Current Politics and Economics of Northern and Western Asia

Articles

Vol. 25, No. 4, 2016

An Emergent Path of the Six-Party Talks: Toward Institutional Multilateralism in Northeast Asia
INTRODUCTIONThe Six-Party Talks (SPTs) are an ad hoc multilateral security forum to deal with North Korean nuclear program. The talks were initiated in the wake of the second North Korean nuclear crisis in 2003 and have undergone several rounds of negotiation...
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Benchmarking the Extent of Quality-of-Life Crime: A Study in Hong Kong’s Public Housing Sector
(ProQuest: ... denotes formulae omitted.)INTRODUCTIONIt is our common belief that housing quality shapes life quality (Dunn, 2000). This connection has been extensively evidenced by numerous empirical studies including Raw and Hamilton (1995) and Newcombe...
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Quality of Life Study on Chinese Female Workers Suffering from Occupational Cadmium Poisoning
The rapid expansion of China's economy in the past few decades has triggered a rapid increase in the reported cases of occupational diseases. Diseases have increased not only in traditional industries like coal mining, construction, but also in some...
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Vol. 25, No. 3, 2016

China 2014 Human Rights Report *
Section 1: Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom froma.Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of LifeDuring the year security forces reportedly committed arbitrary or unlawful killings. In many instances few or no details were available.It...
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Disaster Relief and Reconstruction in Taiwan: Policy and Issues
IntroductionAccording to the report Natural Disaster Hotspots: A Global Risk Analysis (Word Bank, 2005), Taiwan is the country most vulnerable to natural hazards, with 73.1 percent of its population inhabiting areas exposed to three or more hazards....
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Social Security Add, Control, and Management for Floods in Taiwan under Extreme Climate between 1994 and 2013
IntroductionFor human society, the consumption of fuel resources is most fossil fuels and the combustion of this type of fuels account for the largest release source of CO2 and also the major reason of greenhouse effect. The global accumulation of greenhouse...
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The Chinese Military: Overview and Issues for Congress *
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-US-ASCII text omitted.)INTRODUCTIONChina (officially known as the People's Republic of China, PRC) is building a modern and regionally powerful military with a modest but growing capability for conducting operations away from...
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Vol. 25, No. 2, 2016

An Overview of Japanese Tourism-Based Community Development: Definitions and Successes
IntroductionIn 2014, the Japan Policy Council reported a gloomy outlook for Japan's future based on demographic trends. They created a category titled "Cities at Risk of Disappearance," which was defined as municipalities in which the population of women...
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Vol. 25, No. 1, 2016

A Review of Chinese University Students' Perspectives of Affective Learning in Response to Hong Kong's Umbrella Movement and Its Protest Songs
IntroductionBloom's taxonomy, created by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues in 1948, was originally developed as a method of classifying educational goals for student performance evaluation, and has since been widely accepted as a useful tool for defining...
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Impact of Globalization on Japanese Higher Education Policy: Examining Campus Internationalization and Challenge of Japanese Universities
IntroductionGlobalization now impacts higher education throughout the world, with the resultant competition forcing universities everywhere to adapt to current knowledge-based societies. Hawkins views internationalization within higher education as something...
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China's Urbanization: Acceleration, Transformation, and Expectation
1.China's Urbanization - A Brief OverviewChina began its rapid economic growth following the implementation of the Economic Reform and Opening Up policy of 1978. Since that, China has changed from an agricultural country to a newly industrialized country....
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Globalization and Regional Revitalization in a Local University of Japan
INTRODUCTIONMany Japanese universities need to reform for their own survival as the number of domestic students is decreasing due to the enduring low Japanese fertility rate. Further, while basic grants from Japan government have been decreasing, competitive...
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Vol. 24, No. 4, 2015

