Pakistan Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

Articles

Vol. 15, No. 2, 2017

Gender Differences in Conflict Resolution Styles (CRS) in Different Roles: A Systematic Review
Conflict is unavoidable phenomenon in the form of disagreements, dislikes, and arguments that prevails at all levels of human interactions: personal, professional, family, and social relationships. Conflicts occur at homes, public places and workplaces;...
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Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety: Role of Social Connectedness as a Mediator
Self-esteem refers to views and values assigned to self, and includes individual's personal feelings toward self that result from awareness in making judgments on different aspects of the self (Stryker, 2002). These feelings and their assessments influence...
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Interpersonal Problems in Arranged and Love Marriages
Marital quality is an important, desirable and significant domain in human life. It allows natural growth of the society by creating family units. Apart from its impact on the society, better quality marriages have a significant impact on the life satisfaction,...
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Workplace Stress and Coping Strategies of Security Guards Working in Universities
Workplace stress is a global issue which is gaining more and more attention of researchers in present time due to its effects on job performance and human health. Selye (1974) defined workplace stress as "deviation from normal state due to unplanned...
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Infertility Related Issues and Challenges: Perspectives of Patients, Spouses, and Infertility Experts
World Health Organization (WHO) defines infertility as an inability of couples to conceive or to bring a pregnancy to term after one year of unprotected intercourse. Primary infertility refers to couples who have never conceived whereas the secondary...
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Empowerment and Mental Health of University Teachers: A Case from Pakistan
Empowerment is generally understood as a concept of giving authority to others. It is also viewed as enabling people to transfer and share their personal thoughts including authority, information, and professional capacities to demonstrate their commitment...
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Vol. 15, No. 1, 2017

Construction and Validation of Global Psychological Empowerment Scale for Women
Empowerment in social, political, and economic spheres has been investigated in different disciplines. However, the achievement of empowerment in these areas in any community, state, nation or people strongly depends on the degree to which the people...
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Repercussion of Flood of 2010 on the Mental Health of Pakistani Victims
Disasters in the world occur on regular basis and affect millions of people in the world. The term disaster is defined as a stress situation that happens unexpectedly in any geographic area, results in a great loss and interferes with the routine social...
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Identification of Learning Disabilities in Students: A Gender Perspective
In recent years, research in school psychology has examined the nature and prevalence of various learning difficulties/disabilities (LDs) in school and college levels students (Gebhardta, Zehnera, & Hesselsb, 2014; Wilson, Armstrong, Furrie &...
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Cross-Cultural Validation of Dysfunctional Attitude Scale
Culture makes us who we are. The humans have a tendency to step by step absorb cultural values passively without realizing it. Among other factors, culture influences cognitive schemas (Bhattacharya, Cross & Bhugra, 2010), and injects functional...
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Development and Validation of Adjustment Problem Scale for College/University Students
The transition from school to college is a major event in the lives of students. School settings provide students familiar learning environment in which they have a grip over academic work. Whereas in college/university environment, students have to...
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Relationship of Epistemological Development with Wisdom, Age, Gender and Education
When adults, face socio psychological problems that have no prescribed formula for their solution, they have to think in complex ways to sort out such problems. This involves monitoring elements of thought processes, such as sources, criteria for certainty...
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Vol. 14, No. 1, 2016

Polygamy: Chaos in the Relationships of Children
Interpersonal relationships are of utmost importance to an individuafs social and emotional growth (Abbott & Ryan, 2001). Developing and maintaining positive interpersonal relationship is a key element of healthy functioning in humans (De Leon, 2000;...
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Prospective Teachers' Attitudes towards Social and Environmental Aspects of Education for Sustainable Development
The concept of sustainable development was originally identified in the document World Conservation Strategy (IUCN, 1980) and then strengthened by the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED, 1987). One of the first and generally...
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Experiences of Sexual Harassment: Interplay of Working Environment, Depression and Self-Esteem in Pakistani Women
In the last few decades, the number of women taking employment outside the home in non-agricultural sector has increased in South Asia, an area that includes Pakistan, by six percent (United Nations, 2013). With this influx of women into the working...
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Character Strengths and Wellbeing: A Discriminant Analysis between Young Adults from Counselling Centres and Community Samples
Positive psychology is an approach that centres at changing the focus of the mental health field from primarily treating illness (such as medical model) to buffering individuals from mental disorders and attain wellbeing through using strengths and adopting...
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Development of a Scale of Resilience against Terrorism
The word resilience comes from Latin "resilire" which means to spring up. Thus, Davidson et al. (2005) define resilience as the ability to spring back from trauma, and Masten (2009) suggests that this resilience consist of coping strategies which help...
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Vol. 14, No. 2, 2016

