The Journal of Central Asian Studies

Articles

Vol. 23, No. 1, 2016

RESOURCE GEO-POLITICS IN CENTRAL ASIA: From Conflict to Cooperation
IntroductionHydrocarbon and water resources are perhaps today the most dominating resources effecting both geo-economy and geo-polity of the world.1 While civilizations bloomed around rivers, energy resources converted them into modern developed hi-tech...
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Impact of Climate on Cereal Crop Production in Turkmenistan
IntroductionBeing located in dry continental climatic zone, Turkmenistan can be divided into well demarcated four climatic sub-zones, i.e. a) Lower Amu Darya; b) Northern Karakum; c) Southern Karakum and d) South-east Karakum. The weather parameters...
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Geoeconomic Resurgence of Silk Road and India's Central Asian Strategy
IntroductionThe collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequent emergence of independent countries in Central Asia transformed the geopolitical balance on the Eurasian supercontinent. "The southern border of the USSR was the longest and most closed border...
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Growth and Technological Change in Kazakhstan Economy
AbstractIn this paper an attempt has been made to make use of a relevant methodology for growth accounting exercise in natural resource abundant economy, Kazakhstan, from 1991-2014. Growth accounting involves breaking down GDP growth into the contribution...
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Dynamics of Soviet Educational Model in Central Asian Republics
IntroductionEducation throughout ages has pre-eminently served as an ameliorative agent for bringing improvement, development and change in every society. Reckoning the importance of education as a core channel of economic and political transformation,...
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SIGNIFICANCE OF STONE BOWLS AND SADDLE QUERNS: A Case Study of Archaeological Sites in North-West Kashmir
Description of StonewareStone BowlsThe stone bowls were collected from nine sites (3.2, 4.5, 5.1, 6.5, 7.5, 8.4, 8.5, 9.4, and 15.1) in north-west Kashmir (Figs. 1&2). Two shades of Panjal trap (volcanic rock of which the Palaeolithic and the Neolithic...
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QAJAR WOMEN: The Pioneers of Modern Women Education in Persia
IntroductionStruggling behind the closed doors at home and prohibited from every facility i.e. education, training and social life women were treated as mindless beings in pre-Qajar Persia. They were confined to a life of household drudgery and child-bearing,...
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POST-INDEPENDENCE DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES IN UZBEKISTAN: A Regional Analysis
Demographic Changes in UzbekistanAs a result of political, economic and social transformation in Uzbekistan following its independence in 1991, the country has experienced major demographic changes over the past more than one and a half decade. The major...
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Socio-Cultural Reform Movement in Central Asia
First of all, it is essential to throw light on the socio-cultural and political situation in Central Asia during the 19th century which prepared the ground for reform movement in the region. If we look at these conditions, we find that prior to Russian...
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Central Asian Migrations and Kushan Material Culture in Kashmir
Origin and the Early ConquestsThe name Kushan occurs in several slightly different forms in various Indian and Central Asian sources. In the Indian Kharoshthi inscriptions it is written as "Gushana"1, Kushana2, Kursana3 and Kusana4. The Chinese version...
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TOURISM MODEL OF J&K STATE: A Study of Conflict on Macroeconomic Variables
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)IntroductionContemporary growth of tourism1 is the gradual consequence of the increase of wealth in societies and the greater availability of goods and services that were once considered to be luxury. Tourism...
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US POLICY TOWARDS POST-2014 AFGHANISTAN: Achievements and Emerging Parameters
IntroductionUnited States entered in Afghanistan in October 2001 to dismantle, disrupt and retaliate from Taliban and to make Afghanistan a stable state.1 Alongwith international community, United States served thirteen years with multiple objectives...
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SCHOLARSHIP AS HERITAGE: Commonness between India and Central Asia
Kautilya at the SourceKautilya or Chanakya, as he is otherwise known, was an Indian scholar counselor to the kings of his time. As a mastermind of statecrafthe wrote immortal injunctions to run a perfect state. His teachings have outlived the onslaught...
