Studia Psychologica

Articles

Vol. 59, No. 4, 2017

Thinking Styles, Perceived Stress and Life Satisfaction
IntroductionDual-process theories of higher cognition (e.g., Betsch & Kunz, 2008; Stanovich & West, 2000) postulate the existence of two main types of information processing: the intuitive and analytical modes. These come under a number of different...
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Be Careful What You Wish for! Desired and Actual Behavior Inconsistency in Frustrating and Provoking Situations as Predictors of Depression
IntroductionDepression is one of the most widespread mental disorders - the World Health Organization (2016) estimated that globally 350 million people suffer from this illness. There are several theories regarding the psychological, biological, and...
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Preparatory Test Anxiety: Cognitive, Emotionality, and Behavior Components
Test anxiety interferes with one's ability to communicate what one knows (Austin & Partridge, 1995; Putwain, 2008). It is a situationspecific trait (Hodapp, Glanzmann, & Laux, 1995; Englert & Bertrams, 2013) so some individuals tend to experience...
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Regulatory Focus and Self-Construal as Determinants of the Majority Rule in Individual Decision Making
IntroductionZhang, Hsee, and Xiao (2006) (see also Birnbaum & Diecidue, 2015) examined a behavioral decision heuristic named the majority rule for choice between binary, weak-dominant multiattribute options in individual decision making. The majority...
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The External Validity of Psychometric Testing Methods and Their Meaning for Safe Road Performance
Theoretical BackgroundSince the time when psychologists became interested in road transportation, numerous psychometric tools, including cognitive ability tests and psychomotoric ones have been developed to diagnose individuals applying for a driver's...
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Vol. 59, No. 3, 2017

Predicting Perception of Risks and Benefits within Novel Domains
IntroductionRisk perception is inevitably biased. For instance, the relationship between benefits and risks is likely to be inversed in the human mind, even though they are usually positively correlated in real-life environment. People tend to believe...
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Hubris-Humility Effect and Domain-Masculine Intelligence Type in Czech Republic
IntroductionThis study is primarily concerned with selfestimated intelligence (SEI) (Freund & Kasten, 2012; Kaufman, 2012). Over thirty studies that used the 'multiple' self-estimated intelligences model (Furnham, 2000) have found that gender differences...
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Recognition of Emotional Facial Expressions in Alexithymia
The term Alexithymia (from Greek: lack of words for emotions), refers to a specific disturbance in affective-emotional processing that is manifested through the following salient features: 1) difficulty in identifying and describing feelings and emotions...
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Dispositional Optimism, Affective States and Judgements of Future Life Events
People are not objective in their judgements about the future, but rather they have the tendency to expect that their future will be better than that of other people (Taylor & Brown, 1988; Weinstein, 1980). This bias towards positive outcomes appears...
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Vol. 59, No. 2, 2017

Which Communicative Strategies Do Slovak Pediatricians Choose to Facilitate Parental Decision-Making about Childhood Vaccination?
IntroductionVaccination has long been considered one of the cornerstones of children's health (Brunson, 2013). However, immunization rates in Slovakia have been steadily declining over the past years for all mandatory childhood vaccines; in fact, for...
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Decision-Making of Professionals
Psychology of decision-making is such an intriguing topic to study, because it permeates all areas of human life - from very personal decisions about one's life, as whom to marry or what job to pursue, to decisions in professional area, which can impact...
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Situation Assessment and Decision Making Strategies of Emergency Medical Services Physicians in Routine and Non-Routine Situations
Naturalistic decision making (NDM) research is focused on macrocognition - cognitive functions and processes used by experienced people working in real-world settings (Crandall, Klein, & Hoffman, 2006). These settings characterize ill-structured...
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Self-Regulation Capacity and Decision Making of Slovak Managers in Routine Situations and in Situations with Possible Negative Outcomes
IntroductionIn the beginning, research of decision making was frequently focused on the consideration of possible options or alternatives and on searching for information and ways of reframing the situation of decision making to achieve a proper decision...
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Financial Planning for Retirement in Young Adults: Interaction of Professional Experience, Knowledge, and Beliefs
IntroductionYoung people in Slovakia are facing a very high-consequence financial decision soon after entering their first job as they must decide whether to join the 2nd pension pillar. Since 2004 the 2nd pension pillar presents a new possibility of...
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Comparison of Experienced vs. Novice Teachers in Cognitive Reflection and Rationality
"No, no! The adventures first, explanations take such a dreadful time. "Lewis Carroll, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland & Through the Looking-GlassWhen dealing with the issue of rational choices, researchers usually come with a rather bleak picture...
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Vol. 59, No. 1, 2017

