Journal of Juvenile Justice

Articles

Vol. 6, No. 1, Spring

Achieving Juvenile Justice Reforms through Decision.Making Structures: The Case of Georgia
IntroductionThe U.S. juvenile court and justice system has stood for reform and system improvement from its start. First formalized in Illinois in 1899, juvenile court evolved from a variety of systems used to handle juvenile justice and child welfare...
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Neighborhood Risks and Resources Correlated with Successful Reentry of Youth Returning from Massachusetts Detention Centers
IntroductionYouth delinquency is a major social problem in the United States. According to Aizer and Doyle (2015), incarceration rates for juveniles have increased even faster than those of adults over the last 20 years. In 2014, juvenile courts handled...
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Editor's Note
We are pleased to present the 11th issue of The Journal of Juvenile Justice (JOJJ). The first part of this issue focuses on the factors that help reduce recidivism and support successful reentry for youth. Hancock explores how juvenile facility operations...
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Girls Leaving Detention: Perceptions of Transition to Home after Incarceration
IntroductionThe release of youth from juvenile detention centers to the community and facilitation of their successful transition to home represent some of the most significant challenges confronting the juvenile justice system. About 100,000 youth are...
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An Innovative Use of Conjoint Analysis to Understand Decision-Making by Juvenile Probation Officers
IntroductionMost youth involved in the justice system are sentenced to probation and supervised by a juvenile probation officer (JPO; Sickmund & Puzzanchera, 2014). In their supervisory role, JPOs make decisions that have immediate and lasting implications...
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The Benefits of Community and Juvenile Justice Involvement in Organizational Research
IntroductionThe juvenile justice (JJ) system (i.e., police, court, juvenile probation, and institutional and community-based correctional services) has a number of community linkages with local behavioral health services. These linkages are critical,...
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Gender Comparisons in the Processes and Outcomes of Functional Family Therapy
IntroductionThe statistical data indicate that the number of female delinquents arrested and detained is on the rise. In 2013, law enforcement made over 700,000 arrests of juveniles under age of 18. Although the juvenile arrests decreased by 15.5 percent...
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Vol. 5, No. 2, Fall

Editor's Note
We are pleased to present the 10th issue of The Journal of Juvenile Justice (JOJJ). The first part of this issue explores the variables that are associated with contact with the juvenile justice system and recidivism for youth. Calleja and colleagues...
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Reducing Juvenile Recidivism through Specialized Reentry Services: A Second Chance Act Project
IntroductionBeing able to successfully treat adolescent offenders continues to present a challenge to the juvenile justice system, especially the most serious offenders. To address this issue and to promote more successful transitions to society following...
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Developing an Alternative Juvenile Programming Effort to Reduce Detention Overreliance
IntroductionSecure detention for juvenile delinquents has long been a systematic and cyclical method for states to manage unruly youth. Though its general distension in the "get tough" movement of the 1980s and 1990s has recently ebbed, detention still...
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Variations in Juvenile Offending in Louisiana: Demographic, Behavioral, Geographic, and School-Related Predictors
IntroductionThis study focuses on the youthful population of Louisiana-a historically high-poverty state in the southern United States. A 2014 report ranked Louisiana as having the second highest juvenile violent crime rate in the United States, with...
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Factors Associated with Turnover Decision Making among Juvenile Justice Employees: Comparing Correctional and Non-Correctional Staff
IntroductionEstimates of turnover among correctional personnel in juvenile facilities range between 20% and 25% per year (Minor, Wells, Angel, & Matz, 2011; Wright, 1993). High turnover not only impacts staff morale but also costs organizations approximately...
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Childhood Adversity among Court-Involved Youth: Heterogeneous Needs for Prevention and Treatment
IntroductionThere is a robust literature examining the overlap of juvenile delinquency with a range of childhood adversities, such as childhood maltreatment; socioeconomic disadvantage; and family dysfunction, including involvement in the child welfare...
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Effectiveness of Culturally Appropriate Adaptations to Juvenile Justice Services
IntroductionCanada and the United States have histories of disproportional representation of minorities in the juvenile justice system (Cabaniss, Frabutt, Kendrick, & Arbuckle, 2007; Cochran & Mears, 2015; Statistics Canada, 2015; Umemoto, Spencer,...
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Gender Differences in Prevalence of Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms in a Justice-Referred Sample of Youth
IntroductionAdolescence can be a difficult time for young people because of significant biological, social, emotional, and cognitive development during this period (Giedd et al., 1999; Sisk & Foster, 2004; Steinberg, 2005). Many psychiatric disorders...
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Masculinity Is Not Pathology: An Exploration of Masculinity among Juvenile Sexual Abusers and General Delinquents
IntroductionThe problem of sexual and nonsexual assault committed by youth has elicited great concern from researchers (Haegerich, Gorman-Smith, Wiebe, & Yonas, 2010; Leverso, Bielby, & Hoelter, 2015; Nisbet, Wilson, & Smallbone, 2004). In...
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Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring

