
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Vol. 6, No. 2, August

Older Adults' Motivations, Patterns, and Improvised Strategies of Using Product Manuals
IntroductionSimilar to many other countries in the world, the older adult population in Taiwan is growing rapidly. In Taiwan, adults over the age of 65 constituted 10.7% of the population in 2010; by 2025, this proportion will increase to 20.1% (Ministry...
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Design for Interest: Exploratory Study on a Distinct Positive Emotion in Human-Product Interaction
IntroductionWhen using products, we can experience all kinds of emotions. We can, for example, be inspired by the aesthetic appearance of a mobile phone, feel joy with a new toy, be content with the high-quality sound of a music player, or be delighted...
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Participatory Design with Marginalized People in Developing Countries: Challenges and Opportunities Experienced in a Field Study in Cambodia
IntroductionThe use of participatory design is often advocated when developing new solutions for economically or socially marginalised people in developing countries (see for example Arce, 2004; Sharma et al., 2008). It is argued that through including...
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The Effects of Website Designs, Self-Congruity, and Flow on Behavioral Intention
IntroductionWith the remarkable growth of Internet users in the past two decades, the Internet has transformed the manner in which individuals identify, communicate, and make purchase decisions. The significance of this phenomenon is underscored by several...
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Faces of Product Pleasure: 25 Positive Emotions in Human-Product Interactions
IntroductionProducts can evoke a wide range of emotions, both negative and positive. On the negative side, the complicated interface of a high-end music player might evoke irritation or dissatisfaction, while on the positive side, the same complexity...
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Basic Semantics of Product Sounds
IntroductionProducts, with all their sensory properties, evoke certain sensations that lead to a particular product experience. For example, a red sports car with its aerodynamic shape, soft leather seats, firm steering wheel, and roaring engine could...
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Effects of Novelty and Its Dimensions on Aesthetic Preference in Product Design
IntroductionAn understanding of how to create beautiful objects, ones that elicit aesthetic responses such as "sensory pleasure and delight" (Hekkert & Leder, 2008), is fundamental to the profession of design. All design disciplines - including architecture,...
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Vol. 6, No. 1, April

The Quality of Design Participation: Intersubjectivity in Design Practice
IntroductionThe objective of this paper is to present the results of the application of the concept of intersubjectivity to the process of design participation. We believe that design participation is not a political stance but a methodological necessity....
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The Influence of Visual and Tactile Inputs on Denim Jeans Evaluation
IntroductionMany prior studies show that generally consumers have expectations of a product they want to purchase (Jensen, 2001; Santos & Boote, 2003). However, buying motives can be diverse and complicated. Modern consumers do not purchase clothing...
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Supporting Creativity within Web-Based Self-Services
IntroductionWeb-based customization self-services allow and encourage a diverse set of consumers to engage in creative work. In the not-too-distant past most consumers purchased mass-manufactured products from a physical store, whereas today people can...
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I Knew I Shouldn't, Yet I Did It Again! Emotion-Driven Design as a Means to Motivate Subjective Well-Being
IntroductionI knew I shouldn't, yet I did it again! Our emotions sometimes seem to play tricks on us: the person who was fined for speeding knew she was behaving irresponsibly but simply could not resist when testing the new sports car. And the person...
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Designing for Unexpected Encounters with Digital Products: Case Studies of Serendipity as Felt Experience
IntroductionThe last decade has seen a large number of interactive products and a growing body of research on interaction design. With the rapid growth in interactive technology, including the development of such items as sensors, actuators, and microprocessors,...
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Beyond Surprise: A Longitudinal Study on the Experience of Visual-Tactual Incongruities in Products
IntroductionDuring everyday activities people almost continuously use products, and while doing so they experience a variety of emotions (Desmet, 2008; Richins, 1997). Someone may, for example, experience anger because his or her computer is not functioning...
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Challenges of Doing Empathic Design: Experiences from Industry
IntroductionEmpathic design is part of a relatively new branch of user-centered design approaches that support design teams in building creative understanding of users and their everyday lives (e.g., Fulton Suri, 2003a; Koskinen & Battarbee, 2003;...
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