Journal of Rural Social Sciences

Articles

Vol. 32, No. 2, 2017

Community, Regional Identity, and Civic Agriculture: A Structural Ritualization Analysis of Rural Online Farmers' Market Sellers *
Biotechnology companies started pushing a "new agriculture" agenda in the 1980s. Its corner post is genetically modified (GM) food. The homogenization of GM crops allows farmers to grow similar products. Corporate farmers now produce comparable crops,...
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Effect of Mobile Telecommunication Technologies on Globalization of Nigerian Rural Areas
The need for attainment of quality living by human society has engendered an extensive exploration of the available livelihood assets. The dynamics with which livelihood assets, such as natural, physical, financial, human and social assets, are explored...
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Heterogeneity of Rural Consumer Perceptions of Health Service Access across Four Regions of Victoria *
Access to appropriate health services ranks among the key determinants of health and well-being in rural Australia, together with socioeconomic disadvantage, Aboriginality, environmental and occupational risk and education level (Smith, Humphreys, and...
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Energy and the Rural Sociological Imagination
Ultimately, society and possibly our species will succeed or fail based on how we deal with three basic human needs, food, water and energy. The overall success or measure of society should be of significant concern to rural sociologists. After all,...
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Ict Use by Smallholder Farmers in Rural Mozambique: A Case Study of Two Villages in Central Mozambique
Smallholder farmers are essential to food security and livelihoods in rural SubSaharan Africa (SSA). Representing an estimated 80% of SSA farms and 90% of the region's agriculture production, the typical African smallholder farmer earns income from a...
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Livestock-Livelihood Linkages in Uganda: The Benefits for Women and Rural Households?
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)Livestock have long been recognized as playing a critical role in the livelihood strategies of rural households in Africa and Asia (Alary, Corniaux, and Gautier 2011; Ellis and Bahiigwa 2003; Meltzer 1995). However,...
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Vol. 32, No. 1, 2017

Implementing Multilevel Food and Nutrition Security Frameworks in Sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and Opportunities for Scaling Up Pulses in Ethiopia
For decades, the global policy agenda has attempted to address global food and nutrition insecurity. Since 2000, initiatives have prioritized efforts to increase the availability, affordability and accessibility of culturally appropriate, nutritionallydense...
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Rural Sociologists in the Transformation of African Agriculture and Rural Development
This double issue stems from sessions held at the 2016 Congress of the International Rural Sociology Association (IRSA) in Toronto, Canada. To strengthen professional collaboration across Africa, a group of African and Africacentric rural sociologists...
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COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS OF SELECTED NGOs IN PLATEAU STATE, NORTHCENTRAL, NIGERIA
Rural development plays an important role in the Nigerian economic development both at the micro and macro levels. There is an overwhelming need to accord rural development the highest priority attention by government at different levels if the rural...
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Worldviews Apart: Agricultural Extension and Ethiopian Smallholder Farmers
We were standing in smallholder fields well off the beaten track, several hours down a bumpy dirt road followed by half a day of walking along muddy trails. It was the rainy season in the cereal breadbasket of the Ethiopian highlands. The fields had...
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Vol. 31, No. 3, 2016

