Pakistan Journal of Criminology

Articles

Vol. 8, No. 3, July

Child Protection Legislation in Pakistan: Bringing International Child Rights Obligations and Local Values Together
IntroductionPakistan has ratified a number of international treaties which provide children with special protections. Amongst these international commitments, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) is most significant as it...
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Susceptibility to Radicalization: A Case Study of Young Women in District Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan 1
IntroductionGeographically, D.I. Khan enjoys a unique position as it abuts on the Punjab province to the east, and South Waziristan tribal agency and Tank district in the west. In the north it borders with Bannu and Laki Marwat districts, and in the...
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Detention of Relatives of Accused by Police
IntroductionDetention of a person on the mere ground that he/she is the relative of an accused person is itself a violation of the universal, constitutional and national laws. The main focus in this regard is to understand the judicious interpretation...
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Honor, Revenge in Socio-Geographic Space of Pashtuns
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)IntroductionIn the Epic of Gilgamesh, arguably the world's first major work of literature, the goddess Ninhursag creates the wild man Enkidu to cure the hero-king Gilgamesh of his arrogance. The two fight...
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Sociological Analysis of Lower Class Women's Crime and Imprisonment Impact on Women
INTRODUCTIONPoverty is the main root cause of all crimes which has become social evil for the whole world, especially for the under developed countries. In Pakistani society, poverty pushes the individual to adopt those means that are not only detrimental...
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Analytical Study to Find the Effects of Control and Punishment on White Collar Crimes in Punjab, Pakistan
IntroductionEdwin Sutherland (1941) first coined the term white collar crime and he found some significant explanations regarding white collar crime. He made several important observations: "respectable'' individuals of middleand upper class commit acts...
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Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Delinquent Behaviouramong Adolescents: A Case Study of Slum Areas of Islamabad
IntroductionIn the modern time period juvenile delinquency has become worldwide dilemma that has hindered the constructive growth of society on a larger extent (Nas, DeCastro, &Koops, 2005). Delinquency is separate from crime in a way that a crime...
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Towards Community Policing: An Institutional Approach
The idea of institutional community policing in Pakistan goes back to the Police Reforms of 2002, introduced by the then President General Pervez Musharraf. The present Police Ordinance 2016 of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (K-P) province is a continuum of the...
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Maturity Levels for Outlaw Groups: The Case of Hells Angels MC
IntroductionMcIntosh (2009) argues that from relatively humble beginnings, outlaw motorcycle gangs, such as the Hells Angels, Outlaws, Bandidos, Pagans, Sons of Silence, Mongols, Coffin Cheaters, Black Pistons and others have evolved into sophisticated...
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Factors Influencing Police Image in Public (A Study of University Students Perception in KPK Pakistan)
IntroductionPolicing is an integral part of human life and is essential for regulating human behaviour, controlling crime and protecting the citizens (Newbum,2003).According to the famous Roman political philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC),...
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Experiences of Women Police at Work Place in Pakistan
IntroductionPakistan is a patriarchal and gender segregated society with established set of norms and values. Women constitute 48.4% of the population (Government of Pakistan, 2011) in the country and are considered as custodian of cultural norms and...
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Role of Economic Position and Electronic Media on Juvenile Delinquency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionJuvenile delinquency is becoming a global problem in the world today (Schwartz and Johnson,2012). Delinquency a legal term for criminal behavior carried out by a juvenile is often the result of escalating...
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Vol. 7, No. 4, October

Efficiency of NAB: Some Observations and Policy Suggestions
Corruption is a parasite that mercilessly sucks a nation's blood. The end result of corruption is weakening of state institutions and a moral crisis in the society. Pakistan is also facing the problem of corruption. It was ranked 126 by Corruption Perception...
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Violence Explained? A Review of Theoretical Explanations of Violent Behavior
IntroductionThere is a large body of theories and research on violence and aggressive behavior in the social sciences, mostly coming from psychology and sociology. Psychologists in most cases tend to focus on individuals in face-to-face interaction and...
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The Motivation for Crimes: Experiences of Criminals from District Jail Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
IntroductionThe struggle for crime prevention has been an ongoing journey for decades. Sociologist and criminologists have paid special attention to the presence and causes of crimes worldwide. For instance for Emile Durkheim (1964) crimes have a social...
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Cultural Values V. Collective Efficacy: Robust Predictors for Reporting Victimization? I
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionWhen social scientists desire to determine a set of values with which to compare official reports of victimization, determining which set of values to apply to the research population becomes critical...
