English Education

Articles

Vol. 50, No. 3, April

These Violent Delights Have Violent Ends: Disrupting the Angst
As a graduate student, when someone asks me if I've seen a recently released movie or television series, my response is usually something along the lines of, "Nah, unfortunately I haven't," but my inner monologue is laughing, almost maniacally, at the...
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Let Your Reader Do Some Work: Twelve Theses (and an Appendix) on Leaving More to the Imagination in Academic Assignments
Spell it out, they say.Could you make it more direct?And where's the appendix?I've jumped from A to Q again, it seems, and my readers have lost their maps. Not surprising for readers accustomed to the digital conveniences of the modern Western world,...
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Critical Conversations in English Education: Discursive Strategies for Examining How Teacher and Student Identities Shape Classroom Discourse
I believe that most educators want their students to be successful, both for their students' futures and for their own sense of accomplishment and satisfaction. But, I also believe that most educators do not know enough about how race and culture impact...
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"You Could Argue It Either Way": Ambivalent White Teacher Racial Identity and Teaching about Racism in Literature Study
Ms. Kinney1 brought the cartoon below into her ninth-grade English classroom during their study of A Raisin in the Sun. She teaches in a rural and predominantly White community located in close proximity to a larger, predominantly African American community;...
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Vol. 50, No. 2, January

Professional Development Pathways through Social Justice Frameworks
We developed this special issue on professional development for equity and social justice in the hopes of disrupting commonly held notions of what it means to engage in professional development for and with teachers. Over the past five years, we have...
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The Knowledge Games: A Play in Two Acts
Cast of CharactersDeCross (pronounced Duh-Cross): President of City of EssaAndrew: Proficient/District EquityJasmine: Proficient/District EquityMs. G: Proficient/District TransgressMs. Washington: Proficient/District TransgressOctavia: Proficient/District...
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Professional Development as Publicly Engaged Scholarship in Urban Schools: Implications for Educational Justice, Equity, and Humanization
According to Borko (2004), a wealth of knowledge has been produced over the last two decades about the important role of high-quality professional development learning opportunities for teachers. And still, there remains "much work to do and many questions...
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Collaborative Design as Mediated Praxis: Professional Development for Socially Just Pedagogies
The professional lives of teachers-and how they are supported in their professional lives-has a strong influence on the literacy achievements of their students, especially students from traditionally underserved populations (Langer, 2000). Although research...
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Generative Principles for Professional Learning for Equity-Oriented Urban English Teachers
Generative Principles of Professional Learning for Equity-Oriented Urban English TeachersThis article focuses on three graduates of an urban English teacher education program who, at the time of this publication, are in their fourth year of teaching...
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Vol. 50, No. 1, October

Place, Pedagogy, and Literacy in Appalachia
Introduction: What Has Appalachia Ever Done for Us?In the United States, Appalachia isn't typically connoted with education or literacy, much less intelligence. In fact, it's often linked with illiteracy or outright hostility toward education. From the...
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Cause for Hope
One of the Purdue English Department's longstanding traditions is its annual Literary Awards contest; inaugurated in 1928, only a four-year hiatus during World War II interrupted its continuous recognition of excellent writing. It has included such literary...
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Teaching Sex Education with Poetry: An Intimate Coupling
English teachers are multifaceted and polymathic. Alongside our students, we explore cultures, perspectives, and lived experiences through text, often encouraging "intellectual development and affective maturation in students" (Williams, 2012, p. xi)....
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Arts-Based Literacy Learning like "New School": (Re)Framing the Arts in and of Students' Lives as Story
Renewed attention over the last decade to roles for the arts in learning, particularly in relation to an evolving multimodal communicative landscape, calls for a rethinking of both where the arts are located in the school curriculum and how they are...
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Reconciling Rosenblatt and the New Critics: The Quest for an "Experienced Understanding" of Literature
For decades, the training of English teachers and teacher educators has been influenced by the story of Louise Rosenblatt's heroic resistance to New Criticism, the reigning interpretive paradigm in literary studies through much of the twentieth century,...
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Vol. 49, No. 4, July

Embracing the And
T horeau said, "Simplify, simplify." I have a different mantra: "Complexify, complexify." Often, we're given two choices (e.g., soup or salad; which one's clearer, 1 or 2), but education isn't that simple. As teacher educators, we know that concepts...
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Prospective English Teachers Learn to Respond to Diversity in Students’ Writing through the Student Writing Archive Project (SWAP)
Responding to student writing is an integral part of the work of a high school English teacher. Indeed, a recent national study by Applebee et al. (2013) found that 80 percent of all secondary teachers, across disciplines, not only graded student writing...
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The Value of English: Perspectives on the Economic Benefits of Studying English in High School
It is rare in a working environment that someone says, "Johnson, I need a market analysis by Friday, but before that I need a compelling account of your childhood. "-Common Core State Standards architect David Coleman, explaining why he wants English...
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The Paper Bag
If one is not permitted to express anger or even to recognize it within oneself, one is, by simple extension, refused both power and control.-Carolyn G. Heilbrun, 1998, p. 15It was the first day of kindergarten. I didn't cry like a lot of the other kids...
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Vol. 49, No. 3, April

Help, Hypocrisy, and Holding On
Pride, stubborn self-sufficiency, and a healthy dose of my mother's Dutch pragmatism keep the frayed fabric of my personal and professional lives intact; I work pretty hard to maintain the appearance of someone who has it together most of the time. I...
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Critical Questioning in and beyond the Margins: Teacher Preparation Students' Multimodal Inquiries into Literacy Assessment
It is a Monday evening and classrooms throughout our school of education are filled with group discussions, lectures, notetaking, and presentations. In one room, 25 graduate students and their instructor sit silently around a conference table, part of...
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How English Language Arts Teachers Are Prepared for Twenty-First-Century Classrooms: Results of a National Study
In 1995, Smagorinsky and Whiting published the results of a national study of methods classes, which were examined through collection and analysis of methods course syllabi. Their landmark project still exists as the only study aiming to comprehensively...
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Provocateur Piece *: A History of Our Field
As a field of study, English has a far more recent history than most educators realize. While the subject is taught in each of the 35,000 secondary schools and 4,000 colleges in the United States, most English teachers know relatively little about the...
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Vol. 49, No. 2, January

The Pain and the Wounds: A Call for Critical Race English Education in the Wake of Racial Violence
For the kids who die are like iron in the blood of the people-And the old and rich don't want the peopleTo taste the iron of the kids who die,Don't want the people to get wise of their own power-Langston Hughes, "Kids Who Die," 1938The days of Black...
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The Stories They Tell: Mainstream Media, Pedagogies of Healing, and Critical Media Literacy
If you aren't careful, the newspapers will have you hating the people who are being oppressed and loving the people who are doing the oppressing.-Malcolm X, At The Audubon, 1964Rather than seen as victims, Black youth are vilified, and viewed as suspicious,...
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#Say[ing]HerName as Critical Demand: English Education in the Age of Erasure
When i read the book about Black women, i felt the spirits of those sisters feeding me, making me stronger. Black women have been struggling and helping each other to survive the blows of life since the beginning of time. And when i read Siddhartha,...
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Imagining a Language of Solidarity for Black and Latinx Youth in English Language Arts Classrooms