The Journal of East Asian Affairs


Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring/Summer

The Changing Patterns of Communist Party-State Relations in China: Comparative Perspective
INTRODUCTIONThe party-state relations in western democracies have been analyzed in great detail since Richard S. Katz and Peter Mair published their seminal research article on the emergence of the cartel party in 1995 (1995: 5-28). The political parties...
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Apt(advanced Persistent Threat)s and Influence: Cyber Weapons and the Changing Calculus of Conflict
INTRODUCTIONFew technological developments can potentially shape the international balance of power than the emergence of cyber weapons. Cyber operations enabled Russia to interfere in the United States' 2016 elections, China to steal blueprints for...
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An Assessment of North Korean Cyber Threats
INTRODUCTIONNorth Korea is one of the hardest intelligence targets for a government. It is a chauvinistic country endorsing the Juche ideology. It is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its cyber infrastructure seems to be very rudimentary and...
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Role of Indonesia in the Evolution of Asean
INTRODUCTIONSince the 2008 global crisis, the world economic and political order has got into a rather chaotic transition period. The old super-structure has proved to be unable to solve the multidimensional crises that emerged with the burst of the...
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Vol. 30, No. 2, 2016

Abe's Democratic Security Diamond and New Quadrilateral Initiative: An Australian Perspective
INTRODUCTIONA day after assuming office for the second time in December 2012, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe authored an opinion piece in Project Syndicate advocating the creation of a 'democratic security diamond' (DSD) to "safeguard the maritime...
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The Status of North Korean Refugee and Their Protection in International Law
INTRODUCTIONIn modem times people involuntarily leave their own home country to seek safety in other area, mainly owing to fear out of war, conflict, food shortage, and political oppression etc. After World War II, as the number of refugee surges, international...
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North Korea's Nuclear Threats and Counter-Strategies *
INTRODUCTIONNorth Korea is not bound by any global rules. North Korea signed Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, declared it was withdrawing, later pledged to denuclearize, and then reneged on its commitment. It can, thus, be said that North Korea's nuclear...
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A Critical Evaluation on the Cultural Nationalism of the Two Koreas
INTRODUCTIONAs nationalism can have many different characteristics, Korean nationalism manifests itself in a variety of forms and combines different ideological systems. This research aims to trace the origin of why the Korean nationalistic identity...
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Vol. 30, No. 1, Spring/Summer

Economic Warfare a la Russe: The Energy Weapon and Russian National Security Strategy
INTRODUCTIONRecently General Phillip Breedlove, Supreme Allied Commander Europe(SAC EUR ), cited Russia's military and economic coercion directed against its neighbors.1 Breedlove rightly singled out economic coercion because on a daily basis Russia's...
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The Fragile Foundations of the 'Asian Century'
INTRODUCTIONIt is widely accepted that we are now entering the second decade of what will become known as the 'Asian Century'. This argument is based on the argument that economic power is shifting from West to East, and such economic shifts will invariably...
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Human Rights in North Korea: A European Perspective
INTRODUCTIONIn February 2014, the UN Commission of Inquiry (COI ) on human rights in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPR K) of the UN Human Rights Council, published a report about North Korea's human rights situation unprecedented in scope...
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North Korea's Peripheral Diplomacy in the "Post Kim Jong-Il Era" and Its Relationship with Japan
INTRODUCTIONAfter the second launch of the Optical Star 3 satellite and the third nuclear test, the situation of North Korea's peripheral diplomacy further deteriorated. To alleviate the enormous pressures brought about by worsening the external environment,...
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Vol. 29, No. 2, Fall

Implications of Iran Negotiations for North Korea
AbstractIntroduCtIonnorth Korea typically alternates provocative actions with periodic diplomatic charm offensives in order to achieve its objectives. pyongyang has raised tensions in order to garner benefits for returning to the status quo ante. while...
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The Importance of Thaad Missile Defense
INTRODUCTIONpyongyang has made emphatically clear that it will never abandon its nuclear arsenal and has declared the six-party talks "null and void." the U.s. and its allies therefore need to deploy sufficient defenses to deter and defend against the...
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Challenges at the Crossroad : The Evolution of Social Policy in Korea
INTRODUCTIONthe rising income inequality, aging population, and stagnating labor market are the major current challenges facing Korea. Despite the fact that Korea transformed from one of the poorest country in the world to the 13thlargest economy in...
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India as a Nation of Consequence in Asia : The Potential and Limitations of India's 'Act East' Policy
IntroductionSix months after taking office in May 2014, India's newly elected Prime Minister, Narendra Modi addressed the 12th India-ASEAN Summit and declared:"a new era of economic development, industrialization and trade has begun in India. Externally,...
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Hope by Itself Is Not Enough : The Soft Power of North Korean Defectors
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)Introduction : Faith In The People Of North Korea"We must place our faith in the people of North Korea, not in the system that imprisons them," Jang Jin-sung concludes at the end of his recent memoir about...
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Vol. 29, No. 1, Spring/Summer