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Illicit Drugs & Indiscriminate Proliferation: The Consequential and Discourse Analysis of Substance Abuse
Background of the studyInternational tensions are augmenting with a rapid pace through variety of social and economic evils predominantly including the trafficking, supply and use of illicit drugs. The origins of some of these tensions are clear: rapid...
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Heterodoxy in Conflict Resolution Case Study of Fire Arms in Pakistan
"The strongest reason for the people to retain the right to keep and bear arms is, as a last resort, to protect themselves against tyranny in government." Thomas JeffersonIntroductionSmall arms are one of the gravest problems for Pakistan with a steady...
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Satisfaction with Native American Indian Tribal Criminal Justice Services and Perceptions of Crime Seriousness: A Research Note
(ProQuest: ... denotes formula omitted.)IntroductionLittle work has been conducted that examines perceptions of criminal justice services provided by Native American Indian tribal governments to their citizens and the relationship these attitudes might...
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Factors Affecting Public Trust in Police: A Study of Twin Cities (Rawalpindi & Islamabad)
IntroductionPolice is always recognized to be the attendants of the public. The society identifies them as curators of law and order in respective community. Nevertheless, vast majority of police experts and policing literature reveals that the police...
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Crossing the Line: Perception about Police Corruption in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
IntroductionWhen an institution is tasked with guarding citizen rights and controlling corruption, do not act with honesty, then ultimately citizen suffers. Across the world, corruption is a serious problem especially in developing countries. It is a...
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A Survey of Practices and Methods of Denial of Inheritance to Females in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionArticle 23 of the Constitution of Pakistan states that "every citizen shall have the right to acquire, hold, and dispose of property in any part of Pakistan" whereas Article 25 further guarantees and...
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Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA): Impacts of Militarization and War Crimes on Tribal Women and Children
IntroductionPakistan semi-autonomous border region Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) has been one of the most volatile border regions. Today's FATA, Pak Afghan border areas played a very important role since British colonial times, used as a...
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Women and Armed Conflict: Cultural Obstacles to Pashtun Women's Participation in Peacebuilding
IntroductionResearch on women and post-conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding tends to focus primarily on women as victims and passive targets for aid rather than conceptualizing peacebuilding as a process where greater participation by women may...
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Association between Effectiveness of Probation System and Rehabilitation of Offenders in the Punjab, Pakistan
IntroductionCriminal justice system is the collection of all government agencies which manage criminal justice system's functions, including operations, administration or technical support (Schmalleger & Smykla, 2001). As Criminal Justice System...
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Vol. 7, No. 1, January

Policing with Passion - KP Police Initiatives
There is no dearth of policing models in the available literature of criminology and policing sciences1. Interestingly, none of the dozen of models can be cited as 'one-size-fits all'. As evident from the comprehensive details of each model, given in...
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Social Conflict Theory and White-Collar Criminals: Why Does the Ruling Class Punish Their Own?
IntroductionSocial conflict theory suggests that the powerful and wealthy in the upper class of society define what is right and what is wrong (Petrocelli et al., 2003; Siegel, 2011). The rich and mighty people can behave like "robber barons" because...
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Nigel Akkara: From A Sociological Perspective
IntroductionThe underworld, like the undergarment, is hidden, but stinks when brought out in the open. The performance of criminals in underworld are both revolting and riveting. While their acts provoke extreme feelings of hostility and horror among...
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Does Lack of Legislative Reforms Lead to Practices like Women as Compensation in Pakhtoon Culture?
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionLegislative FailureAccording to (Barfield, 2003) judiciary system in Afghanistan has little success to resolve civil disputes and to a great extent criminal cases as well due to prolong procedure and...
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Bakunin Model of Anarchism and Militancy in Swat, Pakistan
War against terrorism is a war fought against Islamic militants, who have been creating anarchy for sake of getting strategic benefits and winning ultimate victory. The stories of violence in the war, strengthen the notion that anarchy is one of the...
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Media, Violence and the Culture of Victimization: A Sociological Analysis of the Socio-Cultural and Psychological Impacts of Media on Youth
Background of the StudyWorldwide, violence is used as a tool for exploitation and victimization of people and is an area of concern for law makers, social scientists and culture experts who attempt to suppress and stop its consequences. Literary debate...
