Social Development Issues

Articles

Vol. 40, No. 2, 2018

Social Investment and Social Welfare: International and Critical Perspectives
Social Investment and Social Welfare: International and Critical Perspectives James Midgley, Espen Dahl, and Amy Conley Wright (Eds.) Cheltenham, UK: Elgar, 2017 $135.00 (hardcover), 255 pp. ISBN 978-1-785-36782-3Reviewed by Manohar Pawar"Social investment...
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The Global Middle Class: A New Conceptual and Measurement Framework for the Developing Countries
Aristotle was the first to introduce the concept of the middle class. In the middle of the fourth century BC, he stated that the stability of a society depends on the middle class:Thus it is manifest that the best political community is formed by citizens...
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Future Directions in Social Development
Future Directions in Social Development James Midgley and Manohar Pawar (Eds.) New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017 $139.99 (hardcover), 281 pp. ISBN 978-1-137-44597-1Reviewed by David HollisterThis is a remarkable book, both in the scope of its purpose...
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Advancing Development in Kazakhstan: The Contribution of Research and Development
The rapid advancement of all societies depends on strategic investments in research and development (R&D) for both scientific and technological development and advancement of the quality of life of their people (Miller & Morris, 1999). According...
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Editor's Note
This issue contains five studies that discuss a range of macro- and micro-level social issues of methodological as well as theoretical interest to social development professionals. The article by da Silva e Silva is a critique of the role of income transfer...
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Income Transfer Programs as a Strategy against Poverty in Latin America: Reality and Limits
From the 1930s until the middle of the1990s, social protection in Latin America was based on small-scale programs dispersed throughout Latin American countries with varying effects. The effects of these programs were generally short lived and insufficient...
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Vol. 40, No. 1, 2018

Factors Contributing to Iodine Deficiency among Tanzanian Women
Iodine is a significant micronutrient that plays an important role in maintaining the overall health of individuals (Ahad & Ganie, 2010). It is usually obtained from one's dietary intake, which is dependent on the iodine content of soil and water....
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President's Address, 20th Biennial International Symposium of the International Consortium for Social Development, Zagreb, Croatia, July 7–11, 2017
Dear ICSD members and friends,Thank you for the opportunity to say a few words as incoming president.At the outset, I would like to thank and honor all the pioneers of the ICSD. I would like to recognize and appreciate their hard work, their farsighted...
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Akuluakulu? Sapasidwa Kanthu (Grown-Ups? They Get Nothing): Informing an International Community-University Partnership in Malawi
Asset-based community development (ABCD) relies upon the individual and collective strengths and resources of community members to address problems that they identify as needing attention (Kretzmann & McKnight, 1993). The strengthsfocused and capacity-building...
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The Medical Dispute Mediation Mechanism in the Public Sector: A Study Based on Cases from the Kaohsiung City Department of Health
In recent years, due to rising awareness of its basic and medical rights, as well as intense reporting in the media, the Taiwanese public is paying increasing attention to medical dispute issues. According to the Ministry of Health and Welfare (2017),...
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Impact of Proxy Response on Health Reporting among the Elderly in India
Health status is often used for measuring economic prosperity and social status of a country (Bloom & Canning, 2009). Health is conceptually complex, multidimensional, and complicated and not easily measurable (Ahn, 2002). The quality of health measurement...
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Editor's Note
This issue begins with Manohar Pawar's address as incoming president of the International Symposium of the International Consortium for Social Development, in Zagreb, Croatia, July 7-11, 2017. The issue continues with a number of studies that broadly...
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Vol. 39, No. 3, 2017

