Journal of Cultural Research in Art Education (Online)

Articles

Vol. 36, No. 3, 2019

Chaos, Conflict and Confusion: Cross-Cutting Issues of Whiteness in Visual Representations of the Brother on the Downlow
Cross-cutting Issues in DL and Black MasculinitiesThis paper builds on the literature and seeks to explore the ways in which Black male sexualities, broadly, and Black gay male identities, specifically, is and has been negotiated in visual culture in...
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Re|Centering Indigenous Arts in Art Education: Decolonizing Identity Politics, Censorship, and Home
"Sometimes being white and writing sympathetically about artists of color, you feel you're damned if you do, and damned if you don't, and the only way to continue is to be willing to have your foot in your mouth half of the time."Lippard, 2008, p. 128"(I)ndian,...
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Editorial: Whiteness and Art Education
"The white power bloc develops a bag of tricks to mask its social location, making use of disguises, euphemisms, silences, and avoidances" (Steinberg & Kincheloe, 2009, p. 16).In my graduate course, "Critical Analysis of Multicultural Art Education,"...
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White Lies: Unraveling Whiteness in the Elementary Art Curriculum
Lying is done with words, and also silence.Adrienne RichArt educators are embedded in the daily work of curating knowledge, spinning stories into lessons, and drawing inspiration from art history. This process is highly subjective and the weight of our...
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Whiteness, Artist Identities, and Artworld Spaces
Whiteness, Artist Identities, and Artworld SpacesAt the 2018 Art Education Research Institute (AERI) panel, "Race and Racism in 21st Century Art Education," with Joni Acuff, B. Stephen Carpenter, Amelia Kraehe, Michelle Bae Dimitriadis, and Rubén Gaztambide-Fernández,...
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Disrupting White Vision: Pedagogical Strategies against White Supremacy
White Supremacy in the ClassroomDuring a critique in a first-year university studio art course, the class was discussing an artwork created by a young woman. She used inexpensive common objects one would find in a grocery store to create her piece, including...
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A Museum in Progress: The Practice of White Accompliceship with African Exhibitions
Art museums are institutions that preserve collections of artifacts and creative works that hold cultural, artistic, and historical significance. Such institutions often have a mission to share these important works with the public through permanent...
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Vol. 36, No. 2, 2019

Swaddled
We (Diane Kuthy and Olivia Robinson) met through Baltimore Racial Justice Action (BRJA), an educational and activist group which has been going strong in Baltimore, Maryland, USA for over fifteen years. BRJA fights against racism and other intersecting...
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Rising above Pain: An Autoethnographic Study on Teaching Social Justice as a Female Teacher of Color
With the increasing attention to social justice, there have been an abundance of studies discussing theories and practices of art education for diversity and social justice. According to the study conducted by Milbrandt, Miraglia, and Zimmerman (2018),...
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Editorial: Whiteness and Art Education
Whiteness is a complex, hegemonic, and dynamic set of mainstream socio-economic processes, and ways of thinking, feeling, believing, and acting (cultural scripts) that function to obscure the power, privilege, and practices of the dominant social elite....
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White Warnings
IntroductionIn this paper, I reckon with my efforts to understand how, why, and whether I should tell the story of my complicities in white racism as an art educator and researcher. Through auto-ethnographic research, I discovered how discourses of whiteness...
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Becoming a Woman of Color
Becoming a Woman of ColorI was born to Latin-American parents and raised in Miami, Florida. In 2014, I moved to Baltimore, Maryland, a mid-sized urban city, to teach at a well-known art college. Living in this new city created experiences, or encounters,...
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Reclaiming the Archives: White Supremacy and Testimonials of Resistance in an Art & Design College
In this article, we trace a history of white supremacy in our art and design college by unearthing racist images in our archival library textbooks and identifying the presence of such history as a defining legacy. We then describe a video intervention...
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Coloring in the Space
She colored the grass blue.As if sun could sweepunder her feet. Lift heras droplets into air,into wide sky without frame.Carry her to better,to anywhere else but here.When my niece was in kindergarten, her teacher offered her a coloring worksheet, a...
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Whiteness Is
Whiteness1 Is a Force in Art EducationWhiteness is and has been a powerful force in education, especially within art education. In art education, the racial and gender disparities of both the art world and the realm of education intersect creating a...
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Vol. 36, No. 1, 2019