Coping with Difficulties in Parenting Situations - Parental Control, Obedience Enforcement and Directiveness
IntroductionThis paper presents the results of research on how parents cope with difficulties they experience in parenting situations. These are subsequent studies in a series of studies on the influence parents have on their children (Szymanska, 2009a,...
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Bullying and Perceived School Climate: Victims' and Bullies' Perspective
IntroductionPeer bullying (PB) is a problem present in schools all around the world and met by students and teachers on daily basis. Research shows that PB has a negative impact on the physical and mental health of students (Chen, Liu, & Cheng, 2012;...
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Testing the Moderating Role of Social Context on Media Violence Effect in the Case of Peer Aggression among Adolescents
IntroductionMany of the research studies conducted during the last fifty years suggest that exposure to media can both positively and negatively influence child and adolescent development, particularly the social and emotional aspects (e.g., Wilson,...
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Attention Training in Schoolchildren Improves Attention but Fails to Enhance Fluid Intelligence
Attention is at the core of cognition (Posner & Petersen, 1990; Petersen & Posner, 2012) and fluid intelligence is the most fundamental cognitive ability (Gottfredson, 1997; Jensen, 1998). Therefore, it is tempting to check whether both attention...
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Optimism and Well-Being in Hungarian Employees: First Application and Test of a Situational Judgment Approach to Explanatory Style
IntroductionThe theory of learned optimism (Seligman, 1991) is among the most intensively studied phenomenon in the science of positive psychological functioning (Peterson & Steen, 2009). Unlike other theorists, Seligman conceptualized optimism/pessimism...
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Vol. 58, No. 4, 2016

Do Men Conform More Than Women in the Recognition and Labeling of Emotions?
Do Men Conform More than Women in the Recognition and Labeling of Emotions?The aim of this study is a) to verify that women are more successful than men in the recognition of the facial expressions of negative emotions and b) to test whether the facial...
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Coping Strategies and Post-Traumatic Growth in Paramedics: Moderating Effect of Specific Self-Efficacy and Positive/negative Affectivity
Coping Strategies and Post-Traumatic Growth in Paramedics: Moderating Effect of Specific Self-Efficacy and Positive/Negative AffectivityThe experts have associated experiencing various difficult life events and situations with negative effects that naturally...
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Social Emotional Learning and Critical Thinking Disposition
IntroductionSocial Emotional LearningSocial emotional learning not only increases individuals? academic performance but also provides individuals with adapting to changes in today?s globalization, and enables them to gain lifelong learning skills (Lindsay,...
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Good Things Do Not Happen to Me. but Neither Do the Bad Things: Comparative Optimism and Pessimism in a Slovak Sample
The notion that people are frequently overoptimistic about the future is well known in the judgment and decision-making literature (Armor & Taylor, 2002; Hardman, 2009; Chambers & Windschitl, 2004; Kruger & Burrus, 2004; Lench & Ditto,...
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Physical Cleansing Biases Recognition Performance for (Im)moral Social Issues
IntroductionThe Link between Physical and Moral PurityPrevious research showed that the impact of physical cleansing goes beyond the reduction of physical contamination. The notion of a direct link between washing one's own body and moral purity is established...
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Explaining the Ability to Learn Analogies: The Role of Executive Functions and Fluid Intelligence
Explaining the Ability to Learn Analogies: The Role of Executive Functions and Fluid IntelligenceMuch of learning requires relating different concepts and transferring knowledge from a well understood domain to one that is unfamiliar (Bransford, Franks,...
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Vol. 58, No. 3, 2016