School Social Work: Practice, Policy, and Research (8Th Edition)
School Social Work: Practice, Policy, and Research (8th edition) Carol R. Massat, Michael S. Kelly, & Robert Constable, editors Chicago: Oxford University Press, 2016 698 pages (paperback), $86.95, ISBN-13: 978-0190615628 Reviewed by Thomas CasolaroIn...
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Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Critical Analysis
According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the first major steps made by the U.S. government to address the problem of food insecurity began in 1961 with President Kennedy's executive order to begin funding of the Food Stamp Pilot Programs...
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Lost in Translation-Reflections on Developmental Social Welfare Services in an Integrating Community
IntroductionIn the early to mid 2000s, a few researchers attempted to understand the living situations of selected poor white communities in South Africa, specifically in Gauteng and the Free Sate. A common conclusion was that poor white recipients of...
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Determinants of Infant Mortality in India: Evidence from a District Level Household Survey
IntroductionA country's infant mortality rate (IMR) is a measure of the health status of its people. It is also a vital indicator of human development. Despite advancements in technology and medical science, IMR remains a marked concern around the globe,...
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Editor's Note
Social development policies have in general paid particular attention to the wellbeing of special populations such as children and women. Within this tradition of ongoing concern for the welfare of special populations, social development scholarship...
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Questioning the Heteronormative Matrix: Transphobia, Intersectionality, and Gender Outlaws within the Gay and Lesbian Community
For heteronormative individuals, conformity to prescribed gender roles, gender identity, and sexual orientation is linked to one's assigned biological sex (Green, 2004). Members are socialized to believe in a heteronormative gender system in which gender...
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Resettlement Experiences of Children Who Entered the United States as Refugees
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR; 2009) estimated that there are approximately 19.5 million refugees globally and nearly 50 percent are children. Diverse populations of refugees are forced to flee their homes, often under violent...
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Vol. 39, No. 2, 2017

Reproductive Health of Tribal Populations in India: A Sustainability Approach
IntroductionPrior studies have examined reproductive health mainly from a demographic perspective, as the outcome of various economic (Crane, 2005; Danilovich, 2010; Jayasundara, 2011; Pillai & Gupta, 2006) and social factors (Wang & Pillai,...
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Elder Vulnerability in Receiving Home Care Services: Evidence from Bangladesh
Background of the StudyDubey, Bhasin, Gupta, and Sharma (2011) pointed out that elderly people are trapped between weakening traditional values and an absence of adequate social security. Significant changes have been taking place in the structure of...
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International Consortium for Social Development, Asia-Pacific Branch, 2004–2016: President's Recounts, Reflections, and Foreflections
The Asia-Pacific branch of the International Consortium for Social Development (ICSDAP) celebrated its twelfth anniversary in 2016. I volunteered my services to the branch as its president from the beginning, and as I plan to pass on this important responsibility...
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Transnational Advocacy Networks as a New Form of Global Governance Addressing Sex Trade Human Trafficking
A transnational advocacy network (TAN) consists of a group of state and non-state actors sharing a common set of ideals and values and transcending political borders (Keck & Sikkink, 1999). It has been recognized as a new process or space within...
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Editor's Note
This volume contains articles on issues such as reproductive health, human sex trafficking, and transmigration. Pa war's historical account of the first twelve years of the Asia-Pacific branch of the International Consortium for Social Development (ICSDAP)...
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Untold Experiences and Behaviors of Transmigrants Who Remit: A Qualitative Study
Individuals who leave their countries of origin to find employment opportunities elsewhere often create networks of relationships that span the globe. Thus, the supposition that all migrants reside solely in the country of destination, "according to...
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Vol. 39, No. 1, 2017