"The Team Is All White": Reflections of Art Educators of Color on Whiteness
This article discusses how Whiteness impacts the discipline of education, and in particular, art education. We posit Critical Race Theory (CRT) (Crenshaw et al., 1995) as a critique of the prevailing dominant racial construct of Whiteness. CRT aids our...
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The White Supremacy of Art Education in the United States: My Complicity and Path toward Reparation Pedagogy
Teachers are often among the group most reluctant to acknowledge the extent to which white supremacist thinking informs every aspect of our culture including the way we learn, the content of what we learn, and the manner in which we are taught.bell hooks,...
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The Invisible Standard of White Skin
I am a white, female artist-teacher working in the northwestern United States. My artistic inquiry investigates cultural contexts around women, mothering, and whiteness in the U.S. middle class. The artworks highlighted in this paper aim to guide viewers...
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Editorial: Whiteness and Art Education
Whiteness is a racial discourse, whereas the category "white people" represents a socially constructed identity, usually based on skin colour. (Leonardo, 2009, p.169). White-ness, in this sense, refers to a set of assumptions, beliefs, and practices...
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On Whiteness and Becoming Warm Demanders
Perfection is a stick with which to beat the possible.Rebecca Solnit, 2016, p. 77IntroductionJoni Acuff's call for this special issue forthrightly directs White art educators "to more critically and intentionally engage in race work (Acuff, 2018, p....
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Reflecting on a Paradigm of Solidarity? Moving from Niceness to Dismantle Whiteness in Art Education
A note to the reader: As you read this essay, you'll notice several unconventional notes in the text. I have included the comments of one of the reviewers as they provide important markers of the ways in which the very whiteness I am trying to write...
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Pre-Service Art Education: Examining Constructions of Whiteness In/through Visual Culture
Over the last decade, educators and researchers interested in social justice education have concerned themselves with centering the study of Whiteness in their work (Bonilla-Silva, 2001; Delgado & Stefancic, 1997; DiAngelo, 2012; Lipsitz, 1995)....
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Displacing Whiteness in the Arts and Education: Dialogues in Action
In July 2017, Arts House in Melbourne, Australia1 held an event titled, "Art & Action: Displacing Whiteness in the Arts." The discussion was hosted and developed by invited Latinx artist-researcher Tania Cañas, in collaboration with Arts House producer...
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Exploring Manifestations of White Supremacy Culture in Art Museum Education and Interpretation
IntroductionThis paper is co-authored by two art museum educators and art education scholar-practitioners; one is a Black biracial Trinidadian and the other a White American. This paper looks at Afro-Caribbean art and culture, and explores the impact...
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Vol. 35, 2018

