Journal of Psychological and Educational Research

Articles

Vol. 25, No. 2, November

Experience of Attachment to School: The Relevance of a Person-Centred Approach for Identifying Adjustment Difficulties and Gender - and Age-Related Differences during Early Adolescence
IntroductionThe quality of school experience is a focal interest in a growing body of research, as it plays a pivotal role in students' academic, socio-emotional and behavioural adjustments. A construct proposed in the literature as an indicator of the...
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Guilt and Shame Proneness: The Role of Work Meaning and Perceived Unethicality of No Harm No Foul Behavior among Private Sector Employees
IntroductionCorruption can be defined as the act of abusing power for personal gain (Transparency International, 2016; Zaloznaya, 2014). Corruption refers to dishonesty impacting a nation on various aspects such as education, way of life, employment...
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Prediction of Digital Problem-Solving Performance of the Low-Achievers of a High-Performing Economy in Pisa 2012: Perseverance, Openness and Ict Use as Quality Education Indicators
IntroductionSince 2003, Macao-China participated in OECD's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The Government hopes to make use of the survey results to inform the stakeholders (i.e. schools, teachers, students, etc.) on how to foster...
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Risk and Protective Psychological Factors in Rape Supportive Attitude: A Systematic Review
IntroductionRape supportive attitude is an important factor that needs to be considered in the explanation of aggressive sexual behaviour of men towards women (Osman, 2004). As a definition, rape supportive attitudes are attitudes and beliefs that justify...
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Why Am I Burnout and Engaged? the Role of Motivation and Personality
IntroductionThe importance of student engagement with school is well known by educators as a result of the observation that too many students are bored, unmotivated, and uninvolved, and are not engaged or resigned from school. Engagement is characterized...
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Evaluation of an Academic Satisfaction Model for First-Year University Students
IntroductionIn Argentina, access to university education is restricted by completion of a series of courses, which seek to ensure foundation studies and knowledge and skills across all students, followed by an entrance exam. During this transition period...
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Evaluation of a Very Short Test to Measure the Big Five Personality Factors on a Flemish Sample
IntroductionIn recent years, personality inventories have been shortened considerably. While long tests such as the California Psychological Inventory (434 items, Gough, 1987) or the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (338 items; Ben-Porath...
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Measuring Attitude toward Learning English as a Second Language: Design and Validation of a Scale
IntroductionAlmost two billion people around the world are studying English as a second language, according to a British Council Annual Report (2013). It is the international language of business and of science. Thus, more and more universities around...
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Vol. 25, No. 1a, August

"SOCIO-EMOTIONAL PROGRAMS; PREVENTING AGGRESSION: EMERGING THEMES FROM 21st WORKSHOP ON AGGRESSION 2016" ORADEA / BAILE FELIX, ROMANIA
Everyone needs to be a responsible and dutiful citizen. Usually, the main purpose of education laws and strategies is to prepare people to become responsible citizens. Toreinforce this point, responsible behavior has been defined by Bear, Manning, and...
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The Impact of Cyber - Activity on Youth Development
The changes in modern developmental contextBecause of the globalization processes1 the world has shrunk - socially, economically and culturally. We are able to do our shopping in various time zones on various continents and track the delivery 24 hours...
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Developing a Sexuality Education Program for Parents in Romania – Preliminary Analysis
IntroductionThe well-being of children and young people and their healthy development, both physical and psychological, are primary concerns for parents or caregivers, education and health professionals as well. Throughout their development, young people...
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Romanian Translation and Linguistic Validation of the Civic Attitudes and Skills Questionnaire: Implications for Pre-Service Teachers' Evaluation
IntroductionAttitudes are considered as being potent behavioral driving forces that have been widely studied in Psychology for more than five decades. Gordon Allport (1935, apud Falk & Lieberman, 2013) defined social attitudes as "mental and neural...
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Functions of Aggressive Behaviors – Implications for Interventions
Understanding human behavior - a symptom of perception, cognition, and emotionHuman behaviors represent the whole range of emotional and behavioral reactions and expressions manifested by an individual in different moments along lifespan. Human behaviors...
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Romanian Translation and Linguistic Validation of the Children and Adolescent Social Support Scale (Casss)
IntroductionSocial support commonly refers to "an individual's perceptions of general support or specific supportive behaviors (available or enacted upon) from people in their social network, which enhances their functioning and/or may buffer them from...
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Vol. 25, No. 1, May

