Journal of Anthropology

Articles

Vol. 2017, Annual

From Rural to Urban: Archaeological Research in the Periphery of Huari, Ayacucho Valley, Peru
1. Introduction The emergence of urban centers represents a significant departure from the previous centuries-old rural-oriented pattern ([1], 117). By their nature, urban centers are large and house populations in the thousands ([2], 527-528; [3],...
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Shifting from Village-Based Networks to Locally Generated Networks: Undocumented Mexican Agricultural Workers Who Use/Used Hard Drugs
1. Introduction Like many men and women who preceded him, Pepe Gardel crossed the border between the United States and Mexico without immigration papers. Risks for those who cross without papers are as great, if not greater than they once were:...
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The Earliest Maya Farmers of Peten: New Evidence from Buenavista-Nuevo San Jose, Central Peten Lakes Region, Guatemala
1. Introduction The origins of the first fully sedentary Maya communities of the southern Maya lowlands have garnered recent attention, as well as much debate [1-7]. In spite of recent efforts, evidence for the earliest agricultural pottery-making...
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Corrigendum to (Anthropometric Characteristics of Underprivileged Adolescents: A Study from Urban Slums of India"
In the article titled "Anthropometric Characteristics of Underprivileged Adolescents: A Study from Urban Slums of India," [1] there were errors in Section 3.4, "Regression Analysis," where the fourth paragraph should read as follows: "Similarly, odds...
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Estimating Sex of Modern Greeks Based on the Foramen Magnum Region
1. Introduction Reliable sex determination is one of the principal aims when examining human skeletal remains. In forensics or anthropology, the occipital bone is frequently used in sex determination because the cranial base tends to withstand both...
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Evaluation of Facial Proportions and Their Association with Thumbprint Patterns among Hausa Ethnic Group
1. Introduction The human sculptures produced in ancient Greece were derived from proportions that followed established rules or "canons" [1]. These rules were incorporated to be the "neoclassical canons" for the human face by Renaissance artists....
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Annual

Metric Identification of the Same People from Images: How Reliable Is It?
1. Introduction Criminal activities are increasingly being recorded in closed circuit television systems (CCTV). Scientists with expertise in biological anthropology or computer image analysis are often called upon to identify the individuals from...
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Biological and Social Determinants of Fertility Behaviour among the Jat Women of Haryana State, India
1. Introduction The study of human fertility is of paramount importance in population studies. Human fertility is responsible for the biological replacement and maintenance of the human species, since every society replenishes itself and grows through...
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Reliability and Accuracy of Angular Measurements on Laser Scanning Created 3D Models of Dry Skulls
1. Introduction Craniometry is a main part of many anthropological studies giving information about the size and proportions of the skull and its parts. It is mainly used by the paleoanthropologists and forensic anthropologists to estimate sex,...
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Maternal Body Mass Index Is Strongly Associated with Children Z-Cores for Height and BMI
1. Introduction The nutritional status of any individual is his/her health as dictated by the quality of nutrients consumed and the body's ability to utilize them for its metabolic needs. The World Health Organization (WHO) believes that the ultimate...
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Sociocultural Determinants to Adoption of Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices in Nyakach, Kisumu County, Kenya: A Descriptive Qualitative Study
1. Introduction The provision of safe water, adequate sanitation, and hygiene has been lauded as one way of preventing diarrhoeal infections and improving health especially in developing countries. Despite significant investments over the past decades...
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The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations
1. Introduction Determination of skeletal sex can be achieved using morphological (descriptive) or metric (quantitative) methods of forensic anthropology. Morphological methods rely on features which arise from an interaction between genetically...
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Purple Staining of Archaeological Human Bone: An Investigation of Probable Cause and Implications for Other Tissues and Artifacts
1. Introduction Excavations carried out in the 1990s at the circular Chapter House of Worcester Cathedral revealed a large number of inhumation burials, oriented east-west and generally lacking grave goods. Some graves had been truncated by the...
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Annual

Diagnosis of Mercurial Teeth in a Possible Case of Congenital Syphilis and Tuberculosis in a 19th Century Child Skeleton
1. Introduction In the past, the presence of numerous diseases and the lack of an effective form of treatment meant individuals could have suffered from more than one disease. This is especially the case in relation to chronic afflictions that could...
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Anthropometric Characteristics of Underprivileged Adolescents: A Study from Urban Slums of India
1. Introduction Adolescence is a transitional phase between childhood and adulthood characterized by marked acceleration in growth [1,2]. It is a second chance for growth or catch-up growth for those children who have experienced nutritional deficiencies...
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Traditional and Skilled Birth Attendants in Zimbabwe: A Situational Analysis and Some Policy Considerations
1. Introduction Methodologically, this paper is based on desk research which entailed extensive sourcing and reading of literature related to maternal health issues in Zimbabwe. The paper utilizes a literature review which concentrated on literature...
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Globally Declining Population of Women Folk Causing Sex Imbalance Is a Serious Concern: An Analysis of Sex Ratio around the Globe
1. Introduction For perpetuation and continuous existence of any species, it is essential that the process of reproduction should be continuous. And, for continuous reproduction, there must be sufficient number of eligible couples or, in other words,...
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The Difficulty of Sexing Skeletons from Unknown Populations
1. Introduction Determination of skeletal sex can be achieved using morphological (descriptive) or metric (quantitative) methods of forensic anthropology. Morphological methods rely on features which arise from an interaction between genetically...
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Annual