Art Practice as Research: A Global Perspective
While there is no consensus theorizing art practice, art practice as research (APR) can be a site for knowledge construction and meaning making, situated in global systems, communities, and cultures. These global systems are not homogenous but represent...
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Global Consciousness in Art Education: Utility and Problematics of Curriculum Development within a Critical Postmodern Relational Praxis
Aesthetics is of necessity concerned with differences in the ways of sensing and seeing that distinguish artists, tastes, and sensibilities.Gaining mastery of the whole of "global aesthetics" may be an unachievable goal-but learning more is not so difficult....
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Dis/locating Comfort Women Statues: Reflections on Colonialism and Implications for Global Art Education
Over the years, the issue of comfort women has received increased attention. "Comfort women" is a euphemism for the girls and women who were forced into sexual servitude for the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during WWII. Although this issue may seem to...
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Teach Me Your Arctic: Place-Based Intercultural Approaches in Art Education
My work as an art educator at the University of Lapland (UoL)1 is largely connected to the multilayered context of the Arctic. Its features, cultures, and circumstances blended with global perspectives lay the groundwork for the art practices we carry...
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Art as a Global Necessity: MoMA's International Children's Art Carnival as a Catalyst for Globalization
Anthropological and philosophical studies suggest that art is common to every culture, everywhere, throughout time (Langer, 1966). This description makes art in itself borderless. Art has a deep connection to the human experience as it "satisfies the...
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An Indigenous Reframing of Art Education Historical Research: Acknowledging Native American Spiritual Values
In June of 2017, I participated in the Cherokee ceremony known as Going to Water. I stepped in to the cool creek water in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. My feet hurt from the sharp stones in the creek bed. Led by Cherokee traditionalists, I stumbled my way through...
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Enabling the 'Other Community' through Creative Pedagogies for Urban Renewal: Exploring the Affiliation between Contemporary Art Practices and Democratic Values
It is important to "explore the notion of 'community' in order to understand in more detail what it means to come into a world populated by others who are not like us" (Biesta, 2006, p. 69).A Community of ArtScapersArtScapers is a project located at...
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Down the Rabbit-Hole: Girlhood, #Metoo, and the Culture of Blame
You wait little girl on an empty stageFor fate to turn the light onYour life little girl is an empty pageThat men will want to write on(Song lyrics, Rogers & Hammerstein, Sixteen Going on Seventeen, 1959)Art education research is often driven by...
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Facilitating Productive Encounters with Difference: A Visual Essay
AUTHOR NOTE: In this visual essay, the term "difference" is broadly defined and should provoke multiple interpretations. Nevertheless, relating this term to specific topics such as differing value systems or socio-cultural characteristics positions the...
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Disrupting the Colonial Globe and Engaging in Border Thinking: An Art Educator's Critical Analysis and Reflection on (de)Colonial Discourses in Global Art Narratives
This essay started from a critical reflection on my own experience and through an understanding of my situation as an in-betweener who has been discussing culture and diversity in my teaching and work.1 As Gramsci (1971) notes, I am a historical being...
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Educating Diversely: The Artist Talk Platform
Within the current North American political climate, polarized opinions on immigration policies and laws have created an atmosphere of fear and distrust, especially for displaced persons. Immigrant populations are regularly subject to hate and violence...
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From Cultural Tolerance to Mutual Cultural Respect: An Asian Artist's Perspective on Virtual World Cultural Appropriation
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)I have been conducting visual culture research in virtual worlds for ten years (Han, 2010, 2013, 2016a, 2016b, 2017) and have found that a unique culture exists, which I call "Third Culture." This Third...
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K-Pop and Critical Multicultural Art Education
As a former public school art teacher in a rural county in the U.S., I frequently encountered superficial presentations of cultures. I remember one instance walking into a second grade classroom and seeing a Korean doll in the corner during "China week."...
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Global Narratives of Refugee Youth: Examining the Interwoven Strands of an Interdisciplinary Arts Process
When I looked into the possibility of an arts-based service-learning partnership with a local organization that supports refugee youth at a nearby city high school, coming across the student newspaper headline: "Fear and Miscommunication Keeping ESOL...
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Editorial – Borderless: Global Narratives in Art Education
Who are we in relationship to other cultures and countries? What issues in art education are potent across the world? How can art educators address issues and teach with a narrative of "being global?" This issue's theme, Borderless: Global Narratives...
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To Know or to Understand One Another: Developing New Identities through International Teaching
The moment I step into the stairwell of my apartment building, I become an other. I am a particularly tall, large, and cisgender woman from the United States of America. I often hear locals refer to me as "meiguó" in Mandarin, meaning United States of...
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Vol. 34, 2017

