Scottish Cultural Review of Language and Literature

Articles

Vol. 20, 2013

Introduction
Yes, it is too cold in Scotland for flower people; in any case who would be handed a thistle?(Edwin Morgan, 'The Flowers of Scotland', 1969)Was Scotland indeed too cold for flower people? The fact that no specific books have been published on the literary...
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The Sixties in Scotland: A Historical Context
This chapter provides the broad historical context for the essays which follow in this book. The themes of social and cultural development, together with politics and economy are considered, based on the most recent research. The 1960s are depicted from...
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Explorer: Into the Sixties with Tom McGrath
This chapter takes the reader into the sixties world of Tom McGrath: jazz musician, poet, playwright, cultural polymath, explorer. Consisting largely of an interview between McGrath and the author, it offers a novel perspective on the sixties in Scotland....
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Scottish Poetry: The Scene and the Sixties
This was an intermediary but vital period of cultural change. The young Scottish poets of the late sixties (including D.M. Black, Alan Jackson, Kenneth White; Robin Fulton, and the first appearances of Tom Leonard and Liz Lochhead) heralded this new...
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Some Questions about Literary Infrastructure in the 1960s
Through an examination of historically important little magazines, this chapter looks at the relationship between the English literary infrastructure and that of Scotland during the 1960s, suggesting that Scots in England were critical to the creative...
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Edwin Morgan, Hugh MacDiarmid and the Direction of the MacAvantgarde
Despite their shared commitment to a poetry of ideas, to republican socialism and to Scottish nationalism, Hugh MacDiarmid and Edwin Morgan disagreed significantly on how these values related to avant-garde writing from America and Europe and, more broadly,...
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Late News from the Provinces: The Trial of Cain's Book
The trial of Penguin Books in 1960 for the publication of Lady Chatterley 's Lover and its 'not guilty' verdict did not establish a uniform climate of liberalisation across the UK. In particular, the defence of literary merit as an expression of the...
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Through Expatriate Eyes: Muriel Spark, Alexander Trocchi, and the Empowerment of Scottish Literature during the 1960s
Scottish Literature benefited from and contributed to the revolutionary and experimental spirit of the 1960s. Many Scottish writers during this period challenged the nationalistic approach to literary representations of Scottish culture, experience,...
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Culture and the City: Poetry, Painting and Music in 1960s Glasgow
After a brief reminder of Glasgow's post-World War One situation, and the literary renaissance initiated by MacDiarmid in the interwar period, the principal focus of this chapter will be the new developments which took place in the creative arts of poetry...
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Clan Balls, Luvvers and Incredible Strings: Popular Music in 1960s Glasgow
This chapter examines the conditions surrounding Glasgow's emergent popular music scene in the 1960s. It compares the commercial pressures on the production of rock and pop with the less commercially developed folk scene. In spite of the outward looking...
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The Folkniks in the Kailyard: Hamish Henderson and the 'Folk-Song Flyting'
This chapter is an examination of the 'Folk-song Flyting' between Hamish Henderson and Hugh MacDiarmid, which raged in the pages of the Scotsman throughout 1964. It uncovers some of the connections between the folk revivalists' agenda, as represented...
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Mind the Gap: Scottish Theatre in the 1960s?
The frequency with which the Traverse Theatre has been and continues to be cited in relation to the development of the arts and cultural change in Scotland has contributed to a notion that Scottish theatre in the 1960s consisted of little else and, further,...
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Planting the Seeds of Ambition: Scottish Film in the 1960s
Despite the productive fermentation taking place in parts of Scottish culture, Scottish cinema is notable in the 1960s by its palpable absence. Unlike the 1940s and 1950s which saw innovative Scottish-themed feature films being made, the 1960s offered...
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Photographing Lallans: Alan Daiches, Alexander Scott and Sydney Goodsir Smith's Poems for Television
In the mid 1960s, the BBC in Scotland commissioned a series of poems for television, mostly accompanied by photographs by Alan Daiches. This chapter argues that Daiches' involvement marked a moment of constructive contact between the established promoters...
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Re-Thinking 'Provincialism': Scotland's Visual Culture in the 1960s
This essay examines the conditions of Scotland's visual arts in the 1960s focussing upon events in the capital city of Edinburgh. It contests issues of 'core and periphery' through a critique of the idea of 'provincialism'. In exploring the relationship...
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Vol. 19, 2013