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Problems Faced by Women in Police Stations: Need for Police Reforms in Pakistan
IntroductionIn Pakistan, women face major challenges in accessing justice (Zaman & Zia, 2012). This has a long historical background and even recent efforts to mend the idiocies of past are affected by these deep rooted hitches. The women's circumscribed...
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Intelligence Aspects in Police Basic Training and Countering Terrorism in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
IntroductionPolice is the first respondents in all the civil disorders, related to any violation of law (Dahl, 2010). Police personnel instead of dealing with traditional street crimes, has recently started to deal with more sophisticated, organized...
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Investigation of Juveniles by Police under Juvenile Justice System A Study of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Police regarding Knowledge of JJSO-2000
IntroductionExplaining the juvenile justice system under the umbrella of Islam, for young offenders who have committed any crime, the religion of Islam is not in the favor of attempting the punishment to these minors as given to adults. The quoted saying...
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Book Review: Modern Orientals, Muslims in the West Abul Kasem's Misinterpretations and Blasphemy
Book Review: Modern Orientals, Muslims in the West Abul Kasem's Misinterpretations and BlasphemyA. Modern OrientalsIn the series of my coloumns against the pseudo-intellectuals and perverted writers like Sujit Das, today I have discussed in my coloumn,...
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Book Review: The Routledge Handbook on Chinese Criminology
Book Review: L. Cao, I.Y. Sun, and B. Heberton (eds.). (2014) The Routledge Handbook on Chinese Criminology Oxan, UK: Routledge. pp. 352 (HB). $317.16 (Indigo); $180.42 e-version on AmazonReviewed by: John WinterdykDepartment of Economics, Justice, and...
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Vol. 6, No. 2, July-December

Sociological Analysis of Mass Media Role in Promotion of Mob Violence (A Case Study of Two Selected Cities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa)
IntroductionViolence is a hot media issue now a day. The wider spread of mass media in our societal surrounding brought many changes to our environment such as the radio set, TV, shows, videos, video games, and social networking gaining an influencing...
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Child Victimization: Case Study of Child Scavengers in Twin Cities of Pakistan
BackgroundChildren always work especially in such settings where social hierarchy exists at large scale; it is normal for children from a disadvantaged background to work for betterment of families at an early age. Children in such societies are considered...
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Crime and Institutional Response: A Study of Mobile Snatching and Street Assaults in Pakistan
IntroductionLawlessness and violence can be traced back to the very inception of Pakistan. Intensity of crime and crime related acts enhanced with the passage of time and with the availability of new weapons. Crime against property and crime against...
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Theoretical Analysis of Socio-Economic and Political Causes of Terrorism in Pakistan
IntroductionAlthough terrorism is not a new phenomenon (Jaspal, 2008), still the term terrorism has neither specific nor widely accepted definition. According to Encyclopedia Britannica terrorism is "the systematic use of terror as a means of forcing...
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Environment of Crimes and Violence at Community Level and Its Exclusionary Effects on Children
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionThe Term Poverty As A Strong Ingredient of shaping human life embodies economic nature of disadvantage, grounded in application of a static set of indicators such as lack of income. (Department of...
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Structure of Violence in Pakistani Schools: A Gender Based Analysis
IntroductionIn Pakistan public school system is divided into three tiers. Primary schools enroll and retain students from grade 1 through grade 5, followed by enrolment in middle schools (grade 6th to grade 8th) through to high schools (grade 9th to...
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Gender Differences in Depression among the Affectees of War on Terrorism and the Role of Psychological Interventions in the Rehabilitation
Since time immemorial, especially the twentieth century, the world has experienced terrorism in different forms and faces with different expressions. Therefore, we know that terrorism is not a modern trend. Undoubtedly, a terrorism disaster, (whether...
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The Case of Crime Rise in City of Peshawar
Crime is an all time existing phenomenon. Societies have never been able to completely get rid of crime. According to Durkheim, crime is essential for bringing progress in the society. For it is through crimes and deviancy that society draws and redraws...
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'Situation and Scope' of Existing Labour Laws to Address the Issues of Home-Based Women Workers in Pakistan
IntroductionHome-based work is not a new phenomenon. Since ages, the people had been conducting home-based economic activities throughout the world. Home-based work cannot be viewed as only a production sector, rather it covers a range of "industries",...
