Urban Studies Research

Articles

Vol. 2017, Annual

Understanding Youth Violence in Kumasi: Does Community Socialization Matter? A Cross-Sectional Study
Violence by young people is one of the most visible forms of social disorder in urban settlements. This study assesses the causes and consequences of youth violence in the Kumasi metropolis. The study design was a nonexperimental cross-sectional survey....
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Determinants of Growth in Multiunit Housing Demand since the Great Recession: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis
1. Introduction Growth in multiunit housing starts has been strong and sustained since the end of the Great Recession (lasting from November 2007 to June 2009). While multiunit (defined as housing structures with 5 or more units) housing starts...
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Ethnoreligious Urban Violence and Residential Mobility in Nigerian Cities: The Kaduna Experience
1. Introduction Housing is, perhaps, the second most important basic human need after food and clothing. A house is not just a "shelter" (roof over one's head); it is something much more than protection from inclement weather and similar negative...
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Nature-Related Experience during Childhood in Urban and Rural Areas: The Case of Peninsular Malaysians
1. Introduction More than half of the global population lives in cities. As such, urban biodiversity conservation must be utilized to prevent the "extinction of experience" cycle, whereby people who do not have the opportunity to interact with nature...
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The Power of Place: A Case Study of Auckland's Design Creative Industries
1. Introduction "Creative sector a big star in New Zealand economy." This was how a recent headline in The New Zealand Herald hailed the emergence of the creative industries as a great success in the New Zealand national economy. The article went...
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Annual

Urban Biodiversity: Perception, Preference, General Awareness, and Threats in Two Cities (Niamey and Maradi) of Niger
1. Introduction Urban landscapes, tagged as incompatible with nature for a long time [1], are nowadays recognized for their variety of species. Indeed, whether native or exotic, ruderal, spontaneous, or domestic, biodiversity could be found in the...
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Potential for Application of Retroreflective Materials Instead of Highly Reflective Materials for Urban Heat Island Mitigation
1. Introduction The urban heat island (UHI) effect is a serious challenge to energy conservation in urban centers in urban canyons over the summer period. A significant spatial and temporal variation is observed in the UHI intensity; many cities...
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Analysis of Akure Urban Land Use Change Detection from Remote Imagery Perspective
1. Introduction Land Use Land Cover Changes (LULCC) is urbanization induced, which has led to dramatic changes in land use practices [1]. Rapid pace of urbanization is believed to be a global problem present in most of the developing countries of...
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Shrinking Regions in a Shrinking Country: The Geography of Population Decline in Lithuania 2001-2011
1. Introduction Recently, there has been a wide interest in shrinking cities and regions (in this paper, we use term "shrinkage" to indicate the process of a considerable and constant population loss; the term is also used to indicate employment...
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Social Isolation of the Stateless and the Destitute: A Study on the Refugee-Camp and the Sullied Slum of Dhaka City
1. Introduction Dhaka, capital city of Bangladesh, is the place of 32 slum-like settlements, known as "refugee-camps" [1]. These are "the home" for a large number of politically excluded Urdus-peaking people, who have non-Bengali origins. During...
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Annual

Testing Estimates of Housing Cost Differences among US Metropolitan Areas
1. Introduction Researchers would like to investigate real earnings differences among urban areas in the US, but there is no good, official measure of living cost differences among places (1). For example, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures...
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Cities, the Urban Green Environment, and Individual Subjective Well-Being: The Case of Milan, Italy
1. Introduction In the last decade, a growing flow of literature has pointed out the role of urban provision in terms of tangible urban assets, such as the built and green urban environment, and intangible urban assets, such as knowledge, relationships,...
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Visual Complexity Analysis Using Taxonomic Diagrams of Figures and Backgrounds in Japanese Residential Streetscapes
1. Introduction Streets are important elements of a city, and residential streetscapes especially are important places to perceive and appreciate the quality of life of the residents. A street is a narrow and linear urban space lined by buildings,...
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Associational Involvement in Dutch Municipalities and Neighbourhoods: Does Ethnic Diversity Influence Bonding and Bridging Involvement?
1. Introduction In recent decades, many Western countries faced rising levels of ethnic diversity, which is expected to continue in the future [1, 2]. These changes have spurred strong debates among scholars and politicians about the societal consequences...
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Production of Quality Housing in Urban Transformation in Areas under Disaster Risk: Osmangazi and Yildirim, Bursa, Turkey
1. Introduction In recent years, significant changes in the international approaches and policies on urban risk were performed, and the need for disaster risk reduction for sustainable development was highlighted. With the United Nations Conference...
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Neighborhood Racial Composition, Institutional Socialization, and Intraracial Feelings of Closeness among Black Americans
1. Introduction Dating back to The Chicago School [1], there has been a plethora of research on the effects of neighborhood on various social outcomes in urban cities such as physical health [2], education [3], exposure to crime/violence [4], and...
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Walking beyond the Socioeconomic Status in an Objectively and Perceptually Walkable Pedestrian Environment
1. Introduction One component of the complex relationship between cities and public health is the interaction between physical environment characteristics and people's physical activity patterns. The literature on this topic, mainly led by the public...
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Annual