Impact of Situational and Propositional Time Flow on Monetary Saving Proposition Made in the First- and the Third-Person Perspective
IntroductionPersonal perspective on an event and its extension in time are two key factors in social interactions. Both impact the evaluation of an event and the intensity of different interpersonal exchanges - the goods exchange, money transaction or...
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Role Played by the Coach in the Adolescent Players' Commitment
IntroductionUnlike sport activities conducted in Physical Education classes, organized competitive sports are freely chosen by children, and certain commitment on the part of the child is needed. Within this context of skills and achievements, motivational...
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The Role of Occupational Concerns on the Reality Shock Expectation
Though initial teacher training policies differ among countries, the challenges that preservice teachers face in the process of transition to teaching profession are similar. Studies conducted in several countries revealed that pre-service teachers transitioning...
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Effect of Short-Term Mindfulness Induction on Myside Bias and Miserly Processing: A Preliminary Study
The ability to reflect on one's own information processing appears to be crucial for rationality (Stanovich, 2011). This notion is based on a hypothesis, that only an individual with a certain degree of knowledge of his own cognition might be capable...
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Parent-Daughter Relationships and Disordered Eating among Emerging Adult Women from the Czech Republic
Many young women are engaged in weight-loss behaviors (Wardle, Haase, & Steptoe, 2006), some of which are unhealthy (e.g., vomiting) and are likely to place them at risk of developing major health problems. Previous findings indicate that parentdaughter...
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Vol. 58, No. 2, 2016

Cognitive Resources That Help Us Tick: Recruitment of Three Often Postulated Core Executive Functions in Human Prospective Timing
IntroductionTime is ubiquitous to human experience and shapes our everyday life (Zakay, 2012). It is, therefore, no wonder that the psychology of time is "a seminal topic of psychological science, and although it entered a phase of decline and even moribund...
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Self-Consciousness and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: Moderating Effect of Family Variables
The aim of the present research was to investigate the moderating role of family variables in the relationship between self-consciousness and internalizing problems in adolescent boys and girls, and thereby to broaden knowledge about cognitive/social...
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Relationship between Adult Attachment and Decision Making in Hospital Nurses Is Mediated by Self-Regulation Ability
IntroductionThe quality of health-care related decision making plays an important role in the overall quality of healthcare. Health professionals are involved in a permanent process of decision making, which includes decisions on diagnostics procedures,...
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Trait Impulsivity and Oculomotor Inhibition
IntroductionImpulsivity is often described as a tendency to act without adequate thought. It is a personality trait which plays a vital role in behaviour and is commonly prevalent in several psychiatric disorders including; Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity...
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Fruit or Candy? Ease of Justification as a Moderator of the Effect of Assortment Size on Consumer Choice
When going out to eat or to the movies people often struggle to reach a final decision. Within these choices individuals are constantly faced with the dilemma of choosing between vices and virtues.It has been shown that assortment size has an impact...
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The Relation between Learners' Spontaneous Focusing on Quantitative Relations and Their Rational Number Knowledge
IntroductionRational Number KnowledgeThere is a broad agreement in the literature that a good understanding of rational numbers is of critical importance for mathematics achievement in general and for performance in specific domains of the mathematics...
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Vol. 58, No. 1, 2016