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ENVIRONMENTAL GEOPOLITICS: Kazakh - China Hydropolitics over Lake Balkhash Basin
Background of the StudyEnvironmental politics can be seen as relationships between global political forces and environmental change, with reference to the implications of local global interactions for environmental management and the implications for...
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Challenges of Democratic Transition in Tajikistan
IntroductionThe induction of liberal democracy following the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991, ushered the beginning of transition in Tajikistan. The newly established liberal political system, unlike the previous Socialist political system, permitted...
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INDO-IRAN RELATIONS: Reassessing India's Iran Policy
Ancient to Medieval EraIndia and Iran have had long and close cultural links, and their ancient and modern histories have been intertwined. Indeed, although little known, the history shared between India and Iran is extremely dense, in such a way that...
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Vol. 22, No. 1, 2015

Turkey's Foreign Policy Shifts towards Syria
IntroductionBeing located at the crossroads of Asia, Europe and Africa, connecting trouble zones of Balkan, Middle East and Caucasus, with a predominant Muslim population and as a bridge between the West and Islam (Bagci & Kardas, 2003), Turkey occupies...
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Connect Central Asia Policy and Indian Outfoxing
IntroductionIndia and Central Asia had been enjoying civilizational and historical relations since millennia. India has remained dormant to extend cordial and bilateral relations with Central Asian republics after the breakup of the USSR. But the endowed...
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Revisiting Al-Farabi's Legacy Engaging with the Culture of Political Islam
Al-Farabi, one of the greatest medieval philosophers, has been made famous in modem political theory by Leo Strauss, an important modem political philosopher who appropriated him but upheld certain views that traditional religious consciousness of Muslims...
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Caspia Genesis of Energy Politics
Caspian Energy ResourcesDuring the Soviet era energy resources of the Caspian Sea Region were known but were not fully explored nor exploited. At that time resources of Siberia, Ural, Volga regions in Russia and resources in Azerbaijan were considered...
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Scope and Feasibility of Islamic Banking and Finance Model Kazakhstan & Indian Perspective
IntroductionAsia is home to 62% Muslims of the world, and therefore, the demand for shari'ah compliant financial products has always been felt across the region with a greater supportive strength.1 Kazakhstan and India, being part of that Continent,...
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Human Rights at Jeopardy the Central Asian Context
IntroductionTo begin with, human rights besides being a national issue does possess an immensely pertinent relevance in the debates across the length and breadth of the world. It could justifiably be argued that the development of human rights as the...
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New Maritime Silk Route Challenges and Opportunities for India
IntroductionThe Silk Road represents a historical lesson of political, economic and cultural integration due to inter-regional trade and cultural communications. It not only carried people, goods, innovations and ideas among different civilizations and...
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Indo - Kazakhstan Nuclear Partnership Agreement
Historical BackgroundAmong the Central Asian Republics, Kazakhstan occupies an important position lying in the heart of Eurasia. Being the largest of five Central Asian republics, Kazakhstan is the 9th largest country of the world in terms of its territory....
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Afghanistan Democracy and Ethnic Paradox
IntroductionMost societies are split along one or more lines. Often these splits, or cleavages, become the society's fault lines along which political views form. Important social cleavages, in addition to ethnicity, are: social class, religion, rural-urban,...
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Food Shortages in Kashmir Response of Society
IntroductionThe valley of Kashmir situated in the bosom of the western Himalayas at an average elevation of 6000ft1, encircled by an unbroken chain of heaven high mountains and presenting an interesting morphology, witnessed tremendous devastation on...
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Central Asian Water Resources Crises and Management
Historical BackgroundIn Central Asia, water, so far, has been more a source of tension than cooperation. While there have been joint efforts to save the Aral Sea, as well as a flood of internationally introduced technical projects, states in the region...
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Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: An Analysis of Central Asian States
(ProQuest: ... denotes formula omitted.)IntroductionEnergy is the engine of economic growth, as all production and consumption activities involve energy as basic input1. On the production side, conventionally, economists since Adam Smith have talked...