Parents' Religious Involvement, Family Socialization and Adolescent Behavioral Problems in Hong Kong
IntroductionAlthough salutary effects of parents' religious involvement on family well-being and development have been documented extensively in the recent family literature, efforts on investigating how parents' religious involvement that may influence...
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Audit Market and Auditor Choice of Chinese Listed Firms
1. IntroductionAgency problems always exist between the principal (the owner) and the manager (the agent) in the contemporary corporation (Berle & Means, 1932). An independent or external audit (hereafter "audit") is one of the means to reduce such...
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Global-Value-Chains Participation and Industrial Upgrading in Asian Developing Economies
1. IntroductionAsian economies have been and will be a growth center in the world. For its future, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) presented the scenario called the "Asian century", in which Asian share of global GDP will nearly double from 27 percent...
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Does Patriotism Raise Shanghai's Cooperation with Hong Kong?
Intercity cooperation and competition are both the developmental goals and trends of globalized cities (Walker 2005). At the citizen's level, the cooperation occurs in the citizen's working with people and purchasing goods and services coming from another...
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Suicide in India
Suicide is a growing public health problem in India. The suicide rate has risen every year since 2001 (Srivastava, 2013). Suicide ranks in the top ten leading causes of death of adults and in the top three leading causes of death for young adults (aged...
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Vol. 24, No. 2/3, 2015

Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency *
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-US-ASCII text omitted.)INTRODUCTIONChina has experienced rapid economic growth in the past two decades with average, annual GDP growth of 10% (World Bank, 2011). The unprecedented growth also drives expansion in the buildings...
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North Korea Sanctions: United States Has Increased Flexibility to Impose Sanctions, but United Nations Is Impeded by a Lack of Member State Reports *
United States Government Accountability OfficeWHY GAO DID THIS STUDYNorth Korea is a closely controlled society, and its regime has taken actions that threaten the United States and other United Nations member states. North Korean tests of nuclear weapons...
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North Korea: Legislative Basis for U.S. Economic Sanctions *
BACKGROUNDThe United States imposes economic sanctions on North Korea for activities related to weapons proliferation; regional disruptions; narcotics trafficking; undemocratic governance; and illicit activities in international markets, including money...
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Chinese Land Reclamation in the South China Sea: Implications and Policy Options *
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-US-ASCII text omitted.)OVERVIEWSince September 2013, China has undertaken extensive land reclamation and construction on several reefs in the Spratly island chain in the southern part of the South China Sea, raising a variety...
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China's First Airstrip in the Spratly Islands Likely at Fiery Cross Reef *
Disclaimer: This paper is the product of professional research performed by staff of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, and was prepared at the request of the Commission to support its deliberations. Posting of the report to the...
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China's Rise and Reconfiguration of Central Asia's Geopolitics: A Case for U.S. "Pivot" to Eurasia *
FOREWORDChina's global rise has prompted numerous discussions and studies of this historically monumental phenomenon and its implications for the world. On the one hand, China's emergence as a global player has generated a lot of optimism for global...
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Naming and Shaming: U.S. Surveillance over China's Land Reclamation Projects and Regional Reactions *
BackgroundOn May 20, 2015, a U.S. Navy P-8A Poseidon surveillance plane flew from Clark Air Base in the Philippines to three South China Sea reefs-Subi Reef, Mischief Reef, and Fiery Cross Reef-where China has been undertaking extensive land reclamation...
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Vol. 24, No. 1, 2015

The Growing Complexity of Sino-Indian Ties *
FOREWORDWith the world riveted by Chinese aggressiveness against Japan and Southeast Asian states in recent years, one country has not been particularly surprised: India. After all, New Delhi has been grappling with the challenge of China's rapid rise...
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China-India Relations: Tensions Persist despite Growing Cooperation *
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYDespite growing bilateral cooperation between China and India, sources of tension in the relationship remain and in some cases are becoming more pronounced. In the security realm, continued occurrences of Chinese soldiers crossing into...
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China's Navy Extends Its Combat Reach to the Indian Ocean *
U.S.-China Economic and Security Review CommissionIn early 2014, a Chinese surface action group (SAG) carried out a sophisticated training exercise spanning the South China Sea (SCS), eastern Indian Ocean, and Philippine Sea. The People's Liberation...
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India-U.S. Economic Relations: In Brief *
OVERVIEWThe United States and India have been pursuing a "strategic partnership" since 2004, and a Fifth Strategic Dialogue session was held in New Delhi in mid-2014.1 Economic and trade relations are a key facet of this engagement. A May 2014 parliamentary...
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Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code *
INTRODUCTIONIndia is experiencing an unprecedented construction boom. The country doubled its floorspace between 2001 and 2005 and is expected to add 35 billion m2 of new buildings by 2050 (Shnapp and Laustsen, 2013). Buildings account for 35% of total...
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Vol. 23, No. 4, 2014