Psychometric Evaluation of the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test with Samples of Different Ages from a Polish Population
IntroductionThe 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (RMET) is a test of the Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to infer the states of minds of other people (Baron-Cohen, 2001). ToM includes the recognition of emotional information from the face, voice,...
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Examination of Adaptive and Maladaptive Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies as Transdiagnostic Processes: Associations with Diverse Psychological Symptoms in College Students
Emotion regulation can be defined as the intrinsic and extrinsic processes associated with the activation of an emotion and its management over time (Cole, Martin, & Dennis, 2004; Gross, 2014). Emotion regulation strategies play a central role in...
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The Relationship between Executive Functions and Flow in Learning
IntroductionFlow is a highly enjoyable, optimal psychological state people feel when they are so focused on a task that it amounts to complete absorption in an activity (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975). The essential component of flow is the centring of attention...
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Somatic Markers in Decision-Making with Regard to the Cognitive Development of 6- to 14-Year-Old Children
IntroductionEmotional sta tes are a ccompanied by physiological changes in the body mediated by peripheral, autonomic, endocrine, an d skeletom otor r esponses (Iversen, Kupfermann, & Kandel, 2000). These physiological changes are based on past experiences,...
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A Cross-Cultural Analysis in Predicting 2x2 Achievement Goals in Physical Education Based on Social Goals, Perceived Locus of Causality and Causal Attribution
IntroductionPhysical Education aims at promoting teenagers' commitment to and support of regular leisure time physical and sports activity. Physical Education (PE) provides students with opportunities to improve their relationships, cooperation and level...
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Different Modalities of Using Facebook: The Influence of Actual Social Relations, Wellbeing, and Attitude towards the Medium
In the last t went y yea rs i nter n et h as changed the human life in several aspects, different in ter net tools (email, forums, blogs ...) allowed new forms of social interaction and communication among people. At the beginning of the century the...
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Vol. 57, No. 4, 2015

I Want to Have What You Have and I Do Not Want You to Have It
IntroductionWhen your neighbor owns a better car or a bigger house, when your classmate receives a better grade, or when your colleague sitting at the desk next to you has been promoted, you may feel envious. Material goods, social position, physical...
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The Denominator Neglect in Decision-Making
IntroductionIf you want to buy a lottery ticket, would you choose from a pile in which one out of ten is a winner, or would you choose from a pile in which nine out of a hundred are winners? If you prefer to choose from the second pile, you probably...
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Metacognition and Happiness: The Mediating Role of Perceived Stress
IntroductionThis research aims to investigate the mediating role of perceived stress between metacognition and happiness. It is based on the innovative idea that metacognitive beliefs or experiences may sometimes lead to persistent and maladaptive forms...
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The Effects of Job Demands on Mental and Physical Health in the Group of Police Officers. Testing the Mediating Role of Job Burnout
IntroductionThe dynamic changes that occur in the world of work have posed new challenges for occupational health research (Kompier, 2006). Several researchers have argued that the popular models of job stress (e.g., Job Demands-Control model or Effort-Reward...
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An Embodiment Perspective on Protection Motivation Theory: The Impact of Incidental Weight Sensations on Threat-Appraisal, Coping-Appraisal, and Protection Motivation
IntroductionHealth research highlights the myriad ways in which mind and body are closely intertwined (Bishop, 1994). Several cognitive processes constitute our motivation to behave healthily and hence build the scaffold for the health of mind and body....
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Is the Congruence between Behavioral Intention, Attitude, Norm and Behavioral Control Normative?
IntroductionIn the fields of philosophy and psychology, the concept of intention has for a long time attracted particular attention, due to the fact that it is said to express the impact of human will on human behavior. McClure (1991) defines intention...
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Vol. 57, No. 3, 2015

Prediction of Social Goals According to the Experience of Physical Education Teachers
Abstract: The aim was to analyze the relationship of prediction of social goals as teacher experience and perceived motivational climate, discipline strategies and attitudes of students in Physical Education (PE). The sample consisted of 2002 students...
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"I Know You Are Not Real": Salience of Photo Retouching Reduces the Negative Effects of Media Exposure Via Internalization
Abstract: Mass media are one of the most powerful conveyors of beauty ideals, promoting an unrealistic image of female beauty that is impossible for the majority of females to achieve. Internalization of such ideal standards leads to negative affect,...
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Do Birds of a Feather Communicate Better? the Cognitive Style Congruence between Managers and Their Employees and Communication Satisfaction
Abstract: The paper investigates whether cognitive style congruence of managers and employees on the analytic-intuitive dimension influence employee communication satisfaction. The cognitive style and employee communication satisfaction was measured...
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Predictors of Drive for Muscularity among Adolescent Males
Abstract: The aim of the current study was to explore body satisfaction, peer pressure and body shame as predictors of drive for muscularity among adolescent males. A total of 213 adolescent males completed the questionnaires assessing body satisfaction,...
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Autobiographical Memory Response to a Negative Mood in Those With/without a History of Depression
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the accessibility of overgeneral autobiographical memories (OGM) and specific memories by observing the effects of induced negative mood state on the characteristics of memory recall in those with and without...
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The Scale of Psycho-Immunological Structure: Assessing Factorial Invariance in Poland and Slovakia
Abstract: The paper starts with an attempt to develop a hypothetical cognitive structure of mental resiliency, called psycho-immunological system, which plays both a reactive (coping with difficult health situations) and proactive (health protection)...
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Vol. 57, No. 2, 2015