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Peace and Conflict Studies Need and Evolution
The gravity of sufferings and painful life experienced by living generations after war, is evident in the war effected areas. Wars drain huge regional budgets towards defence at the cost of social security. some of the shadows of pain as a result of...
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Role of Labour Migration in the Development of Former Soviet Republics and Russian Federation
IntroductionThe Russian Federation accepts a significant amount of temporary migrant workers, particularly, from neighbouring Central Asia countries. Here departure of a significant number of able-bodied population is stimulated by the typical "pushing-out"...
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India's Afghan Policy Pakistan Perspective and China Factor
Post-World War II era witnessed the ideological conflict between two power blocs that was termed by Bernard Baruch as 'Cold War'. This confrontation inseminated the seeds of conflict at certain places in a way that, even after twenty-five years of post-Cold...
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Vol. 21, No. 1, 2014

Editorial
Area Study Centre (ASC)Centre of Central Asian StudiesUniversity of Kashmir, Srinagar J&K, IndiaIn the fast changing global order, the persisting dichotomy in geopolitics of resources, routes and relations which can lead to lopsided and unsustainable...
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Afghanistan Factor in Indo-Central Asian Relations
IntroductionThe relations among Afghanistan, India and Central Asia go back to the ancient period when Afghanistan was an integral part of many great empires like Mauryan Empire, Durrani Empire right up to the Mughal Empire. India, Afghanistan and some...
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China's Changing Strategic Engagements in Central Asia
The term 'geopolitics' is the key word in understanding the principal international power relations. In the intellectual discourse to understand fundamentals of Central Asian geopolitics, it is all the more important. Interestingly, the ideas of classical...
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Relations of Neolithic Kashmir with South and Central Asia a Comparative Analysis of Material Culture from New Sites in Kashmir
Analysis of Material CulturePotteryMajority of the material culture from the six Neolithic sites consists of pottery that can be grouped in four types i.e. Coarse Ware, Fine Ware, Burnished Ware and Gritty Ware. These four wares are considered to be...
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Socio-Economic Impact of Climate Change in Aral Sea Basin
Aral Sea: Origin and EvolutionThe formation of the Aral Sea began at the end of the last ice age, about 20,000 years ago. The first waters to enter the region were probably that of the Scandinavian ice sheet which was thought to cover certain parts of...
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Strategic Significance of Central Asia in 21st Century
IntroductionThe locational significance of a region or a state is an important aspect of strategic affairs in various interventionist policies in order to enlarge political influence across the borders. The concept of strategic significance emerged since...
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The New Silk Road Strategy Revisited
IntroductionIn the last few years, there has been emphasis on 'New Silk Route Strategy' a new diplomatic vision for building peaceful and stable Afghanistan after 2014 NATO withdrawal. The New Silk Road vision aims at knitting South-Central Asian region...
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Geopolitics of Transport China's Strategy for Resource Access in Central Asia
The sudden development of China in recent years has been noticed by the whole world. China started to open up and reformed its economy in the year 1978 when the GDP growth of China was 9.4 percent. It was one of the highest growth rates in the world....
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United Nations and Central Asian Region: Developmental Initiatives with Focus on Uzbekistan
Regional Geo-political Significance and UNCentral Asia which is important both geo-politically as well as strategically is considered to be the future supplier of energy resources to the world market. It faces complex political, economic and social challenges.1...
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Medical Geology: A Case Study of Kashmir
IntroductionMost of the people are well aware and conscious of a range of health effects of geo-hazards irrespective of their occurrence. In order to moderate and mitigate the apparent effects of natural disasters, early warning systems have been developed....
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Energy Resources of Central Asian Republics an Analysis in Market Demand
Hydrocarbon PotentialsAs a result of the energy wealth, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan got a prominent space on the hydrocarbon map of the world. Kazakhstan has proven1 reserves estimated at 30 thousand million barrels (3.9 thousand million...