Introduction
This volume comes at a time when new corpus resources for the languages of Scotland are making it possible to ask new research questions of these languages and to answer established questions in new ways. Its role might be seen as that of a staging post,...
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Punctuation in the Letters of Archibald Campbell, Lord Ilay (1682-1761)
Archibald Campbell, Lord Ilay, was not only a major figure in eighteenth-century Scottish society but also an inveterate letter-writer. In this essay, some of Ilay's letters are placed in the context of contemporary notions about the relationship between...
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Legal Terminology in the Eighteenth-Century Scottish University
This chapter examines the use of legal phraseology in the administrative material of the eighteenth-century Scottish university, through comparing a subcorpus of university administrative prose from the Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing with the wider...
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The Spelling Practices of Allan Ramsay and Robert Burns
This chapter addresses: the problems of discussing the orthography of Scots in the Modem period (i.e. since 1700); the use of corpus-informed methods to describe Modem Scots orthography; and the orthographic practices of two canonical eighteenth-century...
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Ego Documents in Scottish Corpora: The Contribution of Nineteenth-Century Letters and Diaries to the Study of Language History
This chapter aims to discuss two corpora (19CSC and CMSW) and the contribution they may give to the study of 'language history from below'. Special attention is given to letters and diaries, on account of their remarkable value for the study of register...
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Corpas Na Gàidhlig and Singular Nouns with the Numerals 'Three' to 'Ten' in Scottish Gaelic
This chapter provides an overview of existing Gaelic textual corpora and archives, and reports on a new textual corpus for Scottish Gaelic, Corpas na Gàidhlig, currently being compiled at the University of Glasgow. It includes a corpus-based study of...
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Footprints from the Past: The Survival of Scots Kinship Terms
The chapter describes a set of Germanic kinship terms dating back to Old English. Using corpus and dictionary resources, it establishes that equivalent terms survived longer in Scots than in the English spoken in England, with most lasting into the seventeenth...
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Let's Tak a Guid Lang Luik at SCOTS: A Corpus-Based Comparison of Light Verb Constructions in SCOTS and the BNC
This chapter offers a usage-based description of Light Verb Constructions as represented in the SCOTS corpus. The investigation supports previous findings concerned with British and American English in so far as overarching constructional semantics are...
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'Thingmy an AA the Rest O It': Vague Language in Spoken Scottish English
This SCOTS corpus study of vague language (VL), or forms that are intentionally imprecise and heavily dependent on shared contextual knowledge for their meaning, suggests that VL is more a Scottish Standard English than Scots phenomenon. The most frequent...
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'Snippets of Memory': Metaphor in the SCOTS Corpus
This chapter investigates metaphor in the language varieties represented in the Scottish Corpus of Texts & Speech, by taking three approaches to metaphor identification, and drawing primarily on a subcorpus of oral history interviews. It is shown...
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The Use of Corpora in Lexicographical Research in Scots
There are many advantages to using corpora for lexicographical research in Scots, especially in the identification of fine gradations in meaning, set phrases, and particular grammatical constructions. This chapter illustrates how Scots dictionary editors...
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Computational Challenges, Innovations, and Future of Scottish Corpora
This chapter discusses the computational challenges and innovations encountered in the development of the Scottish corpora (the Scottish Corpus of Texts & Speech and the Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing), considers how tools for corpus analysis...
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Enroller: An Experiment in Aggregating Resources
This chapter describes a collaborative project between e-scientists and humanists working to create an online repository of linguistic data sets and tools. Corpora, dictionaries, and a thesaurus are brought together to enable a new method of research....
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Vol. 21, 2013