Development and Validation of Alexithymia Scale for Pakistani Population
Sifneos (1973) introduced the term alexithymia (a = lack, lexis = word, thymos = emotions; the term literally means being devoid of emotions). The construct of alexithymia was not formulated until mid-1970s. In the beginning, the core symptoms of alexithymia...
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Construction and Validation of Perceived Dimensions of Parenting Scale (PDPS)
Parenting is a universal phenomenon that involves family functioning and the process of child-rearing (Darling & Steinberg, 1993). The leading work on parenting styles was carried out by Baumrind (Baumrind, 1989; Shaimberg, 1988). Parenting styles...
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Differences in Defense Mechanisms between Depressive Patients and Non-Depressive Individuals
The complexity of human personality has attracted the interest of personality and clinical psychologists throughout the history of psychology. Personality is relatively established and predictable but it is not inflexible and unchanging; rather it can...
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Career-Decisions, Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem among Students of Private and Government Academic Institutions
Rosenberg (1965) and other social-learning theorists define selfesteem in terms of the presence of a continued sense of personal worth or worthiness. The definition is commonly used for research purposes, however it contains complications of boundary-definition,...
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Vol. 13, No. 1, 2015

Stepfamily Stereotypes in Common Discourse and Lived Experiences
"They took her beautiful clothes away from her, dressed her in an old gray smock, and gave her wooden shoes and did everything imaginable to hurt her".CinderellaFamily is a social unit where all members have a close relationship either biological or...
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Spousal Rejection and Psychological Distress: Mediating Role of Behavioural Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Raising children with ASD becomes a tragic experience for parents and such experience may lead to parental distress and marital conflict. American Psychiatric Association (2000) reports cluster of symptoms constituting ASD i.e., atypical eye contact,...
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Factors Influencing the Acquisition of Science Concepts in Secondary School Students
Science education is a mode to address global requirements, therefore it is important to expand its understanding, identify issues related to its expansion and seek solutions for promoting science education at the foundation levels (Bybee, 1997). This...
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Construction of Effective Teaching Evaluation Scale and Students' Perception of the Characteristics of Effective Teachers
Effective teaching is an emerging field and is considered as an important factor of growth and productivity for every country. While exploring the effective teaching methods, researchers adopt different ways of evaluating the efficient teaching. In any...
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Marital Satisfaction in Different Types of Marriage
Among all the interpersonal relations, marriage is the most important one as mostly people get married at least once in their life (Berscheid & Regan, 2005). Marriage is not only a close personal relationship but also a social institution which affects...
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Body Image, Self-Compassion, and Psychological Well-Being among University Students
University students are more likely to be occupied with increased problems of body consciousness, self-evaluation, social comparison, negative views, and dissatisfaction with their life, which impaired their daily functioning as well as their academic...
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Well- Being after Natural Disasters; Rising from the Ruins
The extensive and enduring effect of natural disasters is apparent on the psychological and physical health of survivors (Galea, Nandi &Vlahov, 2005; Hull, Alexander, &Klein, 2002; Morgan, Scourfield & Williams, 2003).Natural disasters are...
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Hardiness and Coping as Predictors of Professional Life Stress among House-Job Doctors
The present research investigated relationship of hardiness and coping as predictor and professional life stress as outcome variable among house-job doctors in five teaching hospitals of Lahore. Pakistan.The structural problem of health care system requires...
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Vol. 12, No. 1, 2014