Links between Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and School Adjustment: A Person-Oriented Approach
IntroductionOne of the major contexts in the life of adolescents is school. The subjective experience in school relates significantly to adolescents' overall life quality (Huebner & Gilman, 2006). Over the past few decades, selfdetermination theory...
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Efficacy of Behavioural Interventions in the Development of Emotional Intelligence among Paramedical Students
IntroductionEmotional intelligence (EI) is arguably required ability for an individual to exert effective performance in team, adjust with social situations, manage stress, understand oneself and others and also regulate emotions. Specific, behavioural...
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The Company Judged from the Inside: Diversification, Equity and Justice in Organizations
Introduction: Labour market transformations, uncertainty and flexibility adjustmentThe purpose of this paper is to clarify the importance and the applicability of organizational justice in today's human resource management (HRM). There has been little...
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Distribution and Characteristics of Cyber Violence among Elementary School Students - Survey Results in Serbia
IntroductionThe informatics revolution accompanied by more intensive use of personal computers and mobile phones, has affected many aspects of modern life (Petrovic, 2009). It has, among other things, enabled not only easier communication between people,...
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Measuring the Student-Teacher Relationship Using Children’s Drawings in an Italian Elementary School
IntroductionA great deal of literature underlines the importance of the teacher-pupil relationship as a factor affecting aspects of children's early scholastic adjustment and their subsequent academic results. More specifically, in the first years at...
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Testing a Brief Index of Subjective Well-Being in Patients Diagnosed with Chronic Illnesses
IntroductionThe structure of subjective well-being has been conceptualized by two main components: affective component and cognitive component or the judgments a person makes about his/her own life (Diener et al., 1999). Life satisfaction is based on...
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Online Forum Discussions: They Will Respond the Way You Ask 1
Preservice Teacher Education and Use of TechnologyMultiple studies show that online discussions have the potential to cultivate and develop student higher order thinking skills (Black, 2005; Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000; Meyer, 2003; Thomas, 2002;...
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Vol. 24, No. 2, November

Choice Overload and the Quarterlife Phase: Do Higher Educated Quarterlifers Experience More Stress?
Recent findings tend to indicate that a new life phase is emerging between late adolescence and adulthood in Western societies. This developmental period has been called 'prolonged adolescence', 'emerging adulthood' (Arnett, 2000), and more recently,...
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Pentavalent Inventory to Measure Learning Styles
IntroductionA great variety of instruments to measure learning styles can be found in the literature (García Cué & Santizo Rincón, 2011). Many of them cater to different preferences and trends in learning from several points of view: environmental,...
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Self-Worth, Scholastic Competence and Approaches to Learning in University Students
IntroductionStudents ' Approaches to Learning (SAL) refers to the motivation and learning strategies students use to deal with learning tasks (Entwistle, Tait, & McCune, 2000). This integration of learning strategies with different types of motivation...
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The Short Form of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire: Validation Study among Slovenian Elementary and High School Students
IntroductionSelf-concept is one of the most studied psychological constructs and an important aspect of our personality. Self-concept refers to the way people perceive, evaluate and think about themselves. These perceptions are based on experiences and...
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Effect of Occupational Stress on Personal and Professional Life of Bank Employees in Bangladesh: Do Coping Strategies Matter
IntroductionOccupational stress is extensively evidenced as one of the significant problems for the workers all over the world (Imtiaz & Ahmed, 2009). It has revolved into a key concern that contributes adversely to organizations in terms of productivity,...
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Influence of Attitudes, Formative and Biographical Background on Intention of Use of Animal-Assisted Interventions Developed with Dogs. Some Conclusions on a Sample of Romanian Students
IntroductionAnimal assisted interventions (AAI) have been defined as "A goaldirected intervention designed to promote improvement in physical, social, emotional and/or cognitive functioning of the person(s) involved and in which a specially trained animal-handler...
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Is Virtual Marriage Acceptable? a Psychological Study Investigating the Role of Ambiguity Tolerance and Intimacy Illusion in Online Dating among Adolescents and Early Adults
IntroductionThe most current development of virtual marriage defines it as a marriage or contractual agreement that is conducted through internet medium in which the activities (wedding ceremony, kisses, etc.) are "played" and the instrumentalities as...
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The Online Romance Scam: A Complex Two-Layer Scam
Online dating has evolved very quickly from its beginnings as a site of relatively marginal interest to become an influential mainstream social practice facilitating the finding of a partner (Magrina, 2014). In 2003, Edelson (2003) reported the online...
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Vol. 24, No. 1, May