J. Derrick McClure: An Appreciation
John Derrick Ralston McClure, or J. Derrick McClure as he is widely known, was bom in Ayr on 20 July 1944. His mother (née Reid) was a primary-school teacher, his father a teacher of physical education; he was the eldest of three children. After secondary...
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Acknowledgements
The idea that a Festschrift for J. Derrick McClure was warranted had long been in the air because of its obvious worthiness, but that it would fall to us to bring it about came surprisingly late in the day, despite our long involvement with Derrick on...
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Introduction
Since its emergence in the later medieval period, Scots has been the vehicle of an extraordinarily rich and diverse body of literature, which has been sustained by steady, very high quality output across the centuries and which continues unabated in...
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Textual Afterlives: Barbour's Bruce and Hary's Wallace
Texts, through time, deploy the past for different audiences; sociocultural and linguistic changes affect their reception and recuperation. This chapter traces the afterlives of two medieval Scottish texts with highly significant post-medieval impacts,...
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To Bring My Language near to the Language of Men? Dialect and Dialect Use in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries: Some Observations
The rhetoric of radical Romantic writers that a "democraticisation" in written language was taking place has been supported by later critics, including Bakhtin. This view is difficult to sustain. The Romantic period, due to the spread of education, was...
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Stour or Dour or Clour: An Overview of Scots Usage in Stevenson's Works and Correspondence
This chapter outlines the main ways in which Robert Louis Stevenson appears to have used Scots for special stylistic effects in his prose writings and personal correspondence. Attention is given to metalinguistic and metatextual comments, and to vernacular...
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Pittin the Word(s) Oot: The Itchy COO Experience of Publishing in Scots in the Twenty-First Century
This paper describes the practical, educational, editorial and creative challenges of starting up and developing a new publishing imprint specialising in books written in Scots for young readers. It outlines the rationale behind the project, the motivations...
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Loanwords in Scots: Some Reflections from Lexicography
Lexicographers on the historical Scots dictionaries make increasing use of electronic resources to access additional quotations from a variety of domains, discourse types and registers. These provide ante- and post-datings for dictionary entries and...
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G.F. Savage-Armstrong's Ballads of Down
G.F. Savage-Armstrong, depicted in Plate l,2 a minor Victorian writer and near miss as Poet Laureate, published Ballads of Down in 1901. This paper situates the collection in its social and political context, examines its relationship with previous exponents'...
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Scots in Two Early Ulster Novels
The representation of Scots is an important aspect of several neglected early Ulster novels. In John Gamble's Charlton and James McHenry's O'Halloran, the writers use Scots for a number of aesthetic and political reasons. Scots is used in subtle and...
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The Linguistic Landscape of Eighteenth-Century South Argyll, as Revealed by Highland Scot Emigrants to North Carolina
Historians have long known that a sizeable stream of Scots emigrated from south Argyll to southeastern North Carolina beginning in the 1730s, but what language these colonists brought has hitherto been unexplored because of the lack of contemporary documentation....
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Styles of Scots in Australian Literary Texts
After Bums and Scott, the Scots language became so widely known as a literary dialect that it was often used by Scots and non-Scots in Australian literary texts. They employed many different styles of Scots, usually following Scottish models but sometimes...
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How Gavin Douglas Handled Some Well-Known Passages of Virgil's Aeneid
A discussion of Gavin Douglas's translation of Virgil into Scots, based on an examination of some much-quoted passages of the Latin. Middle Scots afforded Douglas certain resources not available to Modem English translators, and his lines compare favourably...
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Doric Orientalism: James Legge's Translation of the Shi Jin, or Book of Poetry
The Scottish missionary, James Legge (1815-1897), was a pioneering translator of classical Chinese texts. His translations of the earliest extant book of Chinese poetry, the Shi Jing or She King, include versions in his native Scots. This chapter considers...
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Motivation and Politico-Cultural Context in the Creation of Scots Language Versions of Greek Tragedies
Politico-cultural motivations for Scots-language theatre-writing, particularly since the 1970s, vary. Addressing versions of Greek tragedies, including the author's 1969 Antigone, possible underlying intentions of playwrights writing in Scots are explored...
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Civil Service Scots: Prose or Poetry?
This chapter provides an analysis of a Civil Service document as an example of revivalist Scots. The analysis comprises orthography, lexis and morpho-syntax. Although it contextualises the Northern Ireland document within current language- planning initiatives...
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Vol. 22, 2013

Acknowledgements
A book like this emerges not just from the research directly underpinning it, but from conversation, discussion and debate over the years. I owe a debt of gratitude to many colleagues and friends whose input has undoubtedly influenced and shaped my thinking...
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Chapter One: Literary Tradition and Diversity of Language
In 2011, discussing the work of David Greig, Clare Wallace observed thata sense of Scottish difference and marginalisation inevitably is a feature of the cultural terrain of Scottish-English relations with a long history. As work by Randall Stevenson,...
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Chapter Two: Hybridity and Cultural Gravity: Crossing Boundaries in Scottish Cultures
In Scotland, borders and boundaries are important, not only those with other cultures and countries - and the only land border is that with England - but also within Scotland. What is more, the necessity in any political, economic or cultural settlement...
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Chapter Three Scots Language: Personal, Political, Social and Commercial
'The personal is political' was an archetypal 1960s slogan, a key concept in the development of feminist thinking. It brought to the fore matters that had been - in a chauvinist universe of discourse - thought of as trivial, domestic, private, liminal....
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Chapter Four: The Historiography of Scottish Drama and Public Performance
A 'Great Tradition' approach to Scottish theatre, as the first chapter has argued, fails to recognise the range and depth of that theatre, to quote the last chapter's conclusion, its 'resistance to a single centre and the vitality of internal difference,...
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Chapter Five: Public Enactments, Gender, Community and Language
Previous chapters have made clear that, if we define Scottish drama and theatre in inappropriate terms, we will fail to see its rich origins. James Shapiro in an illuminating television documentary series about the reaction of Shakespeare to the arrival...
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Chapter Six: Twentieth-Century Drama, Innovation and the Scots Leid
lede, leid (n): (1) a national tongue (2) manner of speaking or writing; diction, style. [From the Dictionary of the Scots Language']The complex interactions referred to at the end of the last chapter reflect a Scottish theatre scene at the turn of the...
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Chapter Seven: Border-Crossing, Popular Theatre and Performative Modes
In earlier chapters we have explored issues of canon-formation, aspects of folk, popular and legitimate theatre in Scotland and the recognition in Scottish culture of the importance of borders and so the dangers and riches of liminality and boundary-transgression....
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Chapter Eight: Diversification, Language, Gender and Sexuality
There is a debate as to whether in the years since 1970 there has been a Scottish theatrical renaissance and, if so, when exactly it began. Joyce McMillan in 1999 reviewed twentieth-century Scottish theatre in an end-of-century essay in The Scotsman...
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Chapter Nine: Rethinking Dramaturgy
The previous chapter concluded by drawing attention to the ways in which the 'vitality of contemporary Scottish theatre can be seen to be a key expression, and now arguably a determinant, of national cultural and political identity - or, to be more precise,...
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Vol. 18, 2012

