Policy Studies


No. 77, 2017

China and the United States as Aid Donors: Past and Future Trajectories
IntroductionThe Trump administration's 2018 budget proposes to cut US foreign aid by one third, making it the largest cut in foreign aid since the end of the Cold War. It also comes at a time when China is using its aid program and other official flows...
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No. 76, 2017

Litigating the Right to Health: Courts, Politics, and Justice in Indonesia
Executive SummaryIn recent years there has been a dramatic increase in health rights litigation in low- and middle-income countries, triggering debate about the effects of such litigation in terms of the equity and effectiveness of health systems in...
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No. 74, 2016

Aligning Unevenly: India and the United States
Executive SummaryDuring the early and mid-2000s, US policymakers anticipated that India could become one of America's closest global partners. A decade later, the question arises: Have New Delhi's policies on key strategic issues actually aligned strongly...
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No. 73, 2015

Papua's Insecurity: State Failure in the Indonesian Periphery
List of AcronymsABC Australian Broadcasting CorporationAHRC Asian Human Rights CommissionAI Amnesty InternationalAusAID Australian Agency for International DevelopmentBAIS Badan Intelijen Strategis, or military intelligenceBAPPENAS Badan Perencanaan...
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No. 72, 2015

Reinventing Asian Populism: Jokowi's Rise, Democracy, and Political Contestation in Indonesia
List of AcronymsGerindra Great Indonesia Movement Party (Partai Gerakan Indonesia Raya)Golkar Party of the Functional Groups (Partai Golongan Karya)Hanura People's Conscience Party (Partai Hati Nurani Rakyat)HKTI Indonesian Farmers' Harmony Association...
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No. 71, 2014

Contesting Buddhist Narratives: Democratization, Nationalism, and Communal Violence in Myanmar
Executive SummaryFor the past few years, Myanmar's political transition has been hampered by violence between Buddhists and Muslims. A nation with an ethnically Burman and religiously Buddhist majority, the population also comprises a large minority...
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No. 70, 2014

Flexible Implementation: A Key to Asia's Transformation
Executive SummaryDespite the regions economic growth over the last few decades, countries across Asia still face the complex challenge of structural transformation. Low-income economies must build formal industrial and service sectors from agricultural...
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No. 69, 2014

ASEAN Centrality and the ASEAN-US Economic Relationship
Executive SummaryASEAN has become a focal point of the rapidly changing economic architecture of the Asia-Pacific region. ASEAN members are increasingly stable and politically confident, and constitute an emerging economic powerhouse. The region is dynamic,...
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No. 68, 2013

Ethnic Policy in China: Is Reform Inevitable?
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)List of Acronyms3/14 March 14, 2008, Lhasa riots7/5 July 5, 2009, Uriimqi riotsCASS Chinese Academy of Social SciencesCCTV China Central TelevisionCLSG Central Leading Small GroupCPC Communist Party of...
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No. 67, 2013

How Mobile Is the Footloose Industry? the Case of the Notebook PC Industry in China
List of AcronymsCPU central processing unitGDP gross domestic productGPN global production networkHP Hewlett-PackardMNC multinational corporationPC personal computerR&D research and developmentVAT value added taxVMI vendor managed inventoryExecutive...
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No. 66, 2013

America's Voluntary Standards System: A'Best Practice' Model for Asian Innovation Policies?
Executive SummaryAcross Asia there is a keen interest in the potential advantages of America's market-led system of voluntary standards and its contribution to US innovation leadership in complex technologies.While Asian interest is strong, there is...
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No. 65, 2013

Patterns of Free Trade Areas in Asia
Executive SummaryAsian economies face important policy challenges regarding the use of free trade agreements (FTAs): primarily their scope and their impact on economic growth and regionalization trends. These topics are the front line of contemporary...
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No. 63, 2012

Breaking with the Past? Civil-Military Relations in the Emerging Democracies of East Asia
Executive SummaryEstablishing effective civilian control over the military is an important challenge for many newly democratized nations. This is particularly true for East Asia, where militaries wielded considerable political power in rhe authoritarian...
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No. 64, 2012

Mobilizing Resources, Building Coalitions: Local Power in Indonesia
Executive SummaryWhat have been the local political consequences of Indonesia's decentralization and electoral reforms? This question has attracted a great deal of scholarly and journalistic interest since 1999 because of its substantive importance....
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No. 57, 2011