The Prediction of the Five Factor Personality Dimensions of Turkish Late Adolescents through the Family's Influence on Career Development
IntroductionThe career development of adolescents is a very important process, which determines how they will spend their lives, and shapes most other aspects of their futures. An evaluation of career development theories reveals that the processes leading...
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Interpersonal Intelligence in Enhancing Oral Presentation Proficiency for the Indonesian Students: Multiple Intelligence Approach in Education Field
IntroductionIn Indonesian education field specifically in foreign teaching learning, a student must master some competences, one of them is oral presentation. Academic presentation is difficult for the students specifically to those who do not have sufficient...
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Predicting Resilience after Cyberbully Victimization among High School Students
IntroductionRecently, research has increasingly focused on bullying and its recurring presence in schools and the workplace. One aspect of this research has explored the effects bullying has on the adolescent population. In 2009, 19.9% of students reported...
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Causal Relation of Academic Misconduct Behavior of Students in Thai Education Institutions
IntroductionAcademic misconduct of students in education institutions can be perceived as one crucial threat to academic integrity. Though students are fully aware that it is an unacceptable behavior, academic dishonesty is still widely practiced at...
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Study Harder? the Relationship of Achievement Goals to Attitudes and Self-Reported Use of Desirable Difficulties in Self-Regulated Learning
IntroductionA subject of high interest in current research on learning and memory is desirable difficulties (Bjork, 1994) because they have the potential to improve both classroom teaching and personal studying alike (Bjork & Bjork, 2011; Bjork &...
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The Relationship between Perceived Parental Acceptance-Rejection, Personality and Behavioral Dispositions, and Executive Function in a Turkish Primary School Sample
IntroductionParental involvement and affection is a major factor in the emotional and social development of the child, which in turn affects the psychological self-assessment of the child. In relation to child development, it is important that children...
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Gender Differences in the Manifestation of Risky Forms of Adolescents' Behavior on the Internet
University of Zagreb, Faculty ofTeacher Education, CroatiaIntroductionHighly developed technology, rapid flow of information and global mobility are just some of the characteristics of the times we live in today. New technologies are a part of everyday...
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I Can Teach Them: The Ability of Robot Instructors to Cognitive Disabled Children
Eunil ParkKorea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology (KICT), Goyang, Republic of KoreaSang Jib KwonDongguk University, Gyeongju, Republic of KoreaIntroductionAs social robots continue to be developed, their adaption for educational...
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Mediating Role Examination of Self-Esteem on Career Decisiveness and Career Commitment; an Empirical Investigation on Thai Young Adults
IntroductionThe self esteem plays very important role in shaping the thought process and respective aspirations of one's professional career and personal lives. The level of self-esteem low, high or medium affects the one's life (Mcleod, 2012). People...
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Vol. 23, No. 2, November

The Effect of Moderate Task-Irrelevant, Negative Emotion on Classroom Test Taking Performance in a Non-Clinical Population
IntroductionOne of the unresolved questions in understanding the relationship between emotion and memory concerns the influence that moderate task irrelevant negative emotion has on test-taking performance in non-clinical populations. Although intense...
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Exploring Incubation Effects on Insight Problem-Solving with Computer]based Tasks
IntroductionWhen students are confronted with an initial failure while trying to solve a problem, they may repeat their ineffective problem-solving approach again and again in vain. In this situation, a student may feel frustrated and see no alternative...
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Preliminary Investigation on the Effectiveness of a Thinking Skill Training in Indonesia: "Thinking Skills Training with Digital Technology"
IntroductionThinking skills are often regarded as key skills to be successful in higher education (Kuh, Kinzie, Schuh, & Whitt, 2010) and career (Heimler, Rosenberg, & Morote, 2012; Parham, Noland, & Kelly, 2011). An employer and employee...
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Influence of Training and Knowledge Management on Competency among Quality Managers at Rajabhat Universities in Thailand
IntroductionThere are many factors influencing the success of organizational management. One factor referred by many administrators like Crosby, Juran, Ishikawa, Leonard and Sasser and Mondon, is the founding of a quality council or a unit directly responsible...
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The Prediction of Separation-Individuation through Internal-External Locus of Control in Turkish Late Adolescents
IntroductionSeparation-individuation is redefining the relationship between an individual and their caregivers such as mother and father by getting away from this addiction to their parents on their way to independence and autonomy. It is expected that...
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Intervention for Chronic Dysthimia: A Case Study on Diagnostic Uncertainty
IntroductionThe purpose of this case study is to describe the therapeutic interventions along ten psychotherapy sessions that brought about significant changes in the patient's life, despite relative uncertainty concerning a nosology label. This case...
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The Development Strategy of Citizenship Education in Civic Education Using Project Citizen Model in Indonesia
IntroductionLearning process of Civic Education focuses more on cognitive aspect than affective aspect. Ideally speaking, Civic Education must comprise 3 aspects, which are cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Margaret S. Branson et al. (1999) argues...
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Vol. 23, No. 1, May