Peace Agreement, Democratization, and Its Implication in East Asia
AbstractThis article explores how peace agreements facilitate democratization. To this end, this article utilized the concept of legalized institutions to develop the thesis of the influence of the peace agreement on democratization. Through the help...
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Markets, Movies, and Media: The Growing Soft Power Threat to North Korea
AbstractRecent years have seen growing calls within the United States for dramatic action to be taken against North Korea. This essay argues that the best course of action is instead a policy of strategic patience, one that would allow for the growing...
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International Cooperation for the Construction of South Korea - North Korea - Russia Pipeline Natural Gas (PNG ) : Effectiveness and Restrictions
AbstractThe main purpose of this article is to examine the process and restrictions of the energy cooperation between South Korea and Russia which began with the initiation of the Kovykta gas field project of Irkutsk in the mid-1990s. However, Russia's...
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China's Economic Leverage in Southeast Asia
IntroduCtIonIn august 2010, China officially surpassed Japan as the largest economy in Asia and the second largest in the world after the United States. over the past decade, it has emerged as the largest trading partner for Japan, South Korea, India,...
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Vol. 28, No. 2, Fall/Winter

The Barents Sea: Equal Division of the Disputed Sea between Russia and Norway
AbstractAlmost 40 years of border dispute between Russia and Norway in the Barents Sea was officially over on September 15, 2010. Both Oslo and Moscow can now legitimately map the area that has been ruled by a moratorium since 1980. Days before a visit...
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Japan and China: Competing for Good Relations with Myanmar
AbstractThis paper mainly discusses Japan and China's competitive economic relations with Myanmar in the background of dynamic regional political and economic changes in Asia. After analyzing these two countries' political and economic policies towards...
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Japan's Rethinking of Global Economic Security in Its Relations with the U.S
AbstractThis paper explores whether Japan's economic security directions have been shaped independently or dependently in its relations with the U.S. since the cold war by posing the Yoshida Doctrine as an analytical framework. At the end of the cold...
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Vol. 28, No. 1, Spring

Korean Oda Strategies for Resource Diplomacy towards Africa: Learn the 'Angola Mode' of Chinese Oda Strategies
AbstractDue to various conflicts in MiddleEast Asia, the main global oil exporter, the procurement of energy has become more competitive in the world. In addition, the demands of newly industrialised countries such as China for resources intensify the...
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Why No Spillover Effect between the Two Koreas?
AbstractThis study aims to examine why the South Korean government's engagement policy toward North Korea did not create a functionalist spillover effect. In pursuit of this goal, we address two questions: (1) What factors make North Korea especially...
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CAN NORTH KOREA FOLLOW THE "CHINESE WAY"?: The Tricky Case of Constitutionalizing a Socialist Regime
AbstractSince the very beginning of the reform policy, China has implemented a process of Constitutionalisation in order to maintain the regime. This process evolved from "rule of law" to "rule by law". Constitutionalisation in China has been featured...
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Three-Level Game Theory and the Strategy of Eu-Korea Fta Negotiation
AbstractIn order to analyze the EU's FTA strategies, this paper introduces a theory of three-level games, putting a two-level games theory in practice. Since Putnam suggested the theory of two-level games, many analysts have tried to apply it to international...
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Vol. 27, No. 2, Fall

AbstractTraditionally, Afghanistan has been a low diplomatic priority for China, and China did not have strong influence there. But recent years have found that as the U.S. is to withdraw its troops from Afghanistan and China's interests in the country...
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Gender Difference in Employment and Income in China's Labor Market
AbstractThe purpose of this article is to analyze the gender differences in employment and income in China's labor market. Using data from the China Household Income Project (CHIP), this paper identifies the roles of human capital, political capital...
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Taking Stock of Monetary Regionalism in East Asia: A Glass Half-Full or Half-Empty?
AbstractSince the turn of the new century, East Asian countries have taken a series of important steps to launch and strengthen institutional mechanisms of monetary and financial cooperation to enhance the region's resilience to financial instability....
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Structural Restrictions of Territorial Disputes in Northeast Asia
AbstractThe main purpose of the article is to deal with the structurally restrictive factors of the conflict regarding the dominion over islands in Northeast Asia in the post-Cold War era. The maritime boundary delimitation problem, the unique-territory...
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Rebalancing of U.S. Forces and the Trust-Building Process on the Korean Peninsula: Compromising Nationalism with International Liberalism Order
AbstractChina with two Koreas constitutes a Regional Security Complex located in the Northeastern part of the Asian continent. Rebalance toward the Asia-Pacific region is the U.S. military arm penetrating the RSC on the East Asian continent.As CCP carries...
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Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring

Measures to Enhance Combined South Korean - Us Naval Capabilities
AbstractSouth Korean President Park Geun-hye has pledged to respond decisively to any future North Korean provocation. A strike against South Korean maritime targets in the West Sea is the most likely attack scenario. After two North Korean attacks in...
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North Korea's Third Nuclear Test and Its Impact on Sino-North Korean Relations
AbstractThe recent North Korean satellite launch and nuclear test initiated a series of crises that brought the Korean Peninsula to the brink of war. The tests were the continuation of North Korea's tireless efforts to perfect its long-range missile...
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Japan's Responses to the North Korean Nuclear Crisis: Responsive Engagement Perspectives
AbstractThere are two predominant views of Japan's foreign policies specifically in regard to its North Korean policy. On one hand, some emphasize the Japanese dependence on the United States and assert that Japan can even be seen as a client state or...
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The North Korean Nuclear Issue and the Northeast Asia Situation: Retrospect and Prospect
AbstractThe paper deals with the analysis of the following five issues:- The Northeast Asia situation during the Cold War era;- The hierarchy of threats and challenges in NEA at present;- The third nuclear test in North Korea (reasons, consequences,...
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A Game Changer: North Korea's Third Nuclear Test and Northeast Asian Security
AbstractNorth Korea's provocations after the third nuclear test have affected the Chinese stance towards the regime. China has condoned the North's nuclear weapons because of its preoccupation with the regime's stability. China is concerned that Korean...
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Vol. 26, No. 2, Fall

Deny, Deceive, and Delay-North Korea's Nuclear Negotiating Strategy
AbstractTwo decades of negotiations by the United States and South Korea have failed to achieve North Korean denuclearization. Many pundits have long blamed the lack of progress on the U.S. and South Korean policies. But Pyongyang's firm rejection of...
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China's Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Unified Korea: South Korea's Strategic Approaches
AbstractNorth Korea has been serving as a geopolitically vital buffer zone to China against Japan and the U.S.; so, China does not endorse a unified Korea. China wants to keep the status quo by supporting impoverished North Korea with food and fuel aid....
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Sino-Philippines Relations: Moving beyond South China Sea Dispute?
AbstractThe South China Sea dispute has always been a negative factor in the development of China-Philippines relations. Although China-Philippines relations have continued to improve, there is still outright anxiety and concern about the possible regional...
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New Russian Government's Foreign Policy towards East Asia and the Pacific
AbstractRussia's chairmanship of this year's Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum has coincided with the shift of the world policy focus on that region. As a Euro-Pacific nation, Russia needs a sustainable presence in the Asia-Pacific region - a key...
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Unveiling North Korea's Crisis Provocations: A Garrison State Hypothesis Revisited
AbstractThis paper aims to discover the main factors that steered North Korea in determining its provocations against South Korea. To this end, we first did a survey about what actually happened in the Yeonpyeong Island crisis to detect any driving forces...
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Solving the Security Dilemma between North Korea and Japan
AbstractThis article seeks to analyze the security dilemma between North Korea and Japan. In response to North Korea's missile test launch in July 2009 and nuclear test in October 2006 and May 2009, Japan has made continuous efforts to establish a joint...
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Iran and the Two Koreas: A Peculiar Pattern of Foreign Policy
AbstractDespite conventional assumptions, a different pattern of alliances and incompatible political ideologies, Iran has been among the few countries in the world that has maintained close and continuous relations simultaneously with both South and...
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Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring

The Great Leap Outward: China's Maritime Renaissance
Abstract600 years ago China was the greatest maritime nation in the world, but after the voyages of Zheng He, the Ming Dynasty withdrew from the sea, and China reverted to its traditional focus on "continental" interests. Today China is going back to...
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Money Talks: International Credit / Debt as Credible Commitment1
AbstractIn conducting research, international relations scholars typically seek to confirm their empirical expectations (or hypotheses). This paper adopts the opposite approach, focusing on the unexpected to highlight what is likely to be more informative...
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Defying Borders in Future Conflict in East Asia: Chinese Capabilities in the Realm of Information Warfare and Cyber Space
AbstractInformation Warfare (IW) especially in the digital ether of cyberspace has become a realm that defies borders, challenges state boundaries, and most significantly, provides the military of a nation to realize certain political goals, allowing...
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Chinese Energy Policy and Its Implication for Global Supply Security
AbstractChina is by now the world's largest energy consumer, accounting for 11 percent of oil, 3.5 percent of natural gas, and nearly half of all coal consumption worldwide. The IEA projects that solely China will account for 30 percent of global growth...
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The Rok President of 2013-2018: Who Should Lead the Nation at This Critical Time?
AbstractIn December 2012 Korea will elect a new president to lead the nation until the year 2018. What happens in these five years will be critical to the future of Korea. The first step in choosing a new president is to consider the challenges Korea...
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Territorial Issue in the Context of Colonial History and International Politics: The Dokdo Issue between Korea and Japan
AbstractThis paper explores new patterns, from the perspective of colonial history and international politics, which might have been overlooked in previous studies of Dokdo, a Korean Island, particularly those conducted by foreign scholars. This study...
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