Executive Accountability in Southeast Asia: The Role of Legislatures in New Democracies and under Electoral Authoritarianism
List of AcronymsACA Anti-Corruption AgencyARMM Autonomous Region of Muslim MindanaoBPK Supreme Audit AgencyBROOM Blue Ribbon Oversight Office ManagementCMD Christian and Muslim DemocratsCOMELEC Commission on ElectionsCPP Cambodian People's PartyDAP Democratic...
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No. 60, 2011

Economic Reforms, Regionalism, and Exports: Comparing China and India
Executive SummaryAgainst the backdrop of recovery from the global financial crisis, this paper attempts to reappraise the links between economic reforms and exports in China and India, the "giants." Four questions are analyzed: (1) Have China's exports...
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No. 61, 2011

Is China's Indigenous Innovation Strategy Compatible with Globalization?
Executive SummaryNational innovation policies currently attract intense interest throughout the international community, particularly so in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. China is among those countries now relying heavily on government...
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No. 59, 2011

Engaging North Korea: The Role of Economic Statecraft
Executive SummaryNowhere is the efficacy of economic inducements and sanctions more hotly contested than on the Korean peninsula. Assessments are sharply divided. Critics of engagement argue that positive inducements are fraught with moral hazard and...
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No. 58, 2011

Benevolent Benefactor or Insensitive Regulator? Tracing the Role of Government Policies in the Development of India's Automobile Industry
Executive SummaryIndia's automobile industry has witnessed an impressive run of sustained growth in the past two decades. The total number of vehicles produced in fiscal year 1990-91 was only 2.3 million, but by fiscal year 2009-10 this number had swelled...
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No. 62, 2011

Beyond Armed Resistance: Ethnonational Politics in Burma (Myanmar)
Non-armed ethnic minority actors have played an important role in ceasefire negotiations and in post-ceasefire Burma. Several key individuals have helped to mediate ceasefires between the government and rebel groups. Though their number has been small,...
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No. 56, 2010

Separate but Loyal: Ethnicity and Nationalism in China
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)Executive SummaryThis study compares ethnic identity and nationalism among China's ethnic groups. Following an examination of the ethnic policies under the Qing empire, the Republic of China, and the People's...
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No. 55, 2009

The Global Economic Crisis and Its Implications for Asian Economic Cooperation
Executive SummaryThe economic crisis of 2008-09 is the second major crisis in just over a decade that Asia has endured. Unlike the Asian crisis of 1997-98, however, the current crisis originated mainly in the West. Asia's excessive reliance on net exports...
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No. 53, 2009

Ethno-Diplomacy: The Uyghur Hitch in Sino-Turkish Relations
Executive SummaryBeginning in 1949, China considered, and dealt with, so-called Uyghur separatism and the quest for Eastern Turkestan (Xinjiang) independence as a domestic problem. Since the early 1990s, however, Beijing has begun to recognize the international...
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No. 54, 2009

A New Geography of Knowledge in the Electronics Industry? Asia's Role in Global Innovation Networks
and innovation strategies at the firm level and technology policy at the industry level. However, many of these debates are focused on the leading large economies, and the main concern is how to foster break-through innovations that can support technology...
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No. 52, 2009

The State Strikes Back: India and the Naga Insurgency
Executive SummaryIn the first decade after India declared independence in 1947, the Indian state faced numerous challenges to its very existence and legitimacy. These ranged from a war with Pakistan over the state of Jammu and Kashmir immediately after...
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No. 46, 2008

Peace Accords in Northeast India: Journey over Milestones
Executive SummaryNortheast India is most commonly studied by outsiders as a theater of insurgency and counterinsurgency. A high degree of mutual alienation marks the relationship between the population of Northeast India and Indians on the other side...
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No. 48, 2008

Civil Society in Uncivil Places: Soft State and Regime Change in Nepal
Executive SummaryThe massive political mobilization, or janaandolan, of 2006 that swept away King Gyanendra's direct rule and dramatically altered the structure and character of the Nepali state and politics raises important theoretical and methodological...
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No. 41, 2007

Muslim Perspectives on the Sri Lankan Conflict
List of AcronymsCFA Ceasefire AgreementEROS Eelam Revolutionary Organization of StudentsGOSL Government of Sri LankaISGA Interim Self-Governing AuthorityLTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil EelamMIC Muslim Information Centre (Colombo)MP Member of ParliamentMSG...
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No. 30, 2007