Planning Office and Community Influence on Land-Use Decisions Intended to Benefit the Low-Income: Welcome to Chicago
1. Purpose of the Study Much of the literature on poverty focuses on federal level initiatives as a response to urban poverty, seeming to ignore local level political processes. Researchers have tended to accept Peterson's [1] contention that cities...
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Neighborhood Social Capital, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Change of Neighborhood as Predictors of School Readiness
1. Introduction It has been amply documented that working class and minority children do worse in school than otherwise comparable middle class children from dominant ethnic groups. Working class and minority children's poorer school performance,...
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Human Capital, Skills, and Uneven Intraurban Employment Growth: The Case of Goteborg, Sweden, 1990-2008
1. Background The gradual shift from manufacturing to a postindustrial knowledge-based economy has resulted in a number of events that have changed future prerequisites for economic development. These events include a deepened spatial division of...
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Youth Exposure to Violence in an Urban Setting
1. Introduction Injury and violence prevention are recognized as public health priorities in Healthy People 2020 [1] and by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [2]. Violence is pervasive and costly to society and causes considerable years...
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Economic Transition in the City of Paterson, New Jersey (America's First Planned Industrial City): Causes, Impacts, and Urban Policy Implications
1. Introduction Historically, American cities have been characterized by periodic changes in their economic base. Changes in the economic base of cities have been especially pronounced since 1945. The nature, scope, and outcome of these changes,...
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From the City to the Suburbs: Characteristics of Suburban Neighborhoods Where Chicago Housing Choice Voucher Households Relocated
1. Introduction HCV is a federally funded demand-side housing subsidy. Income eligible families who receive vouchers can use the subsidy to secure housing in neighborhoods across the country. Many HCV households often choose to lease-in-place, consequently...
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Urban Sprawl in the Mediterranean Urban Regions in Europe and the Crisis Effect on the Urban Land Development: Madrid as Study Case
1. Introduction Intensification of urbanization across all regions of the globe, together with the greater ease of cartographic land use data handling through GIS and remote sensing techniques, have led to a proliferation of these kinds of studies...
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A More Accurate Measure of Local Public Goods: Overlapping Government Combinations as Units of Analysis
1. Introduction As of this writing, there are 89,000 local governments in the United States including all counties, municipalities, school districts, and other special districts with their own governing bodies [1]. Each of these jurisdictions provides...
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Gentrification in Latin America: Overview and Critical Analysis
1. Gentrification in Latin America: Overview and Critical Analysis When I started studying urban restructuring in Latin America I examined it from perspectives crafted in the North. (1) Although noticing similarities, the more I tried to fit Latin...
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Annual

Dual Credit Enrollment: A Multiyear Study of Gender and Ethnic Differences
1. Introduction State efforts to promote high school success and college readiness in Texas are covered under HB1 that explains how each local educational agency is required to provide opportunities for students to earn college credit while still...
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The World Bank and the Building of Local Institutionality in Senegal: A Path toward Municipal Adjustment
1. Introduction This paper focuses on the governance model crafted by the World Bank (hereafter referred to as "the Bank") for Senegal which involved the implementation of a variety of urban development projects. The activities of this model have...
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Urban Areas in the Transformation of the South: A Review of Modern History
1. Introduction Beginning in the 1930s, the southern states of the US were transformed, according to the title of the book by Schulman [1], From Cotton Belt to Sun Belt. Wright's [2]title is Old South, New South, and he states [2, page 241] that...
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Developing Student Housing Quality Scale in Higher Institutions of Learning: A Factor Analysis Approach
1. Introduction It is a fact that the increasing enrolment of students in HIL has been a major issue in recent times [1]. This trend has attracted attention of practitioners and scholars alike regarding student residential and nonresidential housing...
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Grade Point Average Differences between Dual and Nondual Credit College Students
1. Grade Point Average Differences between Dual and Nondual Credit College Students In the United States, education reform initiatives have mandated more rigor in the high school curriculum [1] and the closure of the academic gap between secondary...
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Urban Households' Willingness to Pay for Improved Solid Waste Disposal Services in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana
1. Introduction Waste is directly linked to human development, both technologically and socially. The composition of different wastes has varied over time and location, with industrial development and innovation being directly linked to waste materials....
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Sustainable Approach to Regenerating Residential Form and Density: Case in Dhaka
1. Strength of Urban Form and Density in Regeneration Regeneration occurs in varying forms and depends on the level of urban deterioration; frequency of changing functions and land uses; speculative real estate market; and socioeconomic transformation...
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The Geography of Clusters: The Case of the Video Games Clusters in Montreal and in Los Angeles
1. Introduction Despite economic globalization, the polarization and concentration of human creativity, innovations, and industrial development in given urban regions persists [1-3]. For the last thirty years, researchers in economic geography have...
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Morphology and Spatial Dynamics of Urban Villages in Guangzhou's CBD
1. Introduction The regeneration of urban village space by the villagers themselves from the mid-1990s until today within south Chinese cities especially has attracted attention by academics, policy makers, and the media. The rapid build-up accompanied...
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September-October

Conundrums in Conservation: Complexity in Control
1. Introduction The legitimacy of the planning system is dependent upon the efficacious implementation of the planning trinity, which comprises forward planning, development management, and enforcement [1]. In this context, enforcement has been...
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Streets Apart: Does Social Capital Vary with Neighbourhood Design?
"... things which we see are not by themselves what we see ..." Immanuel Kant 1. Introduction Over the last two decades, social capital has engendered increasing political and social policy attention, and there has been a proliferation of literature...
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Creative Careers and Territorial Development: The Role of Networks and Relational Proximity in Fashion Design
1. Introduction Greater Montreal is the third largest city in North America for the volume represented by the garment industry in terms of labour force, after Los Angeles and New York, and according to recent statistics, Montreal has 75% of jobs...
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