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Agrarian Question in the 18th Century Central Asian Peasant Revolts
IntroductionThis is one of the relatively least studied aspect of the agrarian history of Central Asian Khanates.1 Peasant revolt may simply be described as a civil defiance by the peasants. These revolts usually occur on account of the threats to peasants'...
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India's Afghan Policy Prospects and Challenges
The contemporary world has witnessed the concept of security widening from traditional to non-traditional threats in terms of religious extremism, international terrorism, drug trafficking, arms smuggling and so on. These challenges led the nation-states...
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Vol. 20, No. 1, 2011

The Northern Fortress and the Myth of Iron Gate
Line of Red Dragon:A few years ago, in 2007, two fortresses situated between Iranian Highland and Gumisan city, were found by the archaeologists of Edinburgh, Durham and Iranian Universities, in Iran. They could not find its name in historical sources,...
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Geo-Climatic & Demographic Settings of Eurasia
Introduction:The migration of different ethnic groups' to new territories has been usual to the human history right from the inception. It led to "territorialization" and "colonization" and the rule of vanquished by the dominant ethnic peoples. However,...
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Dynamics of Japan-Central Asia Relations
Introduction:Central Asia has drawn a considerable attention of Japanese policy-makers because of the region's economic and geo-political importance. The Japanese private sector also views Central Asia as one budding economic zone with multiple opportunities...
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Regional Development in Central Asia
Introduction:Central Asia as a region has all necessary conditions for successful and efficient cooperation provided strong will, vision and the initiatives of the ruling elite in the respective states. This calls for the gradual economic and institutional...
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Dynamics of India-Central Asia Relations Energy as a Strategic Factor
Introduction:Central Asia Republics (hereafter CARs) is an extended and strategic neighbourhood of India, having geographical proximity, cultural affinity and shared history with it. This long standing historical relation was reflected in diverse fields,...
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Restoring India's Silk Route Links with South and Central Asia across Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities
Mushtaq A. Kaw, "Restoring India's Silk Route Links with South and Central Asia across Kashmir: Challenges and Opportunities", The China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 2, May/June, 2009, The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute, Paul H. Nitze School...
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Globalization and Eurasia's Energy Sector
Introduction: Energy Scenario:A) Russia and the Global Energy MarketGlobalization has brought new vulnerabilities and opportunities in Eurasia's energy sector. In the transition from the command economy of the Soviet period to the market economy of the...
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Fickle Peace and Devastating Middle East Nuclear Tangle
Introduction:Iranian nuclear programme suspected for developing deadly nuclear arsenal beeps incessantly to flash warning to the peace-loving world. Conversely, Iran denies nurturing of any such pursuit of acquiring nuclear weapons capability. US and...
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Islamic Revival, Education and Radicalism in Central Asia
Introduction:There is little doubt that the resurgence of Islam has been influencing the social and political landscape of the Muslim world. The Islamic revival brought new actors into the political arena, including Islamist movements that began to challenge...
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Kyrgyz & Uzbek Foreign Policies (2005-10) a Comparative Study
Introduction:An effective way of understanding the foreign policy process is to identify the levels of analysis. These levels refer to general areas from which certain foreign policy behaviours are generated at the state and interstate levels. Given...
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Measuring Change in a Transitional Economy Attitudes towards Advertising in Kazakhstan
Introduction:There is growing interest among scholars about the subject of advertising and its role in the marketing of products in countries that are under transition, say for example, Vietnam, China and the newly independent states of the former Soviet...
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Political Economy of Kyrgyzstan's Domestic (in) Stability
Introduction:The world of international relations is getting increasingly defined by renewed competition for material and natural resources. The world population, and the economic output are growing, while the reserves of oil, gas, fresh water, arable...
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Khitans and Central Asians a Study in Their Bilateral Relations
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)Introduction:In 1125, Khitan or Liao Empire (907-1125) was defeated by Jurchens. Pursuant to that, several Khitans headed by Yelü Dashi came to Central Asia and laid down the foundation for the empire...