Mixed-Mode Surveys Compared with Single Mode Surveys: Trends in Responses and Methods to Improve Completion *
The range of available methods for conducting surveys has expanded greatly over the recent decades (de Leeuw, Jox, and Dillman 2008). Concurrently, theoretical models to describe factors influencing survey response rates and data quality have been developed...
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Effectiveness of the Drop-Off/pick-Up Survey Methodology in Different Neighborhood Types *
For over a century social scientists have relied on the use of probability sampling and surveys to gather information and make inferences about characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors of larger populations of individuals, households or organizations....
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The Case for Personal Interaction: Drop-Off/pick-Up Methodology for Survey Research *
Low survey response rates and the corresponding potential for nonresponse error have presented increasing challenges for social researchers in the United States (Brick and Williams 2013; Dillman, Smyth, and Christian 2014). One often overlooked alternative...
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Public Intercept Interviews and Surveys for Gathering Place-Based Perceptions: Observations from Community Water Research in Utah *
Public intercept surveys or interviews are a straightforward and direct method for gathering data on public perceptions or other locally relevant information. However, compared with Internet, phone, and mail surveys (Dillman, Smyth, and Christian 2014),...
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Another Look at Likert Scales *
Social scientists have produced an extensive literature on the nature and social correlates of public attitudes. The findings from some of these studies may both aid in social decision-making in a democratic society and contribute to our understanding...
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Influence of Importance Statements and Box Size on Response Rate and Response Quality of Open-Ended Questions in Web/mail Mixed-Mode Surveys *
To understand the thinking behind respondents' answers, survey designers sometimes use open-ended questions in paper and web surveys. According to Dillman, Smyth, and Christian (2014), open-ended questions can be put into three categories: 1) numerical...
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Moving Survey Methodology Forward in Our Rapidly Changing World: A Commentary
Survey methodology now faces an unprecedented challenge for how to collect information from samples of people that will provide scientifically defensible estimates of the characteristics of the population they represent. Many decades of research have...
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Advances in Survey and Data Analysis Methods for Rural Social Scientists: An Introduction
A BRIEF HISTORY OF METHODOLOGICAL AND SURVEY RESEARCH BY RURAL SCIENTISTSThe stage was set for rural social scientists to affect survey and data analysis methods with the emergence of the discipline of rural sociology in the 1930s and, subsequently,...
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Vol. 31, No. 2, 2016

Guest Editor's Notes
I am happy to present this special issue of the Journal of Rural Social Sciences. This is an update to the Southern Rural Sociology issue published eight years ago (See SRS Vol 23, Issue 2). This issue has five articles focused on the specific problem...
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Judging the Effectiveness of Anti-Poaching Hotlines
For law enforcement officials to intervene or even investigate a criminal action, they must first become aware of the crime. This can take place by virtue of the police detecting the crime themselves or through citizen notification. For citizens calling...
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Criminal Futures on the Ruralside: A Preliminary Examination of Antisocial Behaviors of Rural and Urban Students
The idea of urban-rural differences has been integrated into the sociological literature since the study of crime began. In 1930, Sorokin, Zimmerman and Galpin published a Sourcebook for Rural Sociology; which indicates there was a cache of knowledge...
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Rural/urban Differences in Inmate Perceptions of the Punitiveness of Prison: Does Having Children Make Prison More Punitive? *
America has been on an incarceration binge for many years. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that the number of persons under supervision of adult correctional authorities at the end of 2013 was almost seven million with more than 1.5 million...
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Do Rural School Resource Officers Contribute to Net-Widening? Evidence from a Southern State
In the late 1990s and early 21st century, a series of school shootings and public perceptions that schools were becoming increasingly violent and out-of-control focused public and scholarly attention on the issues of disorder, antisocial behavior, and...
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Online and Offline Bullying Perpetration in a Rural Developmental Context: The Impact by Social Media Use
Internet use has become omnipresent in the lives of youth today, forming an essential part of their lifestyle. Practically all youth between the ages of 12 and 17 use the Internet, averaging about 17 hours per week online, with some spending more than...
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Perceptions of Risk and Reward of Rapid Energy Exploration in Rural Kansas: Are Older Adults Different? *
Kansas is often viewed by those outside the state as open prairie devoted to agricultural production. However, Kansas has a long and active history of energy exploration and production, with oil exploration beginning in the late 19th century in some...
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Globalization and Its Effects on Agriculture and Agribusiness in the Mississippi Delta: A Historical Overview and Prospects for the Future
At first glance, the Mississippi Delta is characterized by several puzzling disparities. The region boasts abundant natural resources, yet an unusually high proportion of the population lives in poverty. The Delta has strong communities and a strong...
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Vol. 31, No. 1, 2016