Blue Educator in a Red State: Creating Spaces of Purple Empathy through Civil Bipartisan Discourse
"How can we talk about anything else - when it's all anyone is thinking about?"- Anonymous studentThe 2016 American Presidential Election conjures many opinions, debates, beliefs, emotions, and memories for those who experienced it. As a highly publicized...
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Editorial: The New Culture Wars
This issue's mini-theme and resulting articles address implications for art education during a time of political chaos and cultural division in the United States. When we (the editors of this journal) put out the call for this "New Culture Wars" mini-theme...
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Organizing for Arts-Based Social Action in the Helping Professions
There are several principal ways of organizing arts-based social action in the helping professions. These professions involve teaching, counseling, social work, and psychology, as well as professions more commonly aligned with health, such as nursing....
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Beyond Identity Politics: The New Culture Wars and Art Education
The November, 2016 US election results, in which the fiscal and socially conservative republican team of Donald Trump and Mike Pence became the president and vice president elect, sent shockwaves and surprise across the country and the world. As artists,...
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Bullied Students in the Arts: Psychiatric Sequelae and Response to Interactive Theater
School-based bullying, which may lead to a number of behavioral and emotional problems (Juvonen, Graham, & Schuster, 2003), is defined as an intentional and repeated form of aggression toward individuals who are unable to defend themselves (Andreou,...
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The Ninth Art versus the Tenth Art: Visualizing Conflicting Worldviews between Comics and Screens
The talking pig-nosed character is, according to Daniel, a self-portrait. This is reinforced by the "rat-tail" of hair visibly sticking out from behind the character's head below the speech balloon on the left, a characteristic hair style shared by both...
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Contemporary Culture Wars: Challenging the Legacy of the Confederacy
Since before the inception of the United States and continuing until today, issues of equity have been an ongoing struggle. The struggle for equity takes many contemporary forms, including the criminal justice system, the school-to-prison (or cradle-to-prison)...
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An Invitation: Multicultural Art and Visual Learning in Elementary Education
In the call for this special issue of the Journal of Cultural Research in Art Education, the editors noted that the definition of "culture" has changed over time. Rather than historical definitions of "good taste," broader and more recent definitions...
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Review: Arts Integration in Education: Teachers and Teaching Artists as Agents of Change - Theory Impact Practice
Acknowledging the current educational climate, the editors and authors in this volume display the varying means through which art integration can serve as a tangible, focused means of art education that both supports creative and committed learning within...
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Renewed Culture Wars and Their Malcontent: How to Engage with a Culture of Disillusionment
It was the middle of summer; we were in the midst of a major heat wave; and I was sitting at a restaurant across the table from my senior colleague. He hesitantly asked, "Should I even ask how writing is going?""Disillusioned... I am in a state of disillusionment,"...
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Vol. 33, 2016