Predicting Positive and Negative Affect Based on Emotion and Thought Regulation Strategies
IntroductionIntense and negative emotional reactions, including unwanted thoughts are common in the aftermath of stressful or traumatic life events (Vanderhasselt, Koster, Onraedt, Bruyneel, Goubert, & De Raedt, 2014). When confronted with such situations,...
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The Reliability and Construct Validity of the Critical Thinking Disposition Scale
Critical thinking is the ability to think clearly and rationally and focuses on deciding what to do or what to believe (Facione, 2000). It includes the ability to conceptualize, apply, analyze, synthesize, and/or evaluate the information gathered from...
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Psychological Determinants of Errors in Solving Political Tasks
IntroductionThe dramatic political context of the public life of Ukrainian citizens revealed a lot of problems among which there is a need for political orientation (understanding, realization, knowledge, identification) in the political reality field....
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Effect of Slow-Deep Breathing Exercise to Reduce Anxiety among Adolescent School Students in a Selected Higher Secondary School in Coimbatore, India
IntroductionMany studies are evidenced that there is a causal relationship between academic performance and anxiety among students. Anxiety plays a crucial role in lower the academic performance of the students and also endanger to other physical illnesses....
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Better Together: Teams and Discourse in Asynchronous Online Discussion Forums
IntroductionLately constructivist methods of education have become the dominant view of classroom teaching. According to the constructivist model, learning is the active process of building knowledge, where learners make an effort to build their own...
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Managing the Double Agenda in Executive Coaching
IntroductionThe primary problems addressed in executive coaching are business and management issues (Joo, 2005), such as increasing performance, motivating employees, applying different kinds of strategies to conflict management, and answering critical...
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A Holistic Perspective of the Conceptual Framework of Resilience
IntroductionResilience represents a human capacity manifested when individuals face well and easy difficult situations. "Resilience means the skills, abilities, knowledge, and insight that accumulate over time as people struggle to surmount adversity...
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Vol. 22, No. 2, November

School Bullying and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: The Mediation Role of Perceived Stress
IntroductionAbout 10%-20% of children and adolescents are regularly involved in school bullying as either victims, bullies, or both (Kaltiala-Heino & Frojd, 2011). A growing body of research highlights the range of adverse consequences affecting...
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Psychological Components of Self-Realizations of Students in International Volunteer Programs
IntroductionThe theoretical data proves the existence of the specific peculiarities of the students' self-realization. The expansion of a scope of social interaction, the development of a sense of psychological and social competency, the dynamics of...
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Predictors of Deductive Reasoning in Primary School Children
IntroductionThe relationship between reasoning as cognitive ability and the other cognitive skills is extensively discussed in the reference literature. Some authors, supporters of factorial theories, argue that reasoning must be approached in close...
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The Demarcation of Cognitive and Learning Style: Myth or Reality as an Impediment in Educational Research
IntroductionThe origin of the term 'cognitive style' is endorsed to Allport in 1937 by most of the researchers, although, he did not used term cognitive style in his book at that time, whereas the term learning style, was first used by Riessman in 1964...
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A Short Psychotherapeutic Intervention on Depression Complicated by a Chronic B Virus Infection: A Case Study
IntroductionThe purpose of this case study is to describe the therapeutic interventions included in eleven therapy sessions that stimulated change in a young man who suffered from a depressive episode. The therapy took into account the HBS infection...
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Vol. 22, No. 1, May