Legalizing Religion: The Indian Supreme Court and Secularism
List of AcronymsAIR All India ReporterBJP Bharatiya Janata PartyGOS governance-oriented secularismHRCE Madras Hindu Religious and Charitable EndowmentsHRE Hindu Religious EndowmentsROS rights-oriented secularismRPA Representation of the People ActRSS...
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No. 33, 2007

Postfrontier Blues: Toward a New Policy Framework for Northeast India
Even as India "flexes its muscle on the world stage," a decades-old civil conflict rages on in far-away Manipur State-the "lush, hilly swatch of land that juts out of the east toward Myanmar." Indian soldiers and paramilitary forces "saturate" this border...
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No. 44, 2007

Economy of the Conflict Region in Sri Lanka: From Embargo to Repression
Executive SummaryThis study examines the nature of the economy in the Northern and Eastern Provinces of Sri Lanka and explores the causes and effects of economic and social decline in the region during the past quarter century of civil conflict. It compares...
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No. 32, 2007

Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka: Changing Dynamics
List of AcronymsCFA Ceasefire AgreementCHA Cessation of Hostilities AgreementICRC International Committee of the Red CrossISGA Interim Self-Governing AuthorityJHU jathika Hela Urumaya [National Sinhalese Heritage [Party]]]VP Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna...
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No. 42, 2007

Conflict and Peace in India's Northeast: The Role of Civil Society
List of AcronymsAAGSP All-Assam Gana Sangram Parishad [All Assam Council of People's Movement]AASU All-Assam Students UnionAGP Asom Gana Parishad [Assam People's Council]AJYCP Asom jatiyatabadi Yuba Chhatra ParishadCNBC Council of Nagaland Baptist ChurchesCRG...
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No. 43, 2007

Looking Back, Looking Forward: Centralization, Multiple Conflicts, and Democratic State Building in Nepal
Executive SummaryThis monograph analyzes Nepal's past to derive guidelines for the future in the context of a planned new constitution through a Constituent Assembly. It seeks answers to the questions: Why did Nepal encounter multiple conflicts and crises...
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No. 34, 2007

Creating a "New Nepal": The Ethnic Dimension
List of AcronymsDFID Department for International Development, UKIPO Indigenous Peoples OrganizationISP Institutional Strengthening ProjectJEP Janajati Empowerment ProjectJTMM Janatantrik Tarai Mukti Morcha (Republic Tarai Liberation Front)KYC Kirat...
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No. 40, 2007

Sinhalese Buddhist Nationalist Ideology: Implications for Politics and Conflict Resolution in Sri Lanka
List of AcronymsASP Assistant Superintendent of PoliceHSZ High Security ZoneJHU Jathika Hela Urumaya [National Sinhalese Heritage Party]JVP janatha Vimukthi Peramuna [People's Liberation Front]LTTE Liberation Tigers of Tamil EelamMEP Mahajana Eksath...
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No. 25, 2006

Initiating a Peace Process in Papua: Actors, Issues, Process, and the Role of the International Community
List of AcronymsAFP Armed Forces of the PhilippinesCMICrisis Management Initiative, Office of President AhtisaariCPI Harvard Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research, Conflict Prevention InitiativeCSIS Center for Strategic and International...
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No. 22, 2006

India's Globalization: Evaluating the Economic Consequences
List of AcronymsADB Asian Development BankBPO business process outsourcingCAC capital account convertibilityCE consumer expenditureCED combined fiscal deficitEOU export oriented unitEUS Employment-Unemployment SurveyFD fiscal deficitFDI foreign direct...
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No. 26, 2006

Taiwan's Rising Rationalism: Generations, Politics, and "Taiwanese Nationalism"
List of AcronymsDPP Democratic Progressive PartyFAPA Formosan Association for Public AffairsKMT Kuomintang [Chinese Nationalist Party]NP New PartyPFP People First PartyPRC People's Republic of ChinaROC Republic of ChinaTNSS Taiwan National Security SurveyTSU...
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No. 28, 2006