Editorial: Media in a ^Strike-Through Post^-Racial Society
Promises and hopes for a better sodety and future often sustain our lives. Howe ve i; false hopes and unrealistic and misconceived expectations survive only temporarily with hype that simply covers and disguises reality like a bubble. Historically the...
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Fostering Dialogue in a ^Strike-Through Post^-Racial Society
In response to the journal theme Media in a Post-Racial Society, I reflected upon my attempts at teaching university students about race and how it operates in contemporary society'. Because of the need for greater cultural understanding among teachers...
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The Need for Visibility and Voice of Sami People in Art Education
I spent the. first six months of 2013 in Finland, and during this time I focused my research on how the Sami people (the Indigenous people of northern Europe) are represented in Finnish public schools and how Sami people want to be represented in Finnish...
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Rumi: A Cosmopolitan Counter-Narrative to Islamophobia
In July 2012, a fourteen-minute amateur film called the "Innocence of Muslims" was released on Youtube, depicting Prophet Muhammad as "a womanizer, a homosexual, a child molester and a greedy, bloodthirsty thug" (Kirkpatrick, 2012). This resulted in...
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Media Resistance and Resiliency Revealed in Contemporary Native Art: Implications for Art Educators
Historic and contemporary media misrepresentations of Native North American people in visual/popular culture-such as Edward Curtis's photographs, Wild West Shows, exhibits in museums, Boy Scout and school enactments, art, literature, toys, cartoons,...
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Why Is It Not Just a Joke? Analysis of Internet Memes Associated with Racism and Hidden Ideology of Colorblindness
Overt Jim Crow racism is rarely found in public discourse; there has been a decline in overt racist talk (Bonilla-Silva, 2006). This might explain why one of my students challenged me about showing racist Disney movie clips in a college art class. The...
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Teaching for Respect and Understanding of Difference: Social Media and Contemporary Art as Vehicles for Addressing Racism
As a middle-aged Black woman artist / educator, racism has been a part of my life for as long as I can remember. Having grown up in the protective bubble of Washington, DC, aka "Chocolate City," I did not consciously encounter Black-White racism until...
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Investigating Race and Racism through African American Art and Artists
According to the New York Post on December 5, 2015, Mr. Joseph filed a lawsuit in the Manhattan Supreme Court to sue the Metropolitan Museum of Art (Met) for showing four "racist paintings" by Italian masters - The Crucifixion by Francesco Granacd; The...
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Media Arts Education in the ^Strike-Through Post^-Racial Classroom: An Interview with Janaya Greene about the Short Film, Veracity
"The consequence of the single story is this: It robs people of dignity. It makes our recognition of our equal humanity difficult. It emphasizes how we are different, rather than how we are similar." -Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, The Danger of a Single...
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Vol. 32, Summer

Editorial Introduction
The Journal of Cultural Research in Art Education's volume 32 features a group of three articles on the topic of remix and another seven on a range of critical cultural topics in contemporary art and visual culture and its education. The editorial for...
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Tangling in Remix
The term remix has been flowing in and out of our awareness for years. A colleague in graduate school used the term to describe his research. Darden used the term with her mother when discussing a partially failed piecrust recipe. Her daughter, laughing...
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(re)Mixing Girlhood
IntroductionIn this article, we employ a feminist framework to theorize girls' acts of popular media remixing as spaces for productive disruption of the dominant images and discourses about girls and girlhood, and examine our (re)Mixed Media project...
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Remixing the Released Imagination
IntroductionIn this paper, I use a DJ-inspired approach to arts-based educational research that borrows from found poetry analysis (Wiggins, 2011) to remix passages from Maxine Greene's (1995) Releasing the Imagination. I developed this methodology in...
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Mythical Beings and Becoming: Emerging Identities of Art Educators in India
Myth and Becoming in the Context of Indian Art Educator IdentityVedanta, a school of Hindu philosophy, is often presented in narrative forms that greatly influence Indian ontology throughout history within and beyond Hinduism. These narratives, including...
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Materializing Transversal Potential: An Ecosophical Analysis of the Dissensual Aestheticization of a Decommissioned Missile Base
IntroductionOur survival on this planet is not only threatened by environmental damage but by a degeneration in the social solidarity and in the modes of psychical life, which must literally be reinvented. The re-foundation of politics will have to pass...
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The Spaces in Which We Appear to Each Other: The Pedagogy of Resistance Stories in Zines by Asian American Riot Grrrls
IntroductionIn 1991, members of Bikini Kill, a punk band based in Olympia, Washington, released the zine Bikini Kill #2. In its pages, The Riot Grrrl Manifesto appeared for the first time. Typed across an 5.5 by 8.5 inch page, the manifesto begins, "Riot...
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Dumarka Soomaaliyeed Voices Unveiled: Undoing the Hijab Narrative through a Participatory Photography Exhibition
IntroductionHere in Columbus, we are at a crossroads. People still don't know what to make of us. They've gotten used to the fact that Somalis live here, but there is still a misunderstanding that inhibits any kind of progress as far as getting to know...
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Art Education as Exhibition: Reconceptualizing Cultural History in Singapore through an Art Response to Ah Ku and Karayuki-San Prostitution
IntroductionIn introducing their anthology Remembering Others .-Making Invisible Histories of Art Education Visible, Bolin, Blandy and Congdon (2000) wrote,The purpose of this anthology is to introduce art educators, and other professionals concerned...
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A Special Mountain Place and Sunrise Ceremony for Apache Students
IntroductionIn this study, the researcher aims to inquire about what it might be like to live on the Apache Reservation from the perspective of a child. I spent a day with the children at the St. Charles Mission School in Arizona and they drew their...
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Vol. 31, 2014