The Development of the Role Identification Scale for Adult Children of Alcoholic Fathers
Alcoholism is an addictive disease with social ramifications that affects the individual bringing chaos in everyday functioning of his family (Olmsted, Crowell, & Waters, 2003; Tinnfalt, Ericksson, & Brunberg, 2011) and therefore, termed as a...
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Does Humor Predict Job Satisfaction? A Mediational Role of Self-Efficacy
Humor is a universal human practice (Apte, 1985; Lefcourt, 2001). The Conceptualizations of the term 'sense of humor' have oscillated from describing it as an emotion-related personality trait (e.g., habitual cheerfulness; Ruch & Kohler, 1998) to...
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Development of Fear Scale
Fear is one of our primary emotions; emotion can be defined as a highly personal and subjective experience with physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components (Carlson & Hatfield, 1992). Human emotions are viewed in three ways; namely, biological,...
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Relationship between Ego Integrity, Despair, Social Support and Health Related Quality of Life
There has been an increase in the number of older persons worldwide in recent years (Ibrahim, Ghabrah & Qadi, 2005) and by 2050, two billion people will be aged 60 and older (WHO, 2014). Aging or growing old is a natural and unavoidable process that...
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Social Support and Postnatal Depression in Pakistani Context
"Becoming a mother is a significant developmental transition, and a woman's adaptiveness involves her biopsychosocial being, family, and the society in which she lives" (Kiehl & White, 2003).Postnatal mood swings are common among majority of new...
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Translation and Validation of Aggression Questionnaire in a Pakistani Children Cohort
Aggression is traditionally termed as a behavioral act that results in harming others intentionally or hurting them. Aggression can either be direct or indirect, reactive or proactive, physical, verbal or relation depending on the situation (Werner &...
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Self-Esteem and Job Satisfaction in Male and Female Teachers in Public and Private Schools
The present research investigated the effect of gender and type of school (public and private) on self-esteem and job satisfaction of male and female school teachers. Teachers are rightly called nation builder for they play a cardinal role in the building...
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Vol. 12, No. 2, 2014

Childhood Abuse and Parental Acceptance-Rejection in Adolescents with Conversion Disorder
Conversion disorder is defined as the occurrence of deficits affecting the voluntary sensory or motor activities. These symptoms suggest neurological or organic reasons but are believed to be associated with psychological stressors (American Psychological...
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"Yin-Yang" of Using Social Networking Sites: Perspective of University Youth
Social networking sites (SNS) have changed the ways of individuals or groups interactions with other people across the world. Indeed, the young people subscribe to this notion that socializing includes an online component. Half of the adults and three-quarters...
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Effect of Work Motivation and Tenure on Organizational Commitment of College Teachers in India
The capability and quality of the teacher determines the success of any educational system (Joolideh & Jashodhara, 2008). Since teaching is a demanding profession, commitment and perseverance have been identified as critical factors for the success...
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Experiencing Task and Personal Conflict: Case Study of a University Faculty Member
Conflict occurrence is a natural and inevitable phenomenon of every organization. "Conflict is the perception of differences of interests among people" (Thompson, 1998, p.4). According to Roloff (1987), "organizational conflict occurs when members engage...
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Development and Preliminary Validation of an Indigenous Scale for Assessment of Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities is a broad term that refers to a varied group of disabilities manifested by important difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, spelling, reasoning or mathematical abilities, processing and...
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Freud's Obsessional Neurosis-Origin of Slavery, Status of Women and Technology: Indian and Greek Civilizations Revisited
The paper intends to explore an intrinsic relation between the obsessional neurosis and the evolution of slavery, technology and assignment of inferior status to women. The hypothesis is based on an assertion of Freud made in Totem and Taboo (1913),...
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Pakistani Psychologists' Experiences with Cognitive Behavior Therapy of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Cognitive-Behavior therapy, an evidence-based and very popular approach to psychotherapy, has established its individual and group setting efficacy in number of psychiatric disorders in western society (Hodges & Oei, 2006), and especially for treating...
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The Process of Values Clarification, Formation and Inculcation
Human beings have always been in a constant quest and search for true knowledge. Similarly, a human being continuously seeks the values which he/she considers important; these values in turn form the individual's attitude, influence their thinking pattern...
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Vol. 11, No. 2, 2013