Authenticity and Well-Being among European and Eurasian Young Adults
Authenticity in peoples' lives, that is living according to one's true nature (also called eudaimonia; Ryan & Deci, 2001), has been a topic of great interest among humanistic and existential scholars for some time (May, 1981; Rogers, 1959, 1961;...
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Adaptation of Cognitive Style Indicator: Validity and Reliability Studies of the Indicator
IntroductionIn today's world, an individual's cognitive styles play a very significant role in shaping their attitudes, emotions and lives. Thus, individuals need to raise their awareness about their cognitive styles. The cognitive style literature review...
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Emotional Intelligence versus Emotional Competence
Emotional intelligence is one of the most studied topics in psychological literature, because it is an umbrella concept both in the business- organizational environment and in the academic one. Ever since it's first mentioning in 1985, it stirred a great...
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The Illusion of Social Class Identity and Academic Performance: Exploring the Role of Father Education as an Indicator of Socioeconomic Status
Recent review of Indian studies exploring the psychology of social class and academic achievement found the major role of deficit socioeconomic status and abilities (see Srivastava, 2009). As Indian educational context is an amalgamation of many submerged...
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Short Psychotherapeutic Intervention on Pathology Borders and Fight for Power: A Case Study
IntroductionThe purpose of this case study is to describe the therapeutic interventions included in eight therapy sessions that stimulated change in a young couple. Its difficulties were caused by the beginning of a new life stage due to the baby's arrival...
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Vol. 21, No. 2, November

The Prediction of Separation-Individuation through Self-Esteem in Turkish Adolescents
IntroductionSeparation-individuation is redefining the relationship between an individual and their caregivers such as mother and father by means of moving away from this dependency on parents on their way to independence and autonomy. It is believed...
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The Influence of TV to Preschool Children Social Relations and Parents Approaches to This Subject
IntroductionSocialization is a social process of integration society in to learn culture of society and the role of the individual. The individual being with other people, they need to participate in and to hear the request by socialization. Childhood...
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Expression of Talent in the Technical Domain
Perspectives surrounding the concept of giftednessIn order to investigate the perception of the giftedness among the initiated in science education, Sternberg has studied the phenomenon from this perspective too, summarizing the colloquial meaning of...
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Input Enhancement and Connected Discourse; a Case of Efl Academic Context
IntroductionEmergence of communicative competence in the area of foreign and second language teaching has had significant effects on the four language skills. Several research studies have shed light on the possible influence of communicative competence...
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The Historic and Theoretic Evolution of the Curricula from Romania
The historic and theoretic evolution of the curricula from RomaniaTeaching and the curriculum is the product of human knowledge. Its history and present necessity and myth, culture and consciousness, freedom and obedience, reality and fantasy motivate...
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Social-Cognitive Predictors of Interpersonal Sensitivity
IntroductionSensitive persons are frequently described as being very careful to others' behaviour and reactions, as they want to make the others happy and to minimise conflicts (McCabe, Blankstein, & Mills, 1999); they are sensible to the threats...
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Effect of Studies on Attitudes towards Inmates
IntroductionDostoevsky once mentioned that humanity from any civilization can be measured by the way in which its inmates are treated. The delinquency phenomenon is an essential topic for psychology and law in building a better society. A first step...
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Vol. 21, No. 1, May