"Womenomics" in Japan: In Brief*
OoVERVIEWConfronted with decades of economic stagnation, strict immigration controls, and a rapidly aging population, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has launched an ambitious plan-widely known as "Abenomics"-to restart Japan's economy. The program...
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Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress*
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN 2014The Abe Government's Continued StabilitySince Prime Minister Shinzo Abe won the premiership in December 2012, Japan's political scene has been relatively stable, a marked change from the previous six years of near-constant...
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The U.S.Military Presence in Okinawa and the Futenma Base Controversy*
BACKGROUNDDespite the prominence of the U.S.-Japan alliance in America's overall strategic posture in the Asia-Pacific region, local concerns about the U.S. military presence on Okinawa have challenged the management of the alliance for decades. In recent...
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China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States*
The rapid rise of China as a major economic power within a time span of about three decades is often described by analysts as one of the greatest economic success stories in modern times. From 1979 (when economic reforms began) to 2013, China's real...
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Taiwan:major U.S. Arms Sales since 1990*
U.S. POLICYThis CRS Report discusses U.S. security assistance for Taiwan, formally called the Republic of China (ROC), particularly policy issues for Congress. It also lists sales of major defense articles and services to Taiwan, as approved by the President...
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India's New Government and Implications for U.S. Interests*
NOTABLE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS1* On July 29, Secretary of State John Kerry and Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker traveled to New Delhi for the 5th U.S.-India Strategic Dialogue, where they met with newly-seated Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and...
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Vol. 23, No. 3, 2014

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation *
Latest DevelopmentsThe Purge of Jang Song-taekThe purge and execution of Jang Song-taek, North Korea's second most powerful figure, reverberated in policy circles both for its brutality and for its potential implications for political stability in Pyongyang....
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Foreign Assistance to North Korea
IntroductionA Brief History of U.S. Aid to North KoreaFor four decades after the end of the Korean War in 1953, U.S. strategy toward the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, commonly referred to as North Korea) was relatively simple: deter an...
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U.S.-South Korea Relations *
Strategic Cooperation and the U.S.-ROK AllianceDealing with North Korea is the dominant strategic element of the U.S.-South Korean relationship. Under South Korean President Park Geun-hye, who was inaugurated in February 2013, Seoul and Washington have...
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Vol. 23, No. 1/2, 2014

Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (Eez) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress *
INTRODUCTIONChina's actions for asserting and defending its maritime territorial and exclusive economic zone (EEZ)1 claims in the East China (ECS) and South China Sea (SCS), particularly since late 2013, have heightened concerns among observers that...
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China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities-Background and Issues for Congress *
INTRODUCTIONIssue for CongressChina is building a modern and regionally powerful Navy with a modest but growing capability for conducting operations beyond China's near-seas region. The question of how the United States should respond to China's military...
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China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues *
PURPOSE AND SCOPECongress has long been concerned about whether U.S. policy advances U.S. security interests in reducing the role of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles as well as...
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Vol. 22, No. 4, 2013

China's Economic Rise: History, Trends, Challenges, and Implications for the United States*
INTRODUCTIONThe rapid rise of China as a major economic power within a time span of about three decades is often described by analysts as one of the greatest economic success stories in modern times. From 1979 (when economic reforms began) to 2012, China's...
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China's Currency Policy: An Analysis of the Economic Issues*
INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENCY ISSUEChina's policy of intervention to limit the appreciation of its currency, the renminbi (RMB) against the dollar and other currencies has become a major source of tension with many of its trading partners,...
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U.S.-China Military Contacts: Issues for Congress*
OVERVIEW OF AND OPTIONS FOR POLICYU.S. leaders have applied military contacts as one tool and point of leverage in the broader policy toward the People's Republic of China (PRC). The first part of this CRS Report discusses policy issues regarding such...
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Vol. 22, No. 3, 2013