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Vol. 19, No. 1, 2010

Methodological Principles in Historical Studies of Ethno-National Identity of Central Asian Peoples
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)Introduction:History of Central Asian peoples and their ethnic roots is today the subject of academic discussions. Social scientists are debating the time of formation of their ethnic or national identity,...
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Tajikistan and China Changing Images
Introduction:With the intensification of commercial, economic, political, and cultural relations with China, people to people contacts are tremendously growing with the country. What is the perception of China towards Tajikistan? This question cannot...
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Ancient Nisa Centre of Synergy along the Silk Route
Introduction:Nisa an ancient city was famous for its urban settlement in 2nd and 3rd millennium BC. Situated not very far from the present capital Ashgabat, in the Kopet Dag valley in the Ahal velayat, it became the first capital of the Parthian empire....
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The Golden Age of Genoa's Eastwards Trade (13Th - 15th Centuries)
Introduction:The State Archives of Genoa1 give a clear perception that, in the latter half of the 1 3th century, direct trade between Genoese bases and the East well established and was taking place on a regular base. Setting off from Genoa, Genoese...
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Globalisation and Central Asian Space Costs & Benefits
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)Introduction:Globalisation made its effect felt in Korea, Japan, China, India and Central Asian Republics (hereafter CARs): courtesy huge foreign capital investment in the CARs by the world famous companies...
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Rights of Women in Islamic Republic of Iran
Introduction:On 27 August 2006, a women's rights campaign known as 'One Million Signatures Campaign' was launched in Iran.1 This campaign claimed that the Iranian government "seems intent on defining policies that relegate women to the private sphere...
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Politics of Islamisation in Uzbekistan
Introduction:After the collapse of the Soviet Union, there was an Islamic resurgence in Uzbekistan and political Islam began to assume an important aspect in Uzbek social and cultured life.1 Uzbekistan is primarily considered as a Muslim nation because...
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Berdy Mukhammedov's Turkmenistan a Modest Shift in Domestic and Social Politics
Introduction:In December 2006, the death of Saparmurat Niyazov raised many questions about the future evolution of Turkmenistan. The eccentricities and the dictatorial management style of the deceased president, his systematic repression of all opposition,...
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Irrigation Management in Central Asian Republics
Introduction:Irrigation plays a crucial role in agricultural development of Central Asian republics (CARs), where 91% of net cropped area is irrigated which provide almost 97% of the regional crop production. Irrigated agriculture is critical to livelihood...
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Us Interests in Central Asia
Introduction:The US interest in Central Asia is of recent origin. During the heydays of the Soviet Union, an iron curtain separated the Central Asian states from the outside world. The disintegration of Soviet Union opened the doors for the outsiders...
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Persian Literature of Medieval Kashmir (14Th - 16th Century)
Introduction:Till the end of the 16th century, Kashmir played vital role in the Indian sub-continent as an independent state. With its separate identity, Kashmir had its relations and contacts with Iran and other Central Asian states. Besides political...
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Armenian Issue as Reflected in Russian Archival Records
Introduction:The accusation of Armenian genocide has been one of the leading issues for Turkey and the world. The events that took place between 1915 and 1923 were witnessed, apart from the Turkish and the Armenian sides, by Czarist Russia and Soviet...
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India and Georgia Historical Perspective
Introduction:The links between Georgia and India1 supposedly should have established immediately after the commencement of the Silk Route, connecting Europe and Asia, intermittently for more than two centuries. The way from India to Georgia should have...
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Customs and Traditions in Mongolia
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-USASCII text omitted.)Introduction:Mongolia Khox Tengir or blue sky as called by Mongols, and Sogen no Kuni or grass land called by Japanese, lies in between the two big powers Russia in the north and China in its east-west...
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Arab Uprising Internal and External Dimensions
Introduction:Some of the primary characteristics of 'Failed States', writes Noam Chomsky, are (a) their inability or unwillingness to protect their citizens from violence and perhaps even destruction, (b) their tendency to regard themselves as beyond...
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