Empathy and Communicative Competence of Customer Service Representative in Public and Private Telecom Sectors
Customer service representative is a bridge between customers and service providers. A customer is person who buys products and services. A consumer is the one with whom a dealer or business individual has to deal with, generally on a regular basis....
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Measuring Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Prospective Teachers during Pre-Service Teacher Education Program
It is widely recognized that in daily life situations, people who are confident of their abilities tend to be more successful in what they undertake than those who are less confident (Woolfolk, 2008). The effectiveness of a teacher is likewise dependent...
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Prevalence of Stress among Call Center Employees
Stress is inevitable in an individual's life. It sometimes describes threats or challenges, other times our responses. Stress is not just a stimulus or a response. It is the process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges...
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Patient's Perceived Autonomy Support Affecting Their Levels of Depression and Treatment Motivation
After many modem and dynamic discoveries in health care sector, human behavior along with his attitude is still the main influencer on the deviations that occurs in the health-related consequences (Schroeder, 2007). People when become aware of their...
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The Impact of Organizational Culture on Commitment of Teachers in Private Sector of Higher Education
Organizational commitment is of real importance for the organizations in this corporate world. Researchers and theorists differentiate organizational commitment from job commitment, which refers to the involvement of a person into his profession, whereas...
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A Measure of Students' and Teachers' Level of Tolerance towards Religious and Social Factors
Pakistan is a progressive society and is composed of four different Muslim majority ethnic nationalities, distinct in culture and language: - Baloch, Pathans, Punjabi and Sindhis (Shahzad, 2007). Tolerance between social entities and institutions is...
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Emotional Intelligence, Anxiety and Procrastination in Intermediate Science Students
College and university life is filled with excitement and fun for the students but along with that, the students have to face the pressure of assignments, projects, term papers as well as meeting deadlines. Most of the students put off until tomorrow...
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Social Support and Coping Strategies among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients
According to National Rheumatology Society of Pakistan (2008), RA is one of the most significant forms of arthritis and occurs in all ethnic groups. Gulanick and Myers (2011) defined RA as "a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the inflammation...
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Cognitive Schemas of an Ideal Spouse among Young Adults
Young adults while gearing up for a career also seek to form an intimate relationship and settle down with an ideal person of choice. The decision of getting married and settling down comes about when a young adult either meets the right person of choice...
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Translation and Adaptation of Simplifying Mental Illness Plus Life Enhancement Skills (SMILES) Program
Parents are main pillars of a family system (Doherty, 2000). When the parents are mentally ill the whole system may collapse. One of the common parental mental illness is depression, which have severe and long-term effects on a child's growth. Patel...
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Curiosity, Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement among Undergraduate Students
Curiosity is an important factor in human dynamic tasks. It plays a vital role in learning, wellbeing and motivation (Kashdan et al., 2009). The research on curiosity started from two approaches: Motivational research and observation of children behavior....
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Predictors of Caregiver's Burden: Interplay of Physical and Emotional Health and Perceived Hope in Children with Thalassemia and Hemophilia
Thalassemia and hemophilia are life-long crippling genetic disorders; both need frequent blood or blood product transfusions. These disorders lead to premature deaths due to complication of disease and transfusion. In Pakistan, 50,000 to 100,000 patients...
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Tolerance towards Frustration, Self Esteem, Anxiety and Depression in Physically Disabled Individuals
The present study explored mental health, psychological stressors and self-image of individuals who were physically handicapped. It is an area that requires extensive research in Pakistan. According to International Classification of Functional Disability...
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Vol. 9, No. 3, June