Editor's Note
We are pleased to present the 9th Journal of Juvenile Justice (JOJJ). The first part of this issue explores the impact trauma has on children and adolescents, as well as the importance of a trauma-informed juvenile justice system. Olafson and colleagues...
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Trauma-Informed Collaborations among Juvenile Justice and Other Child-Serving Systems: An Update
IntroductionThe high rates of youth in the juvenile justice system who have experienced trauma have led to a call for earlier identification and treatment of these youth across child- and family-service systems, preferably before justice involvement...
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Looking Forward: A Research and Policy Agenda for Creating Trauma-Informed Juvenile Justice Systems
IntroductionCreating a trauma-informed juvenile justice system is not a rapid transformation and often requires a paradigm shift at multiple levels (e.g., law enforcement, courts, probation, diversion, detention, mental health services; Substance Abuse...
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Psychosocial Interventions for Traumatized Youth in the Juvenile Justice System: Research, Evidence Base, and Clinical/Legal Challenges
IntroductionPsychosocial interventions for posttraumatic stress reactions increasingly are recognized as a key component in the provision of services to youth involved in or at risk for involvement in the juvenile justice system (Danielson, Begle, Ayer,...
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Acute and Chronic Effects of Substance Use as Predictors of Criminal Offense Types among Juvenile Offenders
IntroductionSubstance use is a widespread problem among youth involved in the juvenile justice system. According to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA, 2004), it is estimated that just over 78% of juvenile arrests in 2000 involved...
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Examining the Influence of Ethnic/Racial Socialization on Aggressive Behaviors among Juvenile Offenders
BackgroundViolence or aggressive behavior among youth is a significant public health concern, with recent statistics estimating that youth are involved in 1 in 13 arrests for murder and approximately 1 in 5 arrests for robbery, burglary, and larcenytheft...
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Assessing Probation Officers' Knowledge of Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities: A Pilot Study
IntroductionThe prevalence of the U.S. incarcerated population with intellectual disabilities (ID)1 is between 4% and 10% (Scheyett, Vaughn, Taylor, & Parish, 2008), according to most estimates. Although offenders with ID compose a small percentage...
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Gender and Adolescents' Risk for Recidivism in Truancy Court
IntroductionTruancy has long been an issue for the school and juvenile justice systems (Henry, 2007; Maynard, McCrea, Pigott, & Kelly, 2013; Zhang, Katsiyannis, Barrett, & Willson, 2007). Many youth who are truant from school are likely to engage...
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Vol. 4, No. 2, Fall