North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation*
LATEST DEVELOPMENTSMissile Launches in 2012North Korea's failed attempt to launch a long-range ballistic missile in April ended the possibility of a new round of international diplomacy on Pyongyang's nuclear program. On April 13, 2012, North Korea launched,...
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North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues*
BACKGROUNDIn the early 1980s, U.S. satellites tracked a growing indigenous nuclear program in North Korea. The North Korean nuclear program began in the late 1950s with cooperation agreements with the Soviet Union on a nuclear research program near Yongbyon....
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Foreign Assistance to North Korea*
INTRODUCTIONA Brief History of U.S. Aid to North KoreaFor four decades after the end of the Korean War in 1953, U.S. strategy toward the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, commonly referred to as North Korea) was relatively simple: deter an...
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What's the Difference? - Comparing U.S. and Chinese Trade Data*
INTRODUCTIONThe U.S. merchandise trade deficit with the People's Republic of China (China) remains a major source of bilateral tension. Members of Congress and other U.S. government officials often point to the bilateral trade imbalance as evidence that...
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Vol. 22, No. 2, 2013

The Distorted Relationship between Chaebols and Korean Governments: A Historical Overview from 1945 to 1997
1. INTRODUCTIONThe Asian crisis of 1997 has greatly affected South Korean economic development model. Before the Asian crisis, Korean economy had been touted as one of the prime models which many developing countries were advised to emulate. In addition,...
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Japan-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress*
RECENT DEVELOPMENTSJuly 2013 Elections-LDP Victory Gives Abe Control for Three More YearsSince 2007, Japan's politics has been plagued by turmoil and short-term premiers, complicating U.S.-Japan relations. This period of political instability may have...
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Japan's Possible Entry into the Trans-Pacific Partnership and Its Implications*
INTRODUCTIONThe United States is engaged in negotiations with 10 other countries to form a regional free trade agreement (FTA)-the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP).1 In the negotiations, the United States and the other TPP partner-countries...
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U.S.-Japan Economic Relations: Significance, Prospects, and Policy Options*
INTRODUCTIONJapan and the United States are among the world's largest economic powers. Together they account for over 30% of world domestic product (2012 estimate). This economic clout makes the United States and Japan powerful forces that influence...
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U.S.-Chinese Motor Vehicle Trade: Overview and Issues*
INTRODUCTIONThe U.S. auto industry is of interest to many in Congress because of its large employment, economic impact, and geographic reach. Around the world, there are many automakers and thousands of parts suppliers, leading to intense international...
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Vol. 22, No. 1, 2013

U.S.-Taiwan Relationship: Overview of Policy Issues*
SUMMARYThe purpose and scope of this CRS report is to provide a succinct overview with analysis of the major issues in the U.S. policy on Taiwan. This report will be updated as warranted. Taiwan formally calls itself the sovereign Republic of China (ROC),...
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U.S.-South Korea Relations*
SUMMARYOverviewSouth Korea is one of the United States' most important strategic and economic partners in Asia. Members of Congress tend to be interested South Korea-related issues for a number of reasons. First, the United States and South Korea have...
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Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales since 1990*
SUMMARYThis report, updated as warranted, discusses U.S. security assistance to Taiwan, or Republic of China (ROC), including policy issues for Congress and legislation. Congress has oversight of the Taiwan Relations Act (TRA), P.L. 96-8, which has governed...
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Vol. 21, No. 3/4, 2012

China's Economic Conditions *
INTRODUCTIONThe rapid rise of China as a major economic power within a time span of about three decades is often described by analysts as one of the greatest economic success stories in modern times. From 1979 (when economic reforms began) to 2011, China's...
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Maritime Territorial and Exclusive Economic Zone (Eez) Disputes Involving China: Issues for Congress *
INTRODUCTIONThis report presents policy and oversight issues for Congress arising from (1) maritime territorial disputes involving China in the South China Sea (SCS) and East China Sea (ECS) and (2) an additional dispute over whether China has a right...
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India-U.S. Security Relations: Current Engagement *
OVERVIEWThis report provides an overview of current U.S.-India security engagement, a topic of interest to the U.S. Congress, where there is widely held and generally bipartisan support for a deepened U.S. partnership with the world's largest democracy,...
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A Guide to China's Upcoming Leadership Transitions *
(ProQuest: ... denotes non-US-ASCII text omitted.)INTRODUCTIONChina, the only Communist Party ruled nation in the G-20 grouping of major economies, is in the midst of a sweeping set of Communist Party-orchestrated political transitions that began in...
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Vol. 21, No. 2, 2012