Fertility Behaviour and Effect of Son Preference among the Muslims of Manipur, India
1. Introduction Fertility is the only way for biological replacement of human being in order to continue its existence on earth. If the human society is to prevail, it is through fertility only as one cannot control death. That is why, of the three...
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Anthropometric Characteristics of Underprivileged Adolescents: A Study from Urban Slums of India
1. Introduction Adolescence is a transitional phase between childhood and adulthood characterized by marked acceleration in growth [1,2]. It is a second chance for growth or catch-up growth for those children who have experienced nutritional deficiencies...
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Body Weight Concerns among Urban Adolescent Girls: A Microlevel Study
1. Introduction Consciousness over body image and losing weight has become very common among adolescent girls. Modernized societies prefer thinness and socially discriminate against obese individuals. Incidence of obesity is also on the rise as...
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Women's Perception of Reproductive Illness in Manipur, India
1. Introduction Reproductive illness is not only biological but also is embedded in a web of psychological, economic, political, and social factors. Different societies encounter, define, and experience reproductive health problems biologically...
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Risk of Cardiovascular Disease among Diabetic Patients in Manipur, Northeast India
1. Introduction Changes in the human environment, behaviour, and lifestyle are contributing to the upsurge in the incidence of diabetes. However, better management has resulted in a longer survival of patients with diabetes, but it is accompanied...
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The Cubit: A History and Measurement Commentary
1. Introduction If we know anything of the cubit today, it probably comes from acquaintance with Hebrew Scripture and/or the Old and New Testaments. People have heard or read about the dimensions of Noahs Ark or Solomons Temple. Acquaintance with...
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A Brief Overview of the Last 10 Years of Major Late Pleistocene Discoveries in the Old World: Homo Floresiensis, Neanderthal, and Denisovan
1. Introduction In the literature of human evolution, recent years have been marked by new questions of what it means to be human. Scholars have long been challenged to define humans' place in evolution and to trace our phylogeny. Differences in...
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Differences in Selected Health Traits between Occupational Groups among Oraons of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal
1. Introduction Occupation that generates income [1] plays a vital role in the well-being of individuals [2] engaged in jobs. But many working conditions create physical and mental stress that causes ill effects on health and enhance the chances...
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Sacred Groves the Consequence of Traditional Management
1. Introduction Traditional knowledge has been used for centuries by indigenous local communities to manage natural resources under local laws, customs, and traditions [1]. Many traditional societies all over the world revere and worship nature...
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Violence and Warfare in Precontact Melanesia
1. Introduction Cross cultural studies of violence and warfare in indigenous cultures have revealed a number of general trends that appear to be independent of specific social contexts. Keeley [1] has examined a large number of small societies and...
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A Study of Facial Index among Malay Population
1. Introduction Two persons are never alike in their measurable characters [1] and hence study of intra- and interpopulation variations among different morphological characters has long been an interest of the anthropologists [2, 3]. Anthropometry...
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Paleogenetic Studies in Guajajara Skeletal Remains, Maranhao State, Brazil
1. Introduction 1.1. The Guajajara. Among the indigenous peoples that still inhabit the vast South American continent are the Guajajara, an example of ethnic resistance after four centuries of contact with European, Brazilian, and African populations....
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Traditional Birth Attendants and Policy Ambivalence in Zimbabwe
1. Introduction African traditional healthcare is grounded in thousands of years of knowledge and has sustained life, on its own or in concert with Western medicine. A traditional birth attendant is defined as a person who assists the mother during...
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Dolicocephalization in Cephalic Indices of Adult Yorubas of Nigeria
1. Literature Review Anthropometry deals with the measurement of physical sizes and shapes of human body [1]. Data obtained from such measurements have been very useful in differentiating people of different ethnic backgrounds, nutritional status,...
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The Discolouration of Human Teeth from Archaeological Contexts: Elemental Analysis of a Black Tooth from a Roman Cranium Recovered from the River Witham, Lincoln, UK
1. Introduction There are many reported cases of discoloured teeth from both living and deceased individuals in the scientific literature. In living individuals, tooth discolouration is a well characterised feature of some diseases, medical treatments,...
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Nutritional Status among Females of Bhaina Tribe of Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India: An Anthropological Insight
1. Introduction Understanding variation/distribution of nutritional status in terms of malnutrition/undernutrition (a deficiency of calories or of one or more essential nutrients) among nutritionally vulnerable populations is very essential in developing...
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An Ethnographic Study of Diabetes: Implications for the Application of Patient Centred Care in Cameroon
1. Introduction Although sub-Saharan Africa remains afflicted by very high rates of communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases occur at age specific rates above those found in rich countries, such as those of Western Europe and North America...
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Improving Households Knowledge and Attitude on Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Practices through School Health Programme in Nyakach, Kisumu County in Western Kenya
1. Introduction The global problem of access to safe water and sanitation continues to plague the poor countries of the world. According to World Health Organization an estimated 2.6 billion people, comprising about 40 per cent of the world's population,...
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Health: Cognition and Threshold among the Oraon Tea Garden Labourers of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal
1. Introduction It is well known that the tea is an important agroindustry of West Bengal and Assam in Eastern India, which holds a considerable potential for the economic development, as it earns substantial foreign exchange and provides employment...
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Annual