Perceptions of Death among Pakistani Undergraduates
The purpose of this study was to map the mental schema of death espoused by contemporary Pakistani youth. A convenient sample of 100 undergraduate students was taken and an open-ended questionnaire was used to procure words/phrases that came to the participants'...
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Evaluation of a Multi-Pronged Intervention with an Autistic Child: A Grounded Action Research
An action research was conducted to develop an intensive multi-pronged individualized therapeutic plan for an autistic child (Asad*). The plan was based on humanistic and behavioral approaches. Mixed method approach was adopted in order to evaluate the...
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Resilience, Stress, Anxiety and Depression among Internally Displaced Persons Affected by Armed Conflict
The present research was designed to explore resilience, stress, anxiety and depression among internally displaced persons. The sample (N = 125) was taken from Garden Villas, Rawalpindi and Barakoh camps, Islamabad which included both males (n = 63)...
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Achievement Goal Orientation and Academic Performance in Undergraduate Students
The study explored the achievement goals and perceived competence in high, average and low academic achievers; and investigated the relationship between the achievement (grade point average, GPA) and achievement goals. A sample of 17 high, 33 average,...
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Adjustment and Emotional Maturity among First Year College Students
The present study compared college adjustment processes and emotional maturity between first and final year female students enrolled in different undergarduate courses offered by colleges affiliated with University of Rajasthan in Jaipur city. They were...
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Adjustment Problems of Non Local Students in a Local University
The present study was conducted to investigate the adjustment problems of students coming from areas other than Punjab for better educational facilities to a local university of Lahore. The focus was on non-local students who took admission in the university...
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A Case Study of Major Depression: Conflict with Primary Support Group
The study demonstrates the case of a 45 year old man. He was brought to the psychiatry ward on account of depressive behavior; such as agitation, dryness of mouth, isolation, loss of appetite, loss of sleep, weight loss, lack of energy, loss of pleasure,...
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Procrastination and Self-Esteem among University Students
The major objective of this correlational study was to explore whether an association exists between procrastination and self-esteem among university students. It also aimed at finding out gender and birth order differences in procrastination and self-esteem....
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Disaster Experience of Turkey: An Overview from a Psychological Perspective
The aim of this article is to elaborate on contemporary Turkish articles on natural disaster and grief. Although traumatic experiences have been a part of Turkish culture for hundreds of years, studies on psychological trauma are only a recent development...
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Perception of Parental Acceptance and Rejection in Emotionally Empathic and Non-Empathic Adolescents
The present study explored the differences between emotionally empathie and non-empathic adolescent's perception of parental acceptance and rejection. A sample of 205 (100 girls and 105 boys) was taken from different schools. All participants were 13...
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Type A Behaviour and Work-Family Conflict in Professional Women
The study was designed to investigate work-family conflict in Type A and Type B professional women. Sample consisted of 170 professional women belonging to two different occupations, namely, teaching and medical. It was hypothesized that there would...
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Development and Validation of Menopausal Symptoms Scale (MSS) for Pakistani Sample
The present study was conducted to develop a valid and reliable indigenous measure for assessment of menopausal symptoms in Pakistani women. For development of Menopausal Symptoms Scale (MSS), items were empirically generated and were presented on a...
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Teacher Self-Efficacy as a Function of Student Engagement, Instructional Strategies and Classroom Management
The present study was conducted to assess the teachers' self-efficacy on three subscales namely, Student Engagement, Instructional Strategies and Classroom Management. The main objective of the study was to determine the teachers' self-efficacy on these...
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Vol. 9, No. 2, April

Students' Attitude towards Science: A Case of Pakistan
This study was conducted to examine students' attitude towards science. The sample of the study consisted of 3526 students of 10,h grade (Boys = 1914, Girls = 1612) and were from urban (? = 2304) and rural (? = 1222) localities of Pakistan. The instrument...
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Emotional Behaviour and Academic Achievement in Middle School Children
The present study investigates the relationship between emotional behaviour and academic achievement in middle school children in Hyderabad, Pakistan. One hundred and forty-six students of grade 8 completed the Emotional Behavioural Scale for Pakistani...
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Leadership Styles as Predictors of Innovative Work Behavior
The present study was carried out to examine the role of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles in predicting innovative work behavior among bank managers of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire...
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Work-Family Conflict and Organizational Commitment: Study of Faculty Members in Pakistani Universities
This study examined the impact of work-family conflict on commitment to organization in public and private universities of Pakistan. The study also specifically determined work-family conflict and the degree of differences between men and women, single...
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Religiosity, Personal Meaning, and Psychological Well-Being: A Study among Muslim Students in England
Religion has been considered as a framework for the sense of meaning and purpose. The aim of the present study was to explore the perception of Muslim students who practice their religion towards meaning of life and to investigate the association between...
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Emotional Intelligence: Significance of Psychology and Spirituality
The aim of the present research work was to study emotional intelligence (EI) as a function of different academic subjects of choice, spiritual quotient (SQ), and gender. One hundred and fifty university students doing master degree with age ranging...
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Happy Marriage: A Qualitative Study
The present study is focused on the factors leading to a happily married life. The sample included a married woman drawn from convenient sampling. Semi-structured interview was conducted to investigate her experience of being happily married and what...
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Perception of Love in Young Adults
The present study investigated perception of love in young adults. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with two women in which one was having her first love affair and the other one was having her second. After applying grounded theory, three staged...
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Left-Handed People in a Right-Handed World: A Phenomenological Study
The purpose of this research was to explore the experiences of left-handed adults. Four semi-structured interviews were conducted with left-handed adults (2 men and 2 women) about their experiences. After transcribing the data, interpretative phenomenological...
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Reasons for Political Interest and Apathy among University Students: A Qualitative Study
The research focused on exploring the various reasons for political interest and apathy among university students in order to understand why some youngsters are interested whereas others are apathetic towards our political system. Purposive sampling...
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Mother-Daughter Relationship in Pakistani Muslim Culture
The present study undertook an exploration of mother-daughter relationship in a Pakistani Muslim context. Data was gathered from seven women of diverse age groups ranging from twenties to sixties through creative interviewing technique. Data analysis...
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