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Impact of TV Crime Shows on Rob Criminals of District Camp Jail, Lahore: A Critical Analysis of Travis Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
IntroductionThe violence has become a popular form of entertainment and is cultivated through drama, films, Video games, cartoons and so forth. (Tompkins, 2003; Bryant and Thompson, 2002). The effects of TV violence are pervasive due to its popularity...
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Delaying Tactics Used by Lawyers in Dispensation of Civil Justice in Lower Courts of Pakistan
IntroductionA state may not be called a state in its true sense, if it has failed to discharge its functions concerning the administration of justice (Chaudhry, 2012). Justice is indispensable for upholding property rights, enforcing contracts between...
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Corporal Punishment as a Means of Discipline for Children (A Case Study of District Nowshera, Kpk - Pakistan)
IntroductionCorporal punishment can be defined as "any act of parents or caretaker which intended to cause physical pain or injury for the purposes of correction and control" (Cohen, 1978). Whipping children by means of rods or sticks or hitting with...
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Dynamics of Gender Based Violence: Investigating the Effects of Violence in Pakistani School on School Dropout and Loss of Creativity among Students
IntroductionThe effects of violence at school could be ascertained by unearthing students' perception, for example, through asking about whether they consider violence as normal or consider it inimical to their development and education. Research by...
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Crime and Insurgency in FATA: A Public Perception Survey of Khyber Agency
IntroductionAt this time Pakistan is the worst hit country by terrorism. No city or area is beyond the reach of the militant extremists in carrying out terrorist activities that include suicide attacks, bomb blasts, target killings and kidnappings. No...
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Testing the Vires of Protection of Pakistan Act (PPA), 2014 on the Touchstone of Constitution
IntroductionThe Protection of Pakistan Act 2014 has been the subject of intense debate/criticism, often referred to as black law/draconian measure, which impinges the individual's most cherished fundamental rights/freedoms. Having said so, however, there...
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The Nexus of Legal Institution with Child Trafficking from the Perspective of Experts and Policy Analysts of Peshawar
IntroductionChild trafficking is a modern day slavery which prevails in both developed and developing countries with variation in its magnitude and causes (ILO, 2002). The factors associated with and contributing towards this menace are numerous which...
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Vol. 6, No. 1, 2014

A Critical Discourse of Child Victimization and Abuses through Labor in Pakistan
IntroductionBased on variation in contexts, multiple discourses have their own approaches towards defining child labor and victimization (Mazhar, 2008, Khan, 2014). There are marked differences in the use of the term child labor due to differences in...
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The Economic Position of Family and Its Relationship with Child Trafficking: A Study from the Perspective of Policy Analysts and Experts
IntroductionThe factors associated with the vulnerability of children to trafficking have been analyzed by researchers in different regions and cultures of the world. The demographic information of the victims mostly represents their belonging to a family...
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Causes for Delay in Civil Justice in Lower Courts of Pakistan: A Review
IntroductionJustice means to specify basic rights and duties and to determine the appropriate distributive shares (Rawls, 1971). Within the context of the rule of law, the notion of justice presumes an egalitarian society. An egalitarian society can...
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The Role of Internet Use in the Adoption of Deviant Behavior among University Students
(ProQuest: ... denotes formula omitted.)IntroductionEvery society has some standard of right and wrong for the guidance of their members called norms(Horton and Hunt 1984). Violation of these norms is known as "deviance",which ranges from a harmless...
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The Level of Distress among the Victims of War and Terrorism and the Role of Psychological Interventions in Their Rehabilitation
IntroductionSince time immemorial, especially the twentieth century, the world has experienced terrorism in different forms, faces and with varying different expressions. Therefore, we know that terrorism is not a modern trend. Undoubtedly, a terrorism...
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The Crime of Rape and the Hanafi Doctrine of Siyasah
IntroductionOne of the most contentious issues in the modern debate on Islamic Criminal Law is that of rape1. As this offence involves sexual intercourse, the jurists had to discuss its implications in relation to the hadd of zina (illicit sexual intercourse)2....
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Disaster Relief Corruption A Case Study of Balakot Town
IntroductionAsia is the biggest continent of the planet with four billion souls comprising 60% of the world population and covers over 29% of the planet land area. The continent is subdivided into three major chunks of Southeast Asia, Southwest Asia...
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Political Stability of Afghanistan: A Prerequisite for Stability of Pakistan and South Asia
IntroductionPolitical stability of Afghanistan is a prerequisite for peace of South Asia in general and Pakistan in particular. It is the most unfortunate tragedy of contemporary history that the state of Afghanistan and its people have been seething...