Editor's Note
This Fall 2015 edition of the Journal of Juvenile Justice focuses on treatment programs for system-involved and at-risk juveniles. Joyce et al. provide the results of an outcome evaluation of a short-term residential treatment program for American Indian...
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An Outcome-Based Evaluation of a Short-Term Residential Treatment Program for American Indian Youth with Substance Abuse Problems
IntroductionAdolescent substance use has been called "America's #1 public health problem," and adolescence is understood as the critical period for the initiation of substance use and its consequences (The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse...
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Substance Use Services for Adolescents in Juvenile Correctional Facilities: A National Study
IntroductionSubstance use among adolescents in the United States is a major public health problem and priority. According to the 2013 Monitoring the Future study, approximately 28% of American adolescents reported having used illicit substances during...
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Communication Patterns among Juvenile Detainees: A High-Risk Population for Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases
BackgroundIn recent years cell phone and social media use have increased among American adolescents. Based on data gathered in a series of nationally representative surveys entitled "Teens and Technology 2013" and conducted by the Pew Research Center,...
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Meeting Treatment Needs: Overall Effectiveness and Critical Components of Juvenile Drug Court/Reclaiming Futures Programs
IntroductionAdolescence is a critical period in human development because significant physical and neurological maturation occur. Substance use during childhood and adolescence can have numerous negative effects that have the potential to significantly...
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I've Got My Own Problems: The Impact of Parental Stressors on Parental Anger
Introduction and BackgroundMany theories attempting to explain delinquent behavior include the role of parents (for example, see Agnew, 1992; Akers, 1985; Gottfredson & Hirschi, 1990; Hirschi, 1969; Patterson, 1982; Sampson & Laub, 1993). A variety...
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Development, Delivery, and Evaluation of a Pilot Stress Reduction, Emotion Regulation, and Mindfulness Training for Juvenile Justice Officers
IntroductionA robust body of research indicates that professionals working as human service care providers experience higher levels of chronic workplace stress and burnout than those in other professions (Zammuner, Lotto, & Galli, 2003). There has...
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Does Permissive Parenting Relate to Levels of Delinquency? an Examination of Family Management Practices in Low-Income Black American Families
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionOriginally described by Baum rind (1967), permissive parenting is an indulgent parenting style in which parents make few demands on their adolescents, have low expectations for adolescent's self-control,...
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Employers' Perceptions on the Disclosure of Juvenile Records
IntroductionThe original intent of a separate juvenile system was to rehabilitate, rather than criminalize, young offenders (Greenwood & Turner, 2011; Henning, 2004; Lawrence, 1998). The juvenile justice system operates on the prevailing principle...
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Truancy Reduction and Prevention: The Impact of Provider Contact in Intervention Efficacy
IntroductionTruancy is a serious problem for schools, families, and communities. Truancy is a status offense- that is, an offense only because it is committed by a minor-and it often leads to other problems such as drug and alcohol use, sexual promiscuity,...
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Vol. 4, No. 1, Winter

Foreword
Welcome to the sixth issue of the Journal of Juvenile Justice. This peer-reviewed journal provides the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) a venue to engage the juvenile justice community and present new and significant scientific...
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Modifying Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Incarcerated Female Youth: A Pilot Study
IntroductionThe prevalence of mental and emotional disturbance in the juvenile justice population is a persistent problem in the United States. Over the past decade, research has consistently indicated a significantly higher level of mental and emotional...
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The Impact of Child Protective Service History on Reoffending in a New Mexico Juvenile Justice Population
IntroductionThe link between child maltreatment or abuse and juvenile delinquency is well established. Although this link exists, the majority of children who are abused do not offend. Abused children often suffer from developmental deficits, including...
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Social Distance between Minority Youth and the Police: An Exploratory Analysis of the TAPS Academy
Ohio Dominican University, Columbus, OhioIntroductionThere is an extensive literature on public attitudes toward the criminal justice system, perceptions of the police, and police legitimacy (Cochran & Warren, 2012; Reitzel & Piquero, 2006; Leiber,...
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Rural Youth Crime: A Reexamination of Social Disorganization Theory's Applicability to Rural Areas
IntroductionThe vast majority of criminological research has been done in urban areas. Since little attention has been paid to delinquency in rural areas (Kaylen & Pridemore, 2013; Wells & Weisheit, 2004), our portrait of delinquent behavior...
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How to Help Me Get out of a Gang: Youth Recommendations to Family, School, Community, and Law Enforcement Systems
IntroductionMany communities face the harsh realities of gangs and the subsequent societal difficulties they bring (Gilbertson, 2009). In 2010 there were an estimated 756,000 members of 29,400 gangs across 3,500 jurisdictions in the United States (Egley...
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EXPLORATORY RESEARCH COMMENTARY: How Do Parents and Guardians of Adolescents in the Juvenile Justice System Handle Adolescent Sexual Health?
IntroductionMinorities in the Juvenile Correctional SystemIn the United States, millions of adolescents enter the juvenile justice system each year. The juvenile offenders comprise a special group of the nation's youth who have their own unique challenges....
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Vol. 3, No. 2, Spring