Kim Jong-Il's Death: Implications for North Korea's Stability and U.S. Policy *
NORTH KOREA'S STABILITYOne notable feature of official U.S. and South Korean reactions to Kim Jong-il's death is the extent to which both governments have publicly stated their desire for North Korea to remain stable.3 Instability in North Korea would...
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North Korea: U.S. Relations, Nuclear Diplomacy, and Internal Situation *
LATEST DEVELOPMENTSFood Aid Debate ContinuesBeginning in early 2011, North Korea issued an appeal for international food aid. A subsequent World Food Program (WFP) assessment reported in March that a quarter of the North Korean population nation is facing...
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North Korea's Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues *
LATEST DEVELOPMENTSEfforts toward dismantling North Korea's nuclear weapons program under the Six-Party Talks have been stalled since the spring of 2009.1 North Korea conducted a second nuclear test in May 2010, which resulted in tougher UN Security...
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Foreign Assistance to North Korea *
A BRIEF HISTORY OF U.S. AID THROUGH 20091950-1990sFor four decades after the end of the Korean War in 1953, U.S. strategy toward the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, commonly referred to as North Korea) was relatively simple: deter an attack...
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The Kaesong North-South Korean Industrial Complex
DEVELOPMENTS FROM MARCH 2010-JUNE 2010The Kaesong Industrial Complex (KIC) is an industrial park located in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK or North Korea) just across the demilitarized zone from South Korea. As of the end of December...
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Vol. 21, No. 1, 2012

Trade Promotion Authority and the United States-South Korea Free Trade Agreement *
INTRODUCTIONA free trade agreement is an agreement involving two or more trading partners under which tariffs and trade barriers are reduced or eliminated. Today, the United States has free trade agreements with 17 countries, including nations in Asia,...
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The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (Korus Fta): Provisions and Implications *
INTRODUCTIONOn June 30, 2007, U.S. and South Korean officials signed the proposed U.S.-South Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) for their respective countries.1 If approved, the KORUS FTA would be the second-largest FTA South Korea has signed to...
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U.S.-South Korea Relations
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIRST HALF OF 2011New U.S. Ambassador AppointedIn June, President Obama announced his intent to nominate Sung Kim, chief representative to the Six-Party Talks over North Korea's nuclear program, to be the next Ambassador to South...
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Vol. 20, No. 4, 2011

U.S.-Japan Economic Relations: Significance, Prospects and Policy Options *
AN OVERVIEW OF U.S.-JAPAN ECONOMIC TRENDSThe U.S. and Japanese economies remain closely intertwined through trade and capital flows. U.S. and Japanese political leaders have not always given the U.S.-Japan relationship the priority commensurate with...
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The U.S.-Japan Alliance *
INTRODUCTIONThe U.S.-Japan alliance, forged in the U.S. occupation of Japan after its defeat in World War II, provides a platform for U.S. military readiness in Asia. Under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, about 53,000 U.S. troops are stationed...
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Japan 2011 Earthquake: U.S. Department of Defense (Dod) Response *
OVERVIEWWith almost 40,000 U.S. troops stationed in Japan, the March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami is unique in that U.S. forces and associated resources were located in close proximity to deal with the crisis. All services-Army, Navy, Marine Corps,...
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Japan's 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Economic Effects and Implications for the United States *
OVERVIEWThe March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami that occurred in Japan followed by the nuclear crisis at the Fukushima Nuclear Complex, evacuations, and shortage of electricity are having a large negative economic impact on the country but a lesser...
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Japan's 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami: Food and Agriculture Implications *
INTRODUCTIONThe widespread devastation from the March 11, 2011, earthquake and tsunami affected many agricultural and fishery areas in Japan. In addition, detected radioactive contamination of food produced near the disabled Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear...
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Fukushima Nuclear Crisis *
SUMMARY OF THE CRISISThe earthquake on March 11, 2011, off the east coast of Honshu, Japan's largest island, reportedly caused an automatic shutdown (called a -scram") of eleven of Japan's fifty-five operating nuclear power plants.1 Most of the shutdowns...
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The Japanese Nuclear Incident: Technical Aspects *
INTRODUCTIONThe Japanese earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). This damage has released some radioactive materials, and there are widespread fears about the health effects of...
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Vol. 20, No. 3, 2011