Social Welfare for a Global Era: International Perspectives on Policy and Practice
Social Welfare for a Global Era: International Perspectives on Policy and Practice James Midgley Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2016 264 pages (paperback), $76.00, ISBN 978-14-129-1802-2 Reviewed by Antoinette LombardThis rich and comprehensive text on international...
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Strength and Adversity: Testimonies of the Migration
Over the past eight years, the authors have met and had extended discussions with hundreds of migrants from Mexico and Central America who have found themselves in El Paso, Texas, or Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. As social workers and researchers, our interest...
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Social Development-A Search for Conceptual Linkages
Several years ago, when I was a graduate student at CEPT (Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology) University in India, I was asked to fill in for a professor who was to lecture on the topic of social development. I struggled to teach that class...
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Creative Teaching and Reflection in Nontraditional Settings: Regional, National, and International Experiences
IntroductionThe National Association of Social Workers (NASW, 2008) embraces a set of core values as the foundation of the profession's purpose, mission, and perspective. These core values, described in the profession's ethical code, include "service,...
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Editor's Note
In the social sciences, often grand theories such as the social development theories make assumptions about the fundamental nature of human beings. In most instances, these assumptions are not explicitly discussed even when they have observable impacts...
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Social Insurance Systems in South Africa and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Analysis
IntroductionThis article, which is based on a review of secondary data, will provide a comparative analysis of social insurance in South Africa and Zimbabwe. It will begin by showing the link between social insurance and social development. Next, social...
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Adolescent Attachment in Multiple Contexts: Associations with Emotional and Behavioral Functioning in the United States Midwest
IntroductionAdolescence is an age of significantly heightened risk of experimenting with drug use (Thatcher & Clark, 2008), risk-taking (Somers & Gizzi, 2001), and experiencing other behavioral and emotional difficulties. A variety of social,...
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Motherhood, Poverty, and the WIC Program in Urban America: Life Strategies
Motherhood, Poverty, and the WIC Program in Urban America: Life Strategies Suzanne Morrissey Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015 286 pages (hardcover), $90.00, ISBN 978-0-7391-8933-7High infant mortality and insufficient prenatal care are well-known problems...
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Vol. 38, No. 2, 2016

Editor's Note
This issue presents a number of studies that address some of the core concerns of social development such as human well-being, social justice, and equitable relations. These studies provide valuable information for implementing well-known social development...
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Adjustment of Women Immigrants from Ethiopia: The Contributing Factors
Adjustment of immigrants is a relevant topic of research that has important theoretical and practical implications. There is extensive literature in the field (Berry, 2001; Bustin, 2004; Itzhaky, 1997; Johnson & Munch, 2009; Nwabah & Heitner,...
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Cooperatives' Community Practices in Costa Rica: Financial Support Mechanisms
Cooperatives hold promise as agents of community economic and social development. The United Nations (UN) hoped to bring their potential to the fore by declaring 2012 to be the International Year of Cooperatives. This specially designated year aimed...
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Refugee Migration and the Intersection with Child Protection Services: A Call for Further Policy Discussion
IntroductionIn recent years, refugee migration has significantly expanded across the globe. According to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2011), the first six months of 2011 saw a 17-percent increase in asylum claims in industrialized countries...
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International Higher Education Partnerships: Concept Mapping of the Processes and Outcomes of USAID-Funded Projects in Ethiopia
IntroductionAs universities strive to become more global, international higher education partnerships (IHEPs) promise to play an increasingly important role in advancing societal or locale development and in contributing to more economically and socially...
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Mainstreaming a Gender Perspective to Peacemaking: A Framework for Policy Evaluation for UN Security Council Resolution 1325
The United Nations Security Council enacted Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security in 2000. This resolution recognizes the importance of bringing a gender perspective to peacemaking through increased participation of women in official peacemaking...
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Preparing Social Work Students to Engage in Social Development in Global Contexts: A Uganda-U.S. Collaboration
The current focus on globalization in social work education calls attention to differences in the conceptualization and goals of social work practice in various regions throughout the world. These differences are due to the unique needs of populations,...
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Essential Skills in Social Work Practice: Assessment, Intervention, and Evaluation (2Nd Edition)
Essential Skills in Social Work Practice: Assessment, Intervention, and Evaluation (2nd edition) Thomas O'Hare Lyceum Books, Inc., Chicago, 2016 240 pages (paperback), $64.95, ISBN-13: 978-1935871781 Reviewed by Randall E. BashamThere is an existing...
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Social Work with Families: Content and Process (2Nd Edition)
Social Work with Families: Content and Process (2nd edition) Robert Constable and Daniel B. Lee Lyceum Books Inc., Chicago, 2015 240 pages (paperback), $58.95, ISBN-13: 978-1935871781 Reviewed by Ann Reed WilderIn Social Work with Families: Content and...
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Vol. 38, No. 1, 2016