Implications of Self-Reported Levels of Hope in Latino and Latina Youth on Probation
IntroductionResearch on resilience suggests that individuals can and often do succeed despite significant disadvantages (Masten, 2001). Although social science disciplines have historically focused on prevention and intervention efforts related to traits...
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COMMENTARY: Do Youth Mentoring Programs Work? A Review of the Empirical Literature
IntroductionMentoring relationships represent one of the oldest community-based youth interventions, dating back to the genesis of the first juvenile court in Chicago during the late 1800s when probation officers provided guidance and supervision to...
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Editor's Note
We are pleased to present the sixth JOJJ. In this issue, two studies examine gender differences in delinquency among minority youth but focus on different pathways to delinquency. One study highlights Multisystemic Therapy (MST) in a community-based...
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The Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) in the Lives of Juvenile Offenders
Keywords: juvenile offenders, prevention, victimization, maltreatmentIntroductionAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs) refer to the following 10 childhood experiences researchers have identified as risk factors for chronic disease in adulthood: emotional...
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Effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy for Minority Youth: Outcomes over 8 Years in Los Angeles County
IntroductionIn recent years, criminal justice agencies have increasingly focused on the delivery of evidence-based practices; i.e., programs and principles that have been rigorously evaluated and shown to be effective. One of the more prominent programs...
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Personal and Anticipated Strain among Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis of Delinquency
IntroductionThe causes and correlates of juvenile delinquency continue to be an important research topic as analytic techniques have become more sophisticated and relevant data bases have been more extensively mined. Among the most commonly cited predictors...
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Evaluation of a Program Designed to Promote Positive Police and Youth Interactions
IntroductionPersons under the age of 18 comprise a sizable portion of those arrested in the United States each year, amounting to 12.5% of all arrests in 2010 (Puzzanchera & Kang, 2013). Recently, attention has been drawn to the notably high rate...
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Vol. 3, No. 1, Fall