Recreational Needs and Practices of Youth Living in Rural Areas in Quebec: Views and Concerns of Stakeholders and Parents
Many recent studies have pointed out that the daily practice of recreational activities fosters adolescents' well-being (Healty Kids Canada 2013; Pronovost 2013). Some studies even shed light on the fact that leisure, in an organized or free perspective,...
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Appalachia, Usa: An Empirical Note and Agenda for Future Research *
For over a century, scholars, politicians, and various other stakeholders have attempted to draw the physical bounds of an American Appalachian region (e.g., Fenneman 1916; Shapiro 1978; Gatrell and Fintor 1998; Williams 2002). Like many comparable efforts,...
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Restructuring of the Financial Industry and Implications for Sources of Start-Up Capital for New Businesses in Nonmetropolitan Counties *
Historically, in small towns throughout rural America local banks had formed symbiotic relationships with local businesses. The flow of capital was lubricated by the personal relationships and trust that developed between local banks and business owners....
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Self-Reported Familiarity of Hydraulic Fracturing and Support for Natural Gas Drilling: Substantive and Methodological Considerations *
Rapid development of the US natural gas industry over the last decade has been fueled primarily by technological advances in horizontal drilling and high-volume, multistage hydraulic fracturing (IEA 2012). Hydraulic fracturing - an industrial process...
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The Masculinized Work of Energy Development: Unequal Opportunities and Risks for Women in Pennsylvania Shale Gas Boomtown Communities
Energy companies and proponents of unconventional natural gas development have long touted the potential economic benefits to local communities (Hudgins and Poole 2014). Local communities have often shown a propensity to support shale gas development...
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Vol. 30, No. 1, 2015

The Impact of Rurality, Community Attachment, and Community Involvement on Health among Rural Texans
ABSTRACTThis study examines the differences in three health status indicators by rurality and the effects of community attachment and involvement on health among rural residents in Texas. We use the 2013 Texas Rural Survey (TRS) data, which include information...
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Toward Engagement in Climate Training: Findings from Interviews with Agricultural Extension Professionals
ABSTRACTWith scientific consensus regarding the occurrence of climate variability and climate change it is clear that farmers can benefit from science-based adaptation strategies for managing climate-related risk. To this end, cooperative extension professionals...
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An Overview of Health and Occupational Hazards of Rural Women in Nigeria
ABSTRACTIn Nigeria, few research studies have been documented on the health and occupational hazards of rural women with its implication on rural productivity. Women are often incapacitated by occupational hazards that interact with other causes of illness...
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Community Leaders' Perspectives on Shale Development in the New Albany Shale
ABSTRACTShale development, which uses the controversial energy extraction technique of hydraulic fracturing, is on the rise in America, with industries recently investigating the New Albany shale play in southern Illinois and western Kentucky. We ask:...
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The Impact of the Farmers' Market Nutrition Program on Participating Florida Farmers: A Research Note
ABSTRACTThe Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) is a federally funded program designed to increase fresh fruit and vegetable consumption among WIC participants. Research to date has examined the effectiveness of...
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Vol. 29, No. 2, 2014

Why "Ritiya" Could Not Go to Sell Vegetables? Myth versus Reality in Terms of Caste, Culture and Livelihood
ABSTRACTThis qualitative study focuses on the challenges faced by the upper-caste Brahmin women in rural areas of the district of Katihar, Bihar, India by focusing on their education, cultural values, and choosing the means of livelihood in the milieu...
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Child Labor in Agricultural Production and Socioeconomic Variables among Arable Farming Households in Nigeria
ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to determine the level of child labor involvement in arable crop farming. A multistage random sampling method was used to select the respondents. Data were collected with the use of a structured interview schedule and...
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Armed to Farm: Developing Training Programs for Military Veterans in Agriculture*
ABSTRACTFarming offers a viable avenue for returning veterans to transition into society and capitalizes on skills that made them successful in the military. However, these opportunities may be missed due to a lack oftargeted training programs, guidance,...
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Promoting Participation in Sustainable Living Educational Programming Events among Non-Environmentally-Motivated Individuals: The Importance of Key Informant Involvement*
ABSTRACTMany social science researchers agree that overconsumption of resources and consumer goods is a major problem in Western culture today, particularly in the United States. Thus, promoting sustainable behavior among the public in rural and urban...
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Rural Caregivers and Social Isolation: Some Properties and Dimensions*
ABSTRACTThere are an estimated 400,000 people with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the United States. Many rely on an informal caregiver for assistance. Caregivers are more likely than non-caregivers to report feelings of social isolation. Rural MS caregivers...
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Vol. 29, No. 1, 2014