Predicting Career Decision-Making Strategies in Women: The Role of Self-Determination and Perceived Emotional Intelligence
Abstract: The aim of the present research was to investigate the role of self-determination (SD) and perceived emotional intelligence (EI) in adopting specific career decision-making strategies (CDMSs), and thereby to extend knowledge about personality...
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Personal Need for Structure, Anxiety, Self-Efficacy and Optimism
Abstract: The aim of the study is to contribute to the explanation of mutual relations between personal need for structure, anxiety, optimism and self-efficacy. The research sample comprised 237 university students (men n = 48 and women n = 189). The...
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The Relationship between Interpersonal Problem Solving, Positive - Negative Affect and Anxiety
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of interpersonal problem solving, positive-negative affect and anxiety. To this end, 336 high school students completed Interpersonal Problem Solving Inventory (Çam & Tümkaya, 2008),...
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The Role of Age and Emotional Valence in Word Recognition: An Ex-Gaussian Analysis
Abstract: The aim of this work is to evaluate the roles of age and emotional valence in word recognition in terms of ex-Gaussian distribution components. In order to do that, a word recognition task was carried out with two age groups, in which emotional...
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The Effect of Binaural Beats on Working Memory Capacity
Abstract: The research explored the effect of binaural beats on working memory capacity (WMC). When the binaural beat beats with the frequency that corresponds to the state of alpha wave range, then it is believed that the overall brain activity changes...
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Cognitive Dissonance Reduction in Relation to Grade Point Average, but Not to Intelligence
Abstract: Cognitive dissonance (CD) is the discomfort that occurs when two opposing beliefs are held simultaneously. When this conflict arises, one of the opposing beliefs must be altered or dropped in order to reduce the discomfort. The current study...
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Vol. 57, No. 1, 2015

Editorial
Dear colleagues,The new volume of the journal Studia Psychologica is marked by several changes in the personal and organizational areas related to the journal.Firstly, since October 1, 2014 the journal has a new Chief Editor. The former Chief Editor,...
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Cognitive Representation of Situational and Propositional Time Flow as Basis for Temporal Framing Effect in Future Time Mode
Abstract: The paper presents a finding of new kind of the temporal framing effect, which is applied to a monetary saving proposition. Based on our previous assumption about the multiple cognitive representations of time flow (Polunin, 2009, 2011, 2013),...
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Methods Used by Mothers to Help Children during Solving Cognitive Problem Tasks: Comparison between Mothers of Securely and Insecurely Attached Preschool Children
Abstract: Attachment is a permanent emotional bond activated in children by signals that they perceive as frightening, dangerous or stressful, while in the parents' attachment system of care, it is activated by the goal of satisfying children's needs....
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By Choice or by Circumstance?: Stereotypes of and Feelings about Single People
Abstract: The study examines stereotypes of and emotional reactions to singles by choice and singles not by choice. Participants (N = 480 ) read a scenario describing persons, who were either single by choice or single not by choice and rated their thoughts...
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The Relationship between Academic Staff's Perceptions of Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between academic staff's perceptions of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors. The study sample included 295 academic staff members from eight faculties of...
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Appropriateness of Two Inventories Measuring Intuition (the Pid and the Rei) for Slovak Population
Abstract: There are several available measures that can help us to distinguish between two general types of processing, usually known as intuitive and deliberative. In the current study we examined two of them, Rationality-Experiantility Inventory and...
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Vol. 56, No. 3, 2014