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Causes of Violence against Women in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa
IntroductionThe United Nations (2001) define violence against women as 'any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary...
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Policing Money Laundering: A Case Study of Afghanistan
Defining and Meaning of Money LaunderingMoney laundering is a financial crime and is an old phenomenon (Buchanan, 2004). However, as a specific crime, it did not enter into legal context until 1986 (Daley, 2000). The term 'money laundering' was first...
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Criminal Ideation: The Role of Personal Growth and Criminality
IntroductionThe purpose of the study was to explore the relationship of personal growth level towards criminality among adult offenders. From the overall view of the literature on self transcendence and its relation to well-being, it appears that in...
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Culture Distortion and the Rise of Militancy in Swat
IntroductionIn not so distant past, the Swat Valley of Pakistan was known for its relatively calm, peaceful and prosperous environment. However, completely inverse picture was observed in the same valley in the first decade of this century. The foundations...
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Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR) and Writ of the State: A Study on Local People's Perception in Khyber Agency
IntroductionFrontier Crime Regulation (FCR) was first introduced as law in series at different times in 1871 and 1876 in tribal areas and then extended to some other parts of Pakistan in 1901, conferring judicial power on the administrative officers....
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Global Anti-Money Laundering Regime and Pakistan
IntroductionMoney laundering undermines the stability of financial systems and the integrity of markets. It corrupts institutions, government officials and the private sector and challenges the rule of law, economies and national security. It is a global...
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Editorial
Pakistan Society of Criminology has been working day in and day out to expand criminology to Pakistan. PSC is not only interested in the expansion of criminological research, but also in the overall expansion of other faculties of knowledge.Many predict...
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Policing Financial Crime: Challenges in White-Collar Defense Lawyer Strategies
IntroductionBaitar et al. (2012) argue that the only responsibility of a lawyer in the Western legal tradition is to maximize the interests of his or her own client without regard to the impact on the client's opponent or on law enforcement. When white-collar...
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The Costs of the War on Terrorism: Revisiting the Methodology Used for Cost Estimation in Pakistan
IntroductionIn the backdrop of the All Parties Conference (APC) convened by the Government of Pakistan on 9th September, 2013, it is appropriate to revisit the question of the costs and benefits of the war on terror for Pakistan. For policy makers, there...
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Sufferings of Families Who Became Victims of Bomb Blasts and Suicide Attacks in Pakistan: A Case Study of Three Cities
IntroductionTerrorism and violence are harmful for human life and property and creates a high degree of insecurity in a society. The former is an organized effort that creates panic in a community while the later may be an organized or unorganized effort...
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Students' Perspective on Corporal Punishment: A Case Study of High Schools Students in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
IntroductionPunishment for disciplining is a centuries old practice that has and is prevalent in almost all cultures and societies. Corporal punishment has been a part of the education culture not only in Pakistan but the entire Indo-Pak subcontinent...
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Cross Cultural Variations in Attitude towards Use of Psychological Support among Police Officers
IntroductionPsychological stress resulting from police work is often inevitable due to the nature of the work. However, preparedness and appropriate support considerably reduce the risk and vulnerability for physical/psychological ailments. Dominant...
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Vol. 5, No. 2, July-December

Editors' Introduction
This is a general issue of the Pakistan Journal of Criminology. It consists of 17 original research papers that examine such diverse topics as policing, terrorism, research orientations, concepts of crime, juvenile justice, and child protection.The first...
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Leveraging Change: Developing a Gender Niche in Policing in Pakistan
Setting the ContextMaking a visible and sustainable impact in the domain of equality between women and men seeks commitment and capacity from all the cooperation partners to conceive and execute result oriented development interventions. Gender reforms...
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Female Police Officers and Use of Firearms in the New York City Police Department
Introduction and Literature ReviewIt is apparent that when police officers use their weapons, whether on or off duty, the effects can be far reaching. Policing is one of the few professions where one can legally take a life. As Fyfe has stated, "...no...
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Urban V. Rural: Measuring Collective Efficacy in Two Different Populations
The Southern Ute Indian Community Safety Survey was funded by a grant from the United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (No. 2001-3277-CA-B J). The views and opinions expressed herein are those of the author and do not necessarily...
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The History and Development of Probation Service in Pakistan and in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
The Background of Probation in PakistanThe probation system in Pakistan started in the 1960s, at a time when probation was known and practised in most developed countries of the world. F or example, the statutory probation was already introduced in most...