Examining Social Support in a Rural Homeless Population
ABSTRACT**The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with social support in a rural, homeless population. Ninety-six (N= 96) individuals voluntarily agreed to participate in an evaluation examining effectiveness of enhanced substance...
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"I Wanna Have My Own Damn Dairy Farm!": Women Farmers, Legibility, and Femininities in Rural Wisconsin, U.S.*
ABSTRACTThe number of women farming in the United States continues to climb, even as the number of farms has been relatively stable in recent years. Nevertheless, women often face an uphill battle in asserting themselves as farmers, particularly if they...
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Perceptions of Community and Place and the Migration Intentions of At-Risk Youth in Rural Areas
ABSTRACTPopulation decline in rural areas is often attributed to the outmigration of young people, particularly those with high educational and occupational aspirations. This study investigates the perceptions of community and place and the migration...
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Reimagining the Future of Agriculture: Building Knowledge for Sustainability and Resilience
ABSTRACTThe theme of the 2014 SRSA meeting called attention to the interrelationships between agricultural sustainability and community resilience, which have become interrelated goals in building agriculture and communities that support vibrant local...
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On Rural-Urban Differences in Human Capital Formation: Finding the 'Bottlenecks'*
ABSTRACTStudies have found lower levels of educational achievement for students in rural areas focusing mostly on cross-sectional data. Using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we follow the same youth cohort to examine whether there are...
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Vol. 28, No. 3, 2013

Perceptions of Disaster Risk and Vulnerability in Rural Texas*
ABSTRACTRural areas are uniquely vulnerable to a variety of hazards given their social and economic composition. Economic reliance on agriculture and natural resource extraction increases vulnerability to certain types of natural hazards such as drought,...
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An Unexpected Legacy: Women, Early Rural Sociological Research, and the Limits of Linearity
ABSTRACTWe often think of history in linear terms: past as prologue, one event following another, one year leading into the next. In a Rostowian-styled model of development, this kind of linear progression prefigures not only conceptualizations about...
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Changes in Residents' Views of Natural Gas Drilling in the Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale, 2009-2012*
ABSTRACTData from comparable surveys of residents in the Marcellus Shale region of Pennsylvania conducted in 2009 and 2012 are analyzed to ascertain changes in public views over time. The proportions of residents indicating they knew very little or nothing...
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Rural Residents for Responsible Agriculture: Hog Cafos and Democratic Action in Illinois
ABSTRACTRural Residents for Responsible Agriculture (RRRA) is a local nonprofit group formed in West Central Illinois that successfully prevented the construction of an 18,220 head Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO). Here I document my participation...
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Ethical Issues in Rural Health Care
Craig M. Klugman and Pamela M. Dalinis (eds.), Ethical Issues in Rural Health Care. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2013 (224 pp.), ISBN 987-1-4214-0955-9, US$29.95.Patient-centered health care demands that professional decisions...
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Vol. 28, No. 2, 2013

The Social Architecture of Local Food Tourism: Challenges and Opportunities for Community Economic Development*
ABSTRACTLocal food tourism-culinary tourism with an explicit emphasis on local food systems-is emerging as a "green" model for community economic development. However, do local food tourism networks constitute a net gain to community economies in all...
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Women of the River: Grassroots Organizing and Natural Disaster*
ABSTRACTThis study, a sub-study of a larger project, the Missouri Mobile Home Estates Project, examines the grassroots efforts of three women in an impoverished Midwestern river community to improve the lives of the children living there. The women's...
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Stakeholder Perceptions of Socioenvironmental Impacts from Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in the Haynesville Shale*
ABSTRACTEnvironmental controversy over unconventional natural gas development utilizing horizontal drilling and hydraulic "fracking" has been on the rise in recent years. While most of the media attention has been focused on the conflicts in states like...
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Examining Rural-Urban Population Change in the Southeastern United States*
ABSTRACTThis study examined the factors that influenced population change in 875 counties in the southeastern United States between 1970 and 2000, using U.S. Census data. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between...
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Perception of the Natural Gas Industry and Engagement in Individual Civic Actions*
ABSTRACTData collected in a general population survey from a random sample of individuals in Tarrant County, Texas, were used to empirically examine issues associated with public perception of the natural gas industry. Further, the associations of public...
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Vol. 28, No. 1, 2013