"Don't Judge Me. What Would You Do?" Dialogue through a Youth-Made Film
IntroductionThis visual essay focuses on the ways in which a 17-year-old First Nations filmmaker Adam1 engages with complex issues of identity and belonging through his short film. Through a narrative analysis of the film along with the participant's...
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Constructing, Performing, and Perceiving Identity(ies) in the Place of Online Art Education
Playing with how one's identity is presented online is a relatively recent form of identity performance that has important implications for art education (Garoian & Gaudelius, 2004). As the spatial boundaries of art classrooms expand through the...
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In/Visibility of the Abandoned School: Beyond Representations of School Closure
Description of the ProjectIn/Visibility of the Abandoned School is a practice-led form of visual inquiry whereby knowledge is generated from a closed school because it is a de-institutionalized, de-commissioned, and empty place that has not yet been...
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Linking Art and Geography Education: A Museum Model for Elementary and Middle Schools
Spatial relationships are common concerns of art and geography educators yet the interfaces of the two disciplines are rarely explored. The Kreeger Museum in Washington, DC has initiated a program that connects art and geography by emphasizing the role...
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Unraveling the Yarn: Self-Reflection, Critical Incidents, and Missteps Leading to Continued Growth as a Culturally Sensitive Art Educator
The willingness and ability of teachers to reflect on their own practices, dedsion-making, potential biases, and socially responsible actions has been shown to be a positive influence on educators' professional growth (Danielson, 2009). While such reflection...
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Problems Related to the Practice of Video Education in Japan
How should video education be taught in Japan? To answer this question, one must first understand the current state of media literacy in Japan, since both subjects are closely related. Literacy can refer to one's ability to read and write, in addition...
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Vol. 30, 2012

Editorial Introduction
Is the Tower of Babel to be understood as a curse upon humankind or as a wealth of diversity? In art and visual culture education, were we to discuss it, the latter interpretation would prevail, for we have a long and deep engagement with valuing diverse...
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Superhero Comic Books as Frameworks of Inclusivity and Advocacy for Youth with Disabilities
IntroductionDuring August of 2010, the Open Hands Initiative along with the Victor Pineda Foundation and Liquid Comics organized a three-day Youth Ability Summit in Damascus, Syria. This cross-cultural event generated collaborations between Syrian and...
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Taiwanese Undergraduates' Digital Story Quests for Art Treasures in Second Life
Description of the ProjectDigital Storytelling is a process of constructing a story in a digital experiential space (Sanchez, 2009). In this study, digital stories were constructed in the virtual world of Second Life [SL]. Second Life is one of the most...
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Public Culture and Heritage: A Beijing Based Field School
In this article, based on practitioner research, we describe strategies for extending the traditional place-based model of the field school for the purpose of engaging learners across geographic, disciplinary, cultural, and technological domains. We...
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"How Will You Do This?" Infusing Multiculturalism throughout Art Teacher Education Programs
"How Will You Do This?"During my dissertation defense, I passionately declared that I would create multicultural art education experiences in which students questioned power structures, identified personal biases, promoted equity, and learned empathy...
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Examining Fair Trade as an Art Education Opportunity
IntroductionFor decades, art educators have advocated for social justice and equality in the classroom, within their communities, and at national and international scholarly assemblies. As a field we have expanded and developed ways to educate through...
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Asian Immigrant Women's Emotional Reflection on Artworks
IntroductionHow do you feel when you are a new arrival in a foreign country? You might experience feelings of excitement or curiosity but also unfamiliarity or loneliness at the same time. The number of immigrants in the U.S. has increased from 9.6 million...
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