Editorial
An important anniversary of a top Slovak psychologist and founder of the journal Studia PsychologicaDamián KOVÁC 85 years oldThe person being celebrated is unquestionably known among all psychologists in Slovakia, less so abroad, thus it would only be...
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Need for Structure and Big Five Personality Traits as Predictors of Decision Making Styles in Health Professionals
Abstract: The study is focused on the question how the need for structure and the Big Five personality traits predict decision making styles in health professionals. The sample included 225 health care professionals from different areas (physicians,...
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Personal Need for Structure, Counterfactual Thinking and Decision Making in Women
Abstract: The aim of the study is to clarify the mutual relationships between personal need for structure, counterfactual thinking and decision making styles. The research sample comprised 76 university students. The following scales were administered:...
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Personal Need for Structure and Reading Comprehension in a Foreign Language
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables need for structure and reading comprehension skill in a foreign language. Specifically it aims to identify differences in the scores of examined variables in the following...
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Personal Need for Structure and Control Motivation: Linking Social Cognition and Interpersonal Motivation
Abstract: The authors examined the assumption that Personal need for structure (PNS) is negatively related to the approach component of control motivation and positively related to the avoidance component of control motivation. Participants (n = 60 university...
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Causal Uncertainty and Translation
Abstract: This study is aimed at causal uncertainty (CU) as a personal self-construct in a social environment and its influence on the translation process, focusing on the relationship between an individual causal uncertainty and selected indicators...
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Testing of Spatial Ability: Construction and Evaluation of a New Instrument
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to describe the process of development and evaluation of a newly designed spatial ability test. It consists of two consecutive studies. In Study I (N = 267) we proposed 35 items equally divided into five subsets. The...
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Vol. 56, No. 2, 2014

How Much Information Do You Need? Interaction of Intuitive Processing with Expertise
Abstract: Intuition is usually seen as fast, automatic, high processing capacity, yet only few studies focused directly on the connection with the amount of information search. In this paper we present two studies examining two different domains (financial...
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Impact of Emotional Valence and Different Source Problem Conditions on the Resolution of Analogical Target Problems
Abstract: An experimental study was conducted to clarify the impact of the source problem (present/absent) and of the emotional valence (positive/negative) on the way analogical target problems are solved. Analogical problems were represented by two...
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The Social Construction of Envy in Scientific Community: An Analysis of Scholarly Psychological Publications
Abstract: This study explored the different conceptualizations of envy in scholarly psychological publications, in terms of cultural models shared in scientific community, which contribute to the social construction of this emotional experience. A text...
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Heuristic Reasoning in Interpreting Box Plots: The Influence of Orientation
Abstract: We studied how graph design principles can predict specific reasoning mechanisms that occur when misinterpreting box plots, and, more specifically, the misinterpretation of the area as a representation of frequency or proportion of observations,...
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Perceptions of Contextual Achievement Goals: Contribution to High-School Students' Achievement Goal Orientation, Strategy Use and Academic Achievement
Abstract: The current study had two aims: 1) to explore the effects of contextual goals, defined as perceived parents' and teachers' goals, and classroom goal structures, on highschool students' personal achievement goal orientations and 2) to examine...
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Happy Dragon Is Real, Frightening Dragon Is Not: Children's Fantasy-Reality Distinction of Emotional Stimuli
Abstract: The focus of the study was fantasy-reality distinction of emotional stimuli in early childhood. Several factors were examined, including age differences, children's wishes, and local context. The research was conducted on a sample of 71 three...
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Vol. 55, No. 4, 2013

Studia Psychologica Publisher - Institute of Experimental Psychology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences Celebrates - 50 Years of Its History in a Nutshell
The Institute of Experimental Psychology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences arose from the Institute of Psychology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts, origi- nally founded in 1948, whose original purpose was field research focusing on mental changes...
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Vol. 55, No. 3, 2013

Editorial
Psychology of religion and spirituality is a rapidly developing area with many possible applications. The direction of its development is influenced by different factors including current trends in psychology in general. One of these trends is the emphasis...
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Vol. 54, No. 2, 2012

Editorial
Questions related to different concepts of cognitive styles surely concern all areas of human life, and they form one of the main concepts that successfully contribute to the interpretation as well as explanation of human behavior. The original relation...
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