Foreword
Historically, the state and local response to delinquency has focused on strategies and tactics as they pertain to the system and its agents-law enforcement, the courts, corrections, and affiliated agencies. Today, a growing body of research on adolescent...
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The Impact of Juvenile Mental Health Court on Recidivism among Youth
IntroductionIt is estimated that as many as 70% of youth who enter the juvenile justice system are diagnosed with one or more mental disorders (Hammond, 2007). To put this figure into perspective, approximately 1.54 million individuals under age 18 were...
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Gender-Specific Mental Health Outcomes of a Community-Based Delinquency Intervention
IntroductionEffective rehabilitation services are critical for preventing negative and promoting positive outcomes for youth involved in delinquency. Girls and boys who engage in delinquent behavior and have subsequent involvement with the juvenile justice...
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Predicting Recidivism among Juvenile Delinquents: Comparison of Risk Factors for Male and Female Offenders
IntroductionA major concern in the area of juvenile delinquency is the repeated arrest and incarceration of juveniles. Although the actual arrest rate of juveniles has declined over the past decade, recidivism has remained high and stable, with estimates...
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Building Connections between Officers and Baltimore City Youth: Key Components of a Police-Youth Teambuilding Program
IntroductionRelationships between police and youth in urban America are often strained (Brunson & Weitzer, 2011; Hurst & Frank, 2000; Lurigio, Greenleaf, & Flexon, 2009). Youth living in lower income areas, adolescent males, and African-American...
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Internet-Based Mindfulness Meditation and Self-Regulation: A Randomized Trial with Juvenile Justice Involved Youth
IntroductionYouth incarcerated in the juvenile justice system are disproportionately exposed to stressors outside of custody known to increase the risk for physical violence, delinquency, and selfinjurious behaviors (Duke, Pettingeil, McMorris, &...
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Assessing Youth Early in the Juvenile Justice System
IntroductionFrom 1994 to 2009, juvenile crime decreased significantly nationwide, yet rates of adjudicating and detaining youth rose steadily (Annie E. Casey Foundation Website, 2008; Bouffard & Bergseth, 2008; Knoll & Sickmund, 2011; Knoll &...
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A Jury of Your Peers: Recidivism among Teen Court Participants
IntroductionIn 2009, approximately 1.9 million people under the age of 18 were arrested in the United States. The number of arrests of juveniles in 2009 was 17% lower than the number of arrests in 2000. In 2009, the number of juvenile arrests for violent...
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Commentary: Place-Based Delinquency Prevention: Issues and Recommendations
IntroductionIn recent years, police agencies have implemented a variety of place-focused efforts that are collectively known as "hot spots" policing. These tactics, which focus law enforcement resources on small, problematic geographical areas, have...
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Vol. 2, No. 2, Spring

Foreword
Welcome to the fourth issue of the Journal of Juvenile Justice. For the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), this peer-reviewed journal provides a venue to engage the juvenile justice community in an ongoing dialogue about what...
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Family-Focused Juvenile Reentry Services: A Quasi-Experimental Design Evaluation of Recidivism Outcomes
IntroductionNationally, juvenile arrest rates have declined to their lowest levels since 1980 (Puzzanchera & Adams, 2011). However, recidivism rates for youth released from juvenile correctional facilities have failed to keep pace. The number of...
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An Outcome-Based Evaluation of Functional Family Therapy for Youth with Behavioral Problems
IntroductionPractitioners, policymakers, and researchers continually seek effective interventions to reduce delinquent and predelinquent behavior among adolescents. Despite a significant reduction in juvenile arrests in recent years, their arrest rates...
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One Family, One Judge Practice Effects on Children: Permanency Outcomes on Case Closure and Beyond
IntroductionIn 1995, the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges (NCJFCJ) set out guidelines for best practices in cases of child abuse and neglect. One of the practices that has been widely adopted (although little studied) is the one family,...
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Parental Acceptance-Rejection Theory and Court-Involved Adolescent Females: An Exploration of Parent-Child Relationships and Student-Teacher Relationships
IntroductionJuvenile crime rates have been decreasing since hitting an all-time high in the mid-1990s, but the percentage of adolescent females who are involved with the juvenile justice system continues to increase (Puzzanchera & Adams, 2011). In...
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Relating Resilience Factors and Decision Making in Two Groups of Underserved Adolescents: Implications for Intervention
IntroductionNot all children exposed to significant environmental or social stress have negative outcomes. In fact, many children growing up under circumstances of poverty and trauma mature to become healthy, stable, and productive individuals (Masten,...
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An Examination of the Early "Strains" of Imprisonment among Young Offenders Incarcerated for Serious Crimes
IntroductionAgnew's general strain theory characterizes strain as "relationships in which others are not treating the individual as he or she would like to be treated" (Agnew, 1992, p. 48). He divides strain into three types: the failure to achieve positively...
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