School Psychological Counselors' Perceptions about Child Abuse and Negligence: A Case Study in Turkey1
IntroductionThose who are responsible for satisfying the needs of the child and raise him/her are first of all the family in which he/she is born. Besides the family, relatives, neighbors, friends of the child present in his/her environment as well as...
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Families' Perception on Play in the Early Childhood Setting
IntroductionIn the fall of 2009, 18 preservice teachers enrolled in a junior-level early childhood curriculum class or student teaching experience at a small liberal arts university were asked the question, "Is play important to the early childhood curriculum?"...
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Psychometric Properties of the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale on a Sample of Married Adults
Beside such concepts as the quality of marital relationship, marital satisfaction or happiness, marital adjustment represents a frequently measured variable in the field of marriage and family psychology (Spanier, 1976). In spite of calls to abandon...
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New Psychometrical Data on the Efficiency of Satisfaction with Life Scale in Romania
IntroductionDuring the last decades we observe an orientation of scientific researches towards the wellbeing construct or satisfaction with life, supplying important extra information to some psychological targets: understanding anxiety or emotional...
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The Evolution of a Psychodrama Training Group from the Perspective of the Group Process
Theoretical Introduction: the development process of groupsThe psychodrama training group, constituted with developmental aim, will undergo the same developmental stages as other groups in which participants are interdependents, they have interactivity...
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Short Psychotherapeutic Eclectic Intervention for Ambivalence: A Case Study
The purpose of this case study is to describe the therapeutic interventions included in four therapy sessions that stimulated change in a young female with feelings of being blocked and ambivalent. The case is illustrative of how a limited number of...
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Vol. 20, No. 2, November

The Hierarchy of Teachers' Professional Needs from Pre-University Education from Moldova
IntroductionStarting from the point that each human being tries to have satisfactions while interacting with the external world, including the professional one, we underline the principle of teachers' professional satisfaction as a key principle of human...
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The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Critical Thinking in an Academic Context
IntroductionThe way language learners perceive and interact with one another is taken for granted in instructional programs. Much training time is devoted to helping instructors set up appropriate interactions between language learners and materials...
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Wellbeing as a Component of Life Quality in Schizophrenia
IntroductionDuring the last decades, life quality became a valuable indicator more and more used for evaluating the impact of the psychosis on patients` everyday life (Wegener, Redoblado-Hodge, Lucas, Fitzgerald, Harris, & Brennan, 2005). Barry (1997)...
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The Way Perception of Behavioural Determinants Influence the Dysfunctional Attributions in Depression
IntroductionUnderstanding the social behavior is done by the explanation of the way in which the person knows the reality in his daily life, gives a meaning to events he comes into contact with, is able to make predictions, he has a relative control...
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Educational Poetic Therapy for Empowering Schizophrenic Patients
IntroductionThe biopsychosocial model of mental illness, developed by S. Engel (1970), offers theoretical ground to examine the social influence on mental health and leads to the supposition that psycho-education is a real way to reduce disability. Contradictory...
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The Trimodal Anxiety Questionnaire (Taq): A Validation Study on Communities from Western Romania
IntroductionSeen as the shadow of intelligence and the spectre of death, anxiety has both a protective and a stimulating meaning, as well as destructive and self- destructive consequences (Barlow, 2004). Based on recent studies, it is estimated that...
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Vol. 20, No. 1, May

Adaptation Study of the Student Version of the General Procrastination Inventory on the Romanian Population
IntroductionLay (1986) defines procrastination as an irrational tendency to delay the beginning and/or completion of different tasks. Ferrari (1998) considers that procrastinators encounter difficulties in motivating themselves sufficiently (they are...
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Romanian Adaptation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale
Theoretical BackgroundThroughout its history, clinical psychology has tended to define mental health as the absence of mental illness. More recently, well-being has become an important topic in understanding mental health (McNulty & Fincham, 2012;...
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Trial of Hopelessness Theory by the Use of Modelling. New Psychometric Data on the Hopelessness Depression Symptom Questionnaire
IntroductionAccording to hopelessness theory, one proximal and sufficient cause for symptoms of depression is the expectancy that the desirable results shall not occur or that high aversive results shall appear and that no response within the intrinsic...
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Personality Traits and Psychopathological Factors with Predictive Value for Delinquent Behavior
IntroductionVarious studies (Forest, 1977; Eysenck, 1977; van Dam, Janssens, & De Bruyn, 2005; van Dam, De Bruyn, & Janssens, 2007; ter Laak, de Goede, Aleva, Brugman, van Leuven, & Hussmann, 2003; Moore, 2001) tried to identify whether delinquency...
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Social and Psychological Implications of Bullying in Schools
IntroductionSocial reality is a complex system of groups that builds norms, values, which assigns positions and has an important influence on the individual's development. The group plays a crucial role in a person's development. The group plays an important...
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Teachers' Attitude toward the Concept of Discrimination and Its Effects in Reality
IntroductionAccording to the Romania Law No. 324/2006, discrimination is defined as "any differentiation, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, social class, sex, sexual orientation, age, disability,...
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