Editor's Note
War and epidemics such as AIDS and poverty continue to stagnate social and economic development in the African continent. A burning question among development agencies and foreign aid workers today is whether a rights-based development approach can spur...
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Mental Health Law in Ghana: The Rights of Children with Mental Disorders
IntroductionAccording to the World Health Organization's Mental Health Improvements for Nations Development (MIND), approximately 650,000 Ghanaians suffer from severe mental illness, approximately 1 in 33 of the country's entire population (World Health...
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Leading MSM out of the Underground: Using Transformative Leadership in Human Rights Advocacy in Malawi
When spider webs unite, they can tie up a lion.-Ethiopian proverbIntroductionIn Malawi, African gay and bisexual individuals can serve up to fourteen years in jail for their sexual orientation. Criminalization of gay and bisexual behavior is a growing...
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Promoting Social Justice and Human Rights among Vulnerable Populations: Implications for a Social Development Approach in Ghana
IntroductionThe intention of this article is to examine the issues of inequality, injustice, and discrimination experienced by vulnerable populations (children, women, people with disabilities, and the elderly) in Ghana. These populations will be examined...
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Achieving Justice and Rights through Social Development: Suggestions from Rwandan Women Survivors of Rape during Genocide
Sources differ in their counts of the number of rapes that occurred during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, but a conservative estimate is that two to three hundred thousand women experienced this human rights violation (Amick, 2011; Research Directorate,...
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Water and Social Policy/Forests and Climate Change: The Social Dimensions of REDD in Latin America
Water and Social Policy Manohar Pawar Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2014 96 pages (hardback), $67.50, ISBN 978-1-137-38551-2Forests and Climate Change: The Social Dimensions of REDD in Latin America Anthony Hall Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2012 232 pages...
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Vol. 37, No. 3, 2015

Editor's Note
This issue presents a number of articles on vulnerable populations. Gopinath and Nair examine the spatiotemporal aspects of poverty. They examine several key characteristics of poverty from a relational/dynamic perspective. At the methodological level...
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Poverty and Place through the Eyes of the Poor: Outlining Key Strands of a Conceptual Framework, D-SPACE
IntroductionThis study focuses on raising awareness of the urban poor in the Global South in general and in the Indian context in particular so that they begin to appreciate the relationship between poverty and place. Such an inquiry is particularly...
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An Exploration of the Evolution of Women's Roles in Societies of the Gulf Cooperation Council
IntroductionThe Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is a union of six countries: Saudi Arabia (KSA), Qatar, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Bahrain. These neighboring countries along the Arabian Gulf share a common language (Arabic), culture,...
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Modeling Women's Reproductive Health in India: Implications for Policy
Women's reproductive health plays an important role in the overall health of a population. Recent studies found that an overall improvement in women's health increases their reproductive health as well as their children's well-being (Pillai & Gupta,...
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The State of Child Poverty in Saudi Arabia
IntroductionThe first years of the life of every child represent a critical stage requiring special care and effective socialization; proper education also contributes to intellectual, social, and physiological growth of the child. Such requirements...
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Exploring the Disparity in Reproductive Health Status between Tribal and Nontribal Women in India
IntroductionIndia is often presented as a success story of globalization, free market economy, and democracy where emerging billionaires purchase personal aircraft for their convenience, construct the most expensive dwelling residences in the world,...
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Vol. 37, No. 2, 2015