Counterterrorism Legislation in Sri Lanka: Evaluating Efficacy
List of AcronymsACTC All Ceylon Tamil CongressCG ES commissioner general for essential servicesDJV Deshapremi Janata Vyaparaya (Patriotic People's Movement]EPRLF Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation FrontEROS Eelam Revolutionary Organization of StudentsIPKF...
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No. 23, 2006

The Politics of Military Reform in Post-Suharto Indonesia: Elite Conflict, Nationalism, and Institutional Resistance
List of AcronymsABRI Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia [Indonesian Armed Forces]Babinsa Bintara Pembina Desa [Soldier for Village Supervision]DPR Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat [People's Representative Council; Indonesia's national parliament]FKPPI Forum...
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No. 24, 2006

Muslim Resistance in Southern Thailand and Southern Philippines: Religion, Ideology, and Politics
List of AcronymsAFP Armed Forces of the PhilippinesASG Abu Sayyaf GroupBBMP Barisan Bersatu Mujahidin Patani (United Mujahideen Front of Patani)BIA F Bangsamoro Islamic Armed ForcesBIPP Barisan Islam Pcmbebasan Patani (Islamic Liberation Front of Patani)`BRN...
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No. 21, 2006

China's Rise: Implications for U.S. Leadership in Asia
List of AcronymsAPT ASEAN Plus ThreeARF ASEAN Regional ForumASEAN Association of Southeast Asian NationsDPP Democratic Progressive PartyEU European UnionFTA free trade agreementGDP gross domestic productNATO North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationOECD Organization...
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No. 27, 2006

Japanese Public Opinion and the War on Terrorism: Implications for Japan's Security Strategy
List of AcronymsASDF Air Self-Defense ForceAWACS Airborne Warning and Control SystemDP] Democratic Party of JapanGSDF Ground Self-Defense Force]SDF Japan Self-Defense Forces]DA Japan Defense Agency]SP Japan Socialist PartyLDP Liberal Democratic PartyMOFA...
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No. 15, 2005

The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse
List of AcronymsCCTV Chinese Central TelevisionCCP Chinese Communist PartyETIM Eastern Turkestan Islamic MovementFTO Foreign Terrorist OrganizationHSK the first standardized test for assessing the Chinese competence of non-native speakersPRC People's...
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No. 18, 2005

Islamic Radicalism and Anti-Americanism in Indonesia: The Role of the Internet
List of AcronymsBBC British Broadcasting CorporationCIA Central Intelligence AgencyCNN Cable News NetworkFBI Front Pembela Islam (the Defender of Islam Front)FKAW] Forum Komunikasi Ahlus Sunnah wal jamaah (Communications Forum of the Followers of Sunnah)FLA...
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No. 17, 2005

Forging Sustainable Peace in Mindanao: The Role of Civil Society
List of AcronymsACORD Alternative Center for Organizational Reforms and DevelopmentARMM Autonomous Region of Muslim MindanaoCl DA Canadian International Development AgencyCODE-NGO Caucus of Development NGOsDIMP Development Innovations Marketplace in...
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No. 16, 2005

Meeting the China Challenge: The U.S. in Southeast Asian Regional Security Strategies
List of AcronymsAMM ASEAN Ministerial MeetingAPEC Asia-Pacific Economic CooperationARF ASEAN Regional ForumASEAN Association of Southeast Asian NationsBIMSTEC Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand Economic CooperationBTA bilateral trade...
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No. 20, 2005

The Helsinki Agreement: A More Promising Basis for Peace in Aceh?
List of AcronymsAMM Aceh Monitoring MissionASEAN Association of Southeast Asian NationsCMI Crisis Management InitiativeCOHA Cessation of Hostilities AgreementDPR Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat [People's Representative Council; Indonesia's national parliament]GAM...
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No. 19, 2005

Nine Lives?: The Politics of Constitutional Reform in Japan
List of AcronymsCLB Cabinet Legislation BureauDP] Democratic Party of JapanGS Government Section [U.S. occupation forces)JCP Japan Communist PartyJDA Japan Defense AgencyJSP Japan Socialist PartyLDP Liberal Democratic PartyLP Liberal PartyMOFA Ministry...
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No. 14, 2005

Constructing Papuan Nationalism: History, Ethnicity, and Adaption
List of AcronymsDOM Daerah Operasi Militer [Military Operations Area]DPR Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, the national parliamentDPRD-GR Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah-Gotong Royong [Provincial Parliament-Mutual Assistance], the provincial parliament that was...
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No. 12, 2004