Introduction
Scotland's engagement with the nineteenth-century world has often been read as one that threatened dire consequences for the national culture. A final surrender to cultural anglification, rampant industrialisation, a keen partnership in the British imperial...
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Preparing for Renaissance: Revaluing Nineteenth-Century Scottish Literature
Nineteenth-century Scottish literature represents a far richer field than a previously negative version of Scottish literary history suggested. Recent revisionist exercises unearthing this achievement, especially of a "regional" nature, show dynamic...
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Scotland, the USA, and National Literatures in the Nineteenth Century
Early nineteenth-century America's tensions with Britain caused America much cultural anxiety, not least because of the inclusion of attacks on the idea of American literature from a periodical press largely based in Edinburgh. Washington Irving and...
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Reviewing America: Francis Jeffrey, the Edinburgh Review and the United States
In the early nineteenth century, The Edinburgh Review evinced political sympathy for the American republic, though sometimes hostility towards American language and literature. A complicated exchange about American culture with the Review's rival Blackwood's...
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Alliance and Defiance in Scottish and American Outlaw-Hero Ballads
Interesting similarities in character construction can be detected in American and Scottish outlaw characters in ballads and similar contexts. Both take cues from legendary English outlaw-hero characters such as Robin Hood in their politicisation. However,...
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The Military Kailyard: The Iconography of the Nineteenth-Century Soldier
From the mid-nineteenth century a powerful iconography of the Scottish soldier is projected in the periodical press, especially Blackwood's Magazine, and elsewhere. Strong Scottish pride in the martial image is reflected not only on and through the regular...
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Lateral Literary Biography: Robert Fergusson, Herman Melville and "Bartleby"
Herman Melville's short story, "Bartleby the Scrivener" is suggestive of the drudging life of eighteenth-century Scots poet Robert Fergusson as a copyist clerk. Melville knew the life and work of Fergusson, but even without insisting on direct influence...
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"The Key to Their Hearts": Scottish Orientalism
Alongside British imperial interventions in the "East", in India, China and the Arabian Peninsula, Scottish orientalists propelled in the first instance by the ideas of the Scottish Enlightenment sought to make sense of "oriental" culture in its stages...
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From Slogan to Clan: Three Fragments from the Evolving Scottish/Germanic Literary Relations of the Romantic Period
As Scotland moved from an eighteenth-century largely feudal and agrarian society to a nineteenth-century industrial powerhouse of the Empire, how were the writings of Scots writers influenced by the Germans, and what influence did they exert in their...
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Exporting the Covenant: Scottish Missionary Tales and Africa, C.1870-C.1920
Nineteenth-century Scottish Presbyterian missionary narratives transferred certain Protestant aspirations to Africa, not least at a time when Scottish towns and cities represented stony ground for evangelisation. Sincere Scottish Presbyterian missionary...
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Nietzsche in Glasgow: Alexander Tille, John Davidson and Edwin Muir
Nietzsche's British reception began in Scotland, with strong interest from academics, translators and poets from the late nineteenth into the middle part of the following century. Reflecting debate elsewhere surrounding Nietzsche's philosophical significance,...
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"The Great Affair Is to Move": Stevenson's Journeys
The pioneering impulse was strong in Stevenson: travel prompted self-exploration, investigation of the human psyche, and significant innovation in narrative strategies. His "kinetic method" identifies him as a harbinger of Modernism and, with his agnosticism,...
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The Enchanted Worlds of Scott, Scotland, and the Grimms
This chapter explores the imaginative, cultural, and intellectual affinities between the Grimm brothers and Walter Scott, an overlooked facet of the relationship between early nineteenth-century Scottish and German Romanticism. The Grimms' fascination...
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