Editor's Note
This issue includes six articles on problems pertinent to social development scholars and practitioners: welfare systems, structural adjustment programs, discrimination against women, female immigrants, son preference, and the plight and status of refugees.Kolstad's...
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Implementation of the Structural Adjustment Program in Bangladesh: Experience of Shrimp Culture
Like many other developing nations, Bangladesh embraced nationally managed economic growth with financial and technical assistance from global tions such as International Monetary Fund and World Bank as a development strategy during the emergence of...
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Toward an Explanation of Son Preference in Pakistan
Son preference exists almost exclusively in South Asia (Bairagi & Langsten, 1986). Ahmed (1971), Arnold (1997), and Vlassoff (1990), report a higher ratio of preference for sons over daughters in most Asian countries. Scholars have observed this...
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State's Stepping out of the Dominant Values in Women Empowerment Policy: The Experience of Andhra Pradesh, India
Gender has often been a neglected area in welfare policy, irrespective of the countries' status around the world. As Orloff (1996) observed, little attention is given to how gender relations affect the welfare state. History reveals that welfare provisions...
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Female West African Immigrants in the United States: Challenges and Empowering Strategies
IntroductionFollowing the 1960s independence of former European colonies in Africa, waves of migrants headed to Europe, more specifically toward metropolitan countries such as Belgium, Spain, Portugal, France, and Great Britain. More often, those migrations...
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Revisiting the United Nations' 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: A Critical Analysis of the International Refugee Law
The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (henceforth referred to as the 1951 Convention) is an international refugee law, passed on July 28, 1951, and enacted on April 22, 1954. According to the United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees...
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Professional Social Work in East Africa
Professional Social Work in East Africa Helmut Spitzer, Janestic M. Twikirize, & Gidraph G. Wairire (Eds.) Fountain Publishers, Kampala, IN, 2014. 418 pages (paperback), $35.40, ISBN 978-9970-25-367-8As a seminal work in the development of social...
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The Welfare State System Confronted with the Human Rights Principle
IntroductionThe Social-Democratic Welfare State Model, which is known in the Netherlands and the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and Norway, is based upon the principle of universalism, with provisions that cover everybody, granting as...
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Vol. 37, No. 1, 2015

Editor's Note
This issue includes six papers on problems pertinent to social development scholars and practitioners: poverty, eldercare, social protection of the elderly, service delivery in times of economic crisis, university-community partnership, and finally an...
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Learning to Be Resilient by Moving from Poor by Chance to Not So Poor by Intent Identities: Lessons from Conversations with Labor Migrants in Southern India
IntroductionThe slum is understood or, put another way, consumed as an image: flat, without history, without structure and emptied of those who live within it.(Bhan, 2009, p. 140)Although discussed in the context of forced evictions in Delhi, Bhan's...
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Residential Care for Elders in China: The Private Sector as a Solution?
IntroductionThe elderly population of China has increased rapidly in the first decade of the twenty-first century. China's 2010 census indicates that people more than sixty years old account for 13 percent of the country's population, up 3 percentage...
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National Social Protection Floors and Income Security for Older Persons: Prospects for Zimbabwe
IntroductionZimbabwe is a former British colony that attained its independence in April 1980 following a drawn-out war for liberation. The country is a member of the Southern African Development Community, which consists of fifteen member states. The...
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Community Organizing and Service Delivery during an Economic Crisis: The Role of a Jewish International NGO in Argentina, 2001-2009
IntroductionInternational nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have become well-recognized and critical actors in the provision of social assistance in low-income countries. Their work in such countries encompasses relief and recovery work in the aftermath...
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Building University and Community Partnerships on Behalf of Low-Income Communities
Precursors of University-Community CollaborativesUniversity-community collaborations have a long history in the United States. For example, the Morrill Act, which established land grant colleges in 1862 (U.S. National Archives and Records Administration,...
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The Concept of Social Development: Text Analysis of Literature
IntroductionThe concept of development has been traditionally associated with economic development, but more recently it has evolved to encompass both social and economic development. In this integrated perspective, economic development is initially...
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Vol. 36, No. 3, 2014