Sino-Tibetan Dialogue in the Post-Mao Era: Lessons and Prospects
List of AcronymsCCP Chinese Communist PartyCPPCC Chinese People's Political Consultative ConferenceNPC National People's CongressPRC People's Republic of ChinaTAR Tibet Autonomous RegionExecutive SummaryThis paper analyzes the dialogue process in the...
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No. 3, 2004

Security Operations in Aceh: Goals, Consequences and Lessons
The province of Aceh on the northern tip of Sumatra island in Indonesia has long been regarded both inside and outside Indonesia as a center of resistance to external rule and influence.1 In the 1520s, Aceh waged a war of resistance against the Portuguese....
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No. 5, 2004

The Papua Conflict: Jakarta's Perceptions and Policies
Executive SummaryThis study discusses the development of Indonesian attitudes and policies toward Papua from the preparations for Indonesian independence in mid-1945 to the present day. It emphasizes the Indonesian view that Papua has been an integral...
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No. 6, 2004

Violent Separatism in Xinjiang: A Critical Assessment
List of AcronymsCACCP Committee Against Chinese Communist PropagandaCCP Chinese Communist PartyCPPCC Chinese People's Political Consultative ConferenceETIC East Turkistan Information CenterETIM East Turkistan Islamic Movement [Shärqiy Türkistan Islam...
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No. 10, 2004

Secessionist Challenges in Aceh and Papua: Is Special Autonomy the Solution?
Executive SummaryThis study examines the drafting and implementation of special autonomy laws for Aceh and Papua as part of the Indonesian government's broader response to secessionist challenges in both provinces. I examine the background to the political...
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No. 4, 2004

Beijing's Tibet Policy: Securing Sovereignty and Legitimacy
China's Tibet policy stands at the turbulent intersection of contrasting Chinese and Tibetan nationalist narratives regarding the legitimacy of Beijing's rule over the "rooftop of the world." As is the case with so many conflicts of this nature, within...
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No. 7, 2004

The Tibet-China Conflict: History and Polemics
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)Executive SummaryThis paper is a guide to the historical arguments made by the primary parties to the Tibet-China conflict. Given the polarization that has characterized this issue for decades, it is surprising...
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No. 11, 2004

Autonomy in Xinjiang: Han Nationalist Imperatives and Uyghur Discontent
List of AcronymsBingtuan see PCCCCP Chinese Communist PartyEHM Eastern Turkistan Islamic MovementETR Eastern Turkistan Republic (p44-49)NA III National Army, the military force of the Eastern Turkistan RepublicKMT Chinese Nationalist Party under Chiang...
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No. 13, 2004

Plural Society in Peril: Migraton, Economic Change, and the Papua Conflict
List of AcronymsASEAN Association of Southeast Asian NationsBBM Bugis, Butonese, and Makasarese-shorthand for ethnic groups from South SulawesiBIN Badan Intelijen Negara (State Intelligence Agency]DPR Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (national legislature]DPRD...
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No. 9, 2004

The HDC in Aceh: Promises and Pitfalls of NGO Mediation and Implementation
Executive SummaryThis paper examines the unprecedented role played by a nongovernmental organization, the Henry Dunant Centre for Humanitarian Dialog (HDC), in facilitating negotiations between the Indonesian government and the armed Acehnese separatist...
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No. 8, 2004

The Moro Conflict: Landlessness and Misdirected State Policies
List of AcronymsA&D alienable and disposable landsARMM Autonomous Region of Muslim MindanaoCA compulsory acquisitionCADC Certificate of Ancestral Domain ClaimsCALC Certificate of Ancestral Lands ClaimsCARP Comprehensive Agrarian Reform ProgramCBFM...
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No. 2, 2004

The Free Aceh Movement (GAM): Anatomy of a Separatist Organization
The Free Aceh Movement (GAM): Anatomy of a Separatist OrganizationThe province of Aceh, which today has a population of 4.4 million, is located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. While an integral part of the Republic of Indonesia since its...
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No. 1, 2003

The Aceh Peace Process: Why It Failed
On May 18, 2003, peace negotiations in Tokyo between the Indonesian government and the Free Aceh Movement (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka; GAM) finally collapsed.1 The GAM negotiators had rejected an Indonesian ultimatum requiring them to abandon their goal of...
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