China-U.S. Trade Issues *
U.S. TRADE WITH CHINA1U.S.-China trade rose rapidly after the two nations reestablished diplomatic relations (in January 1979), signed a bilateral trade agreement (July 1979), and provided mutual most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment beginning in 1980.2...
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China's Currency:an Analysis of the Economic Issues *
INTRODUCTIONChina's policy of intervention to limit the appreciation of its currency, the renminbi (RMB), or yuan, against the dollar and other currencies has become a major source of tension with many of its trading partners, especially the United States.1...
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China's Holdings of U.S. Securities: Implications for the U.S. Economy *
CHINA'S FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESERVESChina's economic policies, including those that induce high levels of domestic savings and promote export-related activities as the main engine of China's economic growth, have contributed to a surge in China's FX reserves...
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China's Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Policies *
WHY CHINA'S GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS MAY MATTERChina's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have drawn attention in the United States because of their environmental and economic implications. China's actions to address climate change also hold implications...
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Vol. 20, No. 2, 2011

U.S. Security Assistance to the Palestinian Authority *
INTRODUCTIONSince shortly after the establishment of limited Palestinian self-rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the mid-1990s, the United States has periodically provided assistance to the Palestinian Authority (PA) for civil security and counterterrorism...
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U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel *
U.S.-ISRAELI RELATIONS AND THE ROLE OF FOREIGN AIDFor decades, the United States and Israel have maintained strong bilateral relations based on a number of factors, including strong domestic U.S. support for Israel; shared strategic goals in the Middle...
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The Palestinians: Background and U.S. Relations *
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND PALESTINIAN IDENTITYThe Palestinians are Arabs who live in the geographical area that constitutes present-day Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip, or who have historical and/or cultural ties to that area. Historians have...
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Private Security Contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan: Legal Issues *
INTRODUCTIONU.S. departments and agencies engaged in combat or stability operations overseas are relying on private firms to perform a wider scope of security services than was previously the case [1] Rather than relying on the U.S. Armed Forces to provide...
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Vol. 20, No. 1, 2011

Iran's Nuclear Program: Status *
BACKGROUNDIran's nuclear program began during the 1950s. Construction of a U.S.-supplied research reactor located in Tehran began in 1960; the reactor went critical in 1967 [1] During the 1970s, Tehran pursued an ambitious nuclear power program; according...
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Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks *
OVERVIEW OF THE POLITICAL TRANSITIONIraq has largely completed a formal political transition from the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein to a plural polity that encompasses varying sects and ideological and political factions. However, grievances and disputes...
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The United Arab Emirates Nuclear Program and Proposed U.S. Nuclear Cooperation *
THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: BACKGROUND AND U.S. RELATIONSThe United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven emirates (principalities): Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Fujayrah, Umm Al Qawayn, and Ras Al Khaymah. National authority rests in the hands...
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Qatar: Background and U.S. Relations *
RECENT DEVELOPMENTSInternal Administrative Changes and Qatar's Foreign PolicyHeir Apparent Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, the Emir's fourth-oldest son (age 29), has taken a more active role in Qatar's policy process in recent months, presiding...
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Lebanon: Background and U.S. Relations *
RECENT DEVELOPMENTSParliamentary Elections 2009On June 7, 2009, Lebanese voters elected 128 deputies-from 26 districts and 11 politically recognized religious sects-to Lebanon's unicameral legislature. The March 14 coalition won 71 seats to March 8's...
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Iran's Nuclear Program:tehran's Compliance with International Obligations *
INTRODUCTIONIran ratified the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1970. Article III of the treaty requires non-nuclear-weapon states-parties [1] to accept comprehensive International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards; Tehran concluded a comprehensive...
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