Out on the Land: Income, Subsistence Activities, and Food Sharing Networks in Nain, Labrador
1. Introduction Throughout the history of Inuit ethnography, a major concern has been how and to what extent contemporary Inuit participate in and depend on subsistence activities, particularly in the context of increasing wage employment and growing...
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New Data on Food Consumption in Pre-Hispanic Populations from Northwest Argentina (Ca. 1000-1550 A.D.): The Contribution of Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Human Bones
1. Introduction The analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were introduced to archaeology in the middle 1970s and have been used worldwide to assess human and animal diets of archaeological populations [1-5]. Their main potential is that...
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Physical Growth and Nutritional Status among Ao Naga Children of Nagaland, Northeast India
1. Introduction Physical growth of children is widely recognized as one of the most sensitive and reliable indicator of health and nutritional status in the human population [1]. Growth and maturation are maintained by the interactions of genes,...
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An Exploratory Study of Male Adolescent Sexuality in Zimbabwe: The Case of Adolescents in Kuwadzana Extension, Harare
1. Introduction This study explores empirically adolescents' construction of sexuality. According to Nyanzi [1] sexuality is constructed as the domain exclusive to adults with preconditions of physical and social maturity. Thus, notions of child...
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Analysis of Facial Height between Prepubertal and Postpubertal Subjects in Rivers State, Nigeria
1. Introduction The craniofacial complex is divided into three and these include the cranium, upper face, and the lower face [1]. Facial aesthetic appreciation by the human mind is closely related proportions of the component portions in harmony...
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Adiposity and Health Status among Adult Male Mundas and Oraons of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India
1. Introduction The poor nutritional condition of young children in India has received much attention recently, but Indian adults are also experiencing a variety of nutritional problems [1]. The developing world faces the growing problem of obesity....
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Distribution of Hairs on the Phalanges of Hands among Ghanaians
1. Introduction The hair is an epidermal derivative of the skin which offers protection against mechanical injury in mammals. It is of great interest to clinicians and biomedical scientists because of its many useful biological functions, including...
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Indigenous Aeta Magbukun Self-Identity, Sociopolitical Structures, and Self-Determination at the Local Level in the Philippines
1. Introduction Indigenous people are commonly defined as the descendants of the inhabitants of a country or region who are present when people of different ethnic or cultural origins arrive and later become dominate through settlement or occupation...
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Paleodietary Analysis of Human Remains from a Hellenistic-Roman Cemetery at Camihoyuk, Turkey
1. Introduction Chemical studies on ancient skeletons have a complementary role in learning more about life and human interactions with the environment in a specific archaeological community along with their morphological and genetic-oriented counterparts...
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Craniofacial Anthropometric Profile of Adult Bangladeshi Buddhist Chakma Females
1. Introduction Morphological characteristics in human beings are affected by ecological, biological, geographical, racial, gender, and age factors [1]. Most studies have emphasized the importance of anthropometric study on the basis of the above...
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Nutritional Taboos among the Fullas in Upper River Region, the Gambia
1. Introduction Malnutrition in children under-five living in developing countries is one of the major leading causes of disease and mortality [1, 2]. It leads to long-term consequences such as impaired cognitive development, growth impairment,...
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Children of the Golden Minster: St. Oswald's Priory and the Impact of Industrialisation on Child Health
1. Introduction The importance of studying nonadult skeletal remains from the archaeological context is gaining increasing recognition [1-3], but studies that focus solely on the diseases experience of children from past populations is still uncommon....
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Nutritional Status among the Urban Meitei Children and Adolescents of Manipur, Northeast India
1. Introduction Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood that demands extra nutrients and energy-rich food for rapid growth and maturation [1]. Inadequate diet and unfavourable environmental condition in developing nations...
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September-October

Size and Shape: Morphology's Impact on Human Speed and Mobility
1. Introduction In recent years a number of key paleoanthropological finds and reconstructions have pushed into the forefront ideas of mobility strategies within and between hominin groups or species. Understanding mobility strategies is important...
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Towards a Community-Based Integrated Institutional Framework for Ecotourism Management: The Case of the Masebe Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province of South Africa
1. Introduction Nature conservation in Africa was introduced under rule. It has long been characterised by a protected area model, also referred to as "fortress conservation." After African countries acquired independence in the 1960s, this model...
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