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Jirga System in Pakhtun Society: An Informal Mechanism for Dispute Resolution
IntroductionJirga means 'an assembly, meeting of a party for consultation, and a sort of democratic council.' According to the Pashto Descriptive Dictionary jirga is an original Pashto word, which in its common usage refers to the gathering of a few,...
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Pakhtun Cultural Values, Terrorism and the Contextual Meaning of Violence
IntroductionThe issue of exploring the causal relationship between terrorism and the Pakhtun cultural values is a complex phenomenon. Two things are important to understand the question in hand: First, to locate the violence, if any, in the cultural...
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Application of Demographic Variables in Measuring the Perception of Child Trafficking in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
IntroductionChildren, from futuristic perspective, are the endowment of anation. However, being weak, they are dependent on society for their growth and grooming. The fragile and careless society put them in such a situation that distorts their psychological...
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Gender Role Perception and Exposure to Violence at Schools: A Study of Selected Schools in District Mardan & Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
IntroductionSocial role perceptions occupy strategic position in the development effects on children. A child is generally presumed to be guided by his/her socialization and indoctrination in peer group, including his/her response to violence. Even school...
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Correlates of Resilience in Police Officers from England and Pakistan: A Cross National Study
IntroductionTrauma is an unpredictable emotional response to an unpleasant event (Vincent, 2004). It is likely to experience shock or denial immediately after the incident/experience. Other emotional experiences include flashback memories, vulnerability...
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Perceptions of Middle Aged Men and Women about Women Killers
IntroductionCrimes, especially violent crimes seemed to be termed as men's business throughout the human history, for women are perceived in a stereotypical way of being kind, polite , humble , dependent and passive. Violence in women involves multiple...
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An Analysis of the Probable Association between Narcissistic Personality Disorder and a Rage-Type Murder Event (Part 1)
Narcissism is a phenomenon dating back to the Greek myth of Narcissus. The myth portrays the fate of a man who was so in love with himself, he completely withdrew from the world (Ehrlich, 2000; Fine, 1986). In simple terms, narcissism can be described...
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The Role of Narcissistic Personality Disorder in Rage-Type Murder (Part 2)
IntroductionIn Part one of the study rage-type murders as a phenomenon was delineated and NPD was defined. The literature pertaining to the association between rage-type murder and NPD was highlighted. A current case that signaled the probable processes...
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Motivations for Pakistani Religious Extremists to Become Terrorists
1. Motives of Individuals and Groups to Employ TerrorismTerrorism may be a rational choice from the standpoint of the terrorists but the strategy is not rational as such. Here rational means that terrorism is employed by individuals and groups after...
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Local Peace Committees: Potentials Contributing Factors in the Peace-Building Process in Conflict-Affected Areas of Pakistan {A Case Study of Maidan, (Lower Dir) in the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa}
1. IntroductionToday, conflict destroys societies and peace is the dire need of the Globe. Peoge (2007) notes that today's many conflicts are of a hybrid nature so peace-building and conflict transformation also need to be of a hybrid nature, both the...
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Current and Emerging Threat of Terrorism in South Asia
I would like to give this message to all oppressed Muslims living in all of South Asia, including Burma, Sri Lanka and India, that news of your condition makes our hearts bleed. But at the same time, our Jihad against America and its proxies for freeing...
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Improving Interdisciplinary Research on Policing and Security
IntroductionI want to draw together two recent publications to reflect on their implications for research on policing and security. The publications are a report written for the Australian Council of Learned Academies entitled Strengthening Interdisciplinary...
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Amendments to Anti-Terrorism Law of Pakistan: An Overview
IntroductionThe basic legislation on terrorism in Pakistan is Anti-Terrorism Act, 1997 (ATA). It is a special legislation with both substantive as well as procedural provisions of law. In 2013, two amendment packages were introduced to ATA namely the...
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International Crime and Its Subsequent Development
What is an International Crime?A "Crime" is an act that violates a political or moral law while an "International Crime" means an act which is recognised by the International community as a crime. It is essential for the International Crime that a criminal...
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Pakistan's Child Protection Legislative and Policy Frameworks: A Critical Review
IntroductionIn Pakistan, children experience a variety of potential and actual risks to their safety and well-being in a wide range of situations. These situations may include, but are not limited to, physical abuse of a child at the hand of an adult...
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