Editors' Note: Human Rights, Democracy, and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean
Human rights, democracy, and development have almost become household terms in the twenty-first century as more people sing their praises and profess their commitment to advancing these concepts. Few would argue that we want to build a world without...
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Building Comunidad: Fundación Humanitaria De Costa Rica
Walking through the streets of La Carpio, a squatter's community in San José, Costa Rica, one gets the distinct impression of comunidad; a thriving, bustling community that is overcoming the limitations of poverty and despair. Residents run up to greet...
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The Claims of Gender: Indigeneity, Sumak Kawsay, and Horizontal Women's Power in Urban Ecuador under the 2008 Political Constitution
Sumak kawsay sin feminismo no hay! (Well-being does not exist without feminism!)-Traditional Bolivian saying, Mujeres Populares y Diversas (blog)A person's constitution is the strength of her makeup-what she is about, what she values, and the tools she...
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Positive Deviance: Employing an Assets-Based Approach to Foster Community Agency and Reduce Chronic Malnutrition in Indigenous Guatemala
Development interventions can yield positive and negative results, as well as intended and unintended outcomes affecting community health and well-being. The normative needs-based approach to development assumes that expertise, introduced from outside...
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Marginalized Struggles for Legal Reform: Cross-Country Consequences of Domestic Worker Organizing
What possibilities of mobilization are produced on the basis of existing configurations of discourse and power?-Judith Butler (1995, p. 47)The law was made for one thing alone-for the exploitation of those who don't understand it.-Bertolt Brecht (1928,...
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Where Did the Women Go? Gender Inequalities in Ecuador's Ethno-Politics
Women have long been at the forefront of Indigenous struggles. In the eighteenth century, Mary Mom oho was leading the legal resistance against land dispossession of Eastern Pequots in New England while Bartolina Sisa terrified the colonial army holding...
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The Meaning and Possibilities of Participation in Research in Haiti: A Case of Counterhegemonic Resistance
Oppressive social, political, and economic structures produce compliance and conformity to the existing social order in the everyday lives of marginalized people, through interaction and action, including silence and inaction. Such conformity, or hegemony,...
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The Other Welfare: Supplemental Security Income and U.S. Social Policy
The Other Welfare: Supplemental Security Income and U.S. Social Policy Edward D. Berkowitz and Larry DeWitt Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, and London, 2013 ISBN-13: 978-0801451737The eight chapters of The Other Welfare cover several aspects of...
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Talking of Tensions in Development: Reflections from the Cerro De Oro Case, Oaxaca, Mexico
In 1972, the Mexican federal government decreed the construction of the Cerro de Oro Dam on the Santo Domingo, San Juan Evangelista, and Tesechoacán rivers in the state of Oaxaca. This work displaced around twenty-six thousand Chinanteca natives who...
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Vol. 36, No. 2, 2014

Social Work as a Democratic Experiment in the United States: The Dilemma of Professionalizing across Borders
The democratic experiment of the United States, like the French Revolution, sought to address not only political equality through the concept of citizen instead of subject but also economic opportunity and social equality in securing the benefits of...
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Education Loans and College Graduation: Differences by Race/Ethnicity
Over time college education has become more important for long-term economic success and one of the most important tools for social mobility (Baum & Ma, 2007; Dominitz & Manski, 1996; US Census Bureau, 2009). Despite growing college enrollment...
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Criminalizing Childhood: The Social Development of Juvenile Crime in a Rural North Carolina School
At first glance juvenile crime appears to be declining. In 2012 the Juvenile Offenders and Victims National Report indicated that between 1985 and 2009, an estimated 1.5 million delinquency cases involved juveniles charged with criminal law violations...
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Revisiting the Landscape of Professional Social Work in India
Mohandas K. Gandhi (1957), one of the most outstanding social activists of recent time, taught that knowledge is constantly constructed from community experiences. Thus, the Gandhian approach, named in Gandhi's honor, is based on a reciprocal, interactive...
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Can Participatory Governance Enhance Public Services in a Transitional Democracy? Lessons from Albania
Participatory governance has been strongly supported by development agencies in postcommunist Albania. Such efforts have grown especially after the enactment of the Law 8652 on Organization and Functioning of Local Governance in 2000. Article 3 of the...
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Individual Microfinance Lending in Gros Morne, Haiti
Microfinance has generated enthusiasm among those interested in international development work. The United Nations and other organizations worldwide view microfinance as a poverty reducer (Imai, Gaiha, Thapa, & Annim, 2010) and as a major contributor...
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Evidence Based Macro Practice in Social Work
Evidence Based Macro Practice in Social Work Murali D. Nair and Erick G. Guerrero Gregory Publishing, Wheaton, IL, 2014 $50 ISBN 978-0-911541-94-6Evidence Based Macro Practice in Social Work, by Murali D. Nair and Erick G. Guerrero, is intended to prepare...
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Social Development: Theory and Practice
Social Development: Theory and Practice James Midgley Sage Publications, London, 2014 $38 ISBN 978-1412947787 (paperback)Social Development: Theory and Practice is the new book by Professor Midgley. Those who think of this as a second edition to Social...
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