"Small" Farmers, Big Challenges: A Needs Assessment of Florida Small-Scale Farmers' Production Challenges and Training Needs*
ABSTRACTSmall-scale farmers are faced with many challenges on a daily basis. In addition, they have several needs that, if fulfilled, could help reduce some of their challenges. The small-scale farmer remains an ideal target audience for Extension staff...
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Are Rural People More Anti-Immigrant Than Urban People? a Comparison of Attitudes toward Immigration in the United States
ABSTRACTImmigration to the United States has increased markedly in the past two decades, including significant growth in rural areas. Using General Social Survey data we compare rural and urban attitudes toward immigration in the United States. Our analyses...
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Differing Perspectives on Biofuels: Analysis of National, Regional, and State Newspaper Coverage
ABSTRACTWe examined national, regional, and Alabama newspaper coverage of biofuels development to observe variation in coverage and to understand the role of media on controversial issues of national importance. The years covered, 2007-2009, coincided...
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The Twilight of Forks?: The Effect of Social Infrasturcture on Film Tourism and Community Development in Forks, Wa*
ABSTRACTIn the midst of economic decline caused by a drop in forest-related jobs, Forks, WA was ready to redefine itself by the early 2000s. With the help of Stephenie Meyer's successful Twilight series, which was set in Forks, community leaders embraced...
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Geographical Indications in Brazilian Food Markets: Quality Conventions, Institutionalization, and Path Dependence
ABSTRACTThis paper discusses the institutionalization of the Geographical Indications (GI) system in Brazil. Emphasis is placed on the evaluative disputes underway in hybrid forums where different actors seek to build compromises concerning production...
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Vol. 27, No. 3, 2012

A Portrait of Rural Health in America
Rural America is home to more than 59 million people (USBC 2012). Health and health care issues affect the lives of these many millions of people. While rural residents confront many of the same health issues and health care challenges that their urban...
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Assessing Barriers to Health Care Services for Hispanic Residents in Rural Georgia*
ABSTRACTSince the 1990s, many Hispanics have been relocating to the rural South and their permanency (although beneficial to the economy) poses new challenges at the institutional level. One area of major concern is the adequate provision of health care....
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A Demographic Analysis of Metro/nonmetro Differences in Adult Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity*
ABSTRACTOverweight and obesity prevalence is increasing throughout the United States, and these two health conditions seem to disproportionately affect certain segments of the adult population. To date little research has examined adult differences in...
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Partnering to Enable Active Rural Living: Pearl Project*
ABSTRACTRural residents in communities face opportunities and obstacles for physical activity (PA), health, and well- being that differ from those experienced in non-rural settings. Yet, rural people's interpretations of PA and experience of the PA environment...
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The School Neighborhood Environment for Childhood Obesity in a Rural Texas Community*
ABSTRACTThis paper examines the school neighborhood environments related to childhood obesity in a rural community in Texas, focusing on the assessment of three aspects: socioeconomic characteristics, food environment, and physical activity environment....
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Ruptured Identity of Male Farmers: Subjective Crisis and the Risk of Suicide*
ABSTRACTSuicide among male farmers is frequently discussed in the literature. While a wide range of factors are associated, a coherent theoretical framework that incorporates the various factors associated with male farmer suicide has not been developed....
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Vol. 27, No. 2, 2012

Insider, Outsider, or Somewhere in Between: The Impact of Researchers' Identities on the Community-Based Research Process*
ABSTRACTSociologists and qualitative researchers have engaged in an extensive debate about the merits of researchers being "outsiders" or "insiders" to the communities they study. Recent research has attempted to move beyond a strict outsider/insider...
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Increasing Community Participation with Self-Organizing Meeting Processes*
ABSTRACTInvolving many people in community-based research provides many benefits, such as more labor power and increased buy-in. Traditional meeting formats, however, are not well suited to attracting broad engagement. One way to address this challenge...
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Who Counts Reality and Why It Counts: Searching for a Community-Based Approach to Quantitative Inquiry*
ABSTRACTCommunity-based research is often discussed in a way that assumes an inherent qualitative methodological approach. This includes discussions of research design, data collection, and analysis. The limitations of quantitative research aside, ignoring...
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Farming in a Global Economy: A Case Study of Immigrant Farmers in Canada
Schryer, Frans. 2006. Farming in a Global Economy: A Case Study of Immigrant Farmers in Canada. Boston and Leiden, Brill, 2006 (376 pp.), ISBN13: 9789004151703, euro 84.00, US$ 117.00Frans Schryer skillfully presents an intensive, decade-long ethnographic...
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Ferry Tales: Mobility, Place and Time on Canada's West Coast
Phillip Vannini, Ferry Tales: Mobility, Place and Time on Canada's West Coast. New York: Routledge, 2012 (246 pp.), ISBN 978-0-203-13610-2, US$29.95.Just when cultural imagings of tourism are regaining strength in appliedresearch, the project of Phillip...
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Community-Based Research: Analysis of Outcomes for Learning and Social Change*
ABSTRACTBroadly defined, community-based research (CBR) is a process of conducting research that embraces and integrates the participation and local knowledge of people in communities and organizations with the goal of informing efforts to achieve social...
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Lifting Spirits and Changing Lives: Analysis of Outcomes from One Organization's Journey with Community-Based Research*
ABSTRACTIn the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, local nonprofit service providers in the Gulf Coast region faced numerous challenges responding to people's immediate and long-term needs. Experiencing increased demand for services, limited resources, and...
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History as Community-Based Research and the Pedagogy of Discovery: Teaching Racial Inequality, Documenting Local History, and Building Links between Students and Communities in Mississippi and Tennessee*
ABSTRACTIn this article we describe the process of implementing a community-based research project that linked student learning with documenting elements of local histories surrounding the civil rights movement in Mississippi and Tennessee. We show that...
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Imagination Enviro-Station: Students Connecting Students to Ecological Sustainability*
ABSTRACTThe development of an environmental identity is viewed by many as essential if we are to reorganize our societies toward ecological sustainability (Bell 2009; Clayton and Opotow 2003; Thomashow 2002). That, along with an eye toward environmental...
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Examining Community-Based Research as an Application for Public Health Training*
ABSTRACTThe University of Michigan School of Public Health provided community-based research (CBR) opportunities to masters-level students through week-long field experiences in two communities in Mississippi through interdisciplinary collaboration with...
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Community-Based Research and the Two Forms of Social Change*
ABSTRACTAs community-based research (CBR) takes hold in academic settings, where there is vast expertise in producing research but a dearth of experience in producing practical outcomes, there is a risk that CBR will produce little of consequence. This...
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Vol. 27, No. 1, 2012

A Comparison of Metro and Nonmetro Incomes in a Twenty-First Century Economy
ABSTRACTRecent developments in information and communication technology have reduced the relevance of location and created optimism that the historic economic advantages of metro areas relative to nonmetro areas may be diminished. This manuscript utilized...
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A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Community Attachment in Rural Romania*
ABSTRACTThis article explores the intricacies of community attachment using a multidimensional construct; attachment to the social and natural environment. A central focus is to assess whether attachment to the social and natural environment are distinctively...
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Exploring Producers', Staff Members', and Board Members' Cognitive Frame on Decision Making in an Appalachian Organic Farming Venture
ABSTRACTSustainable development assistance organizations (SDAOs) aim to help producers of natural resource products move their goods and services to market. This article explores how the cognitive frames held by producers, staff, and board members in...
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Quality of Life on the Agricultural Treadmill: Individual and Community Determinants of Farm Family Well-Being*
ABSTRACTIndividual quality of life (QOL) is a critical foundation of stable and cohesive societies. This research examines QOL among Iowa farmers, who as a group have seen their numbers decline precipitously over the past decades as the farm economy...
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Accelerating Rural Growth through Collective Action: Groups' Activities and Determinants of Participation in Southwestern Nigeria
ABSTRACTThis study was conducted to investigate the types of activities promoted by cooperative groups and the determinants of participation intensity of members in cooperative activities in southwestern Nigeria. A multistage sampling approach was used...
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The Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on Plantation Agriculture in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria
ABSTRACTThis study was carried out to unveil the impact of rural-urban migration on plantation agriculture productivity in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria. Data were collected from 660 rural households and managers/supervisors of 15 selected oil palm,...
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Small Schools, Education, and the Importance of Community
Adsit, Tim L. Small Schools, Education, and the Importance of Community. Landham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, 2011 (210 pp.), ISBN: 1610480155, US $28.95.Reviewed by Ann E. TheodoriPrefacing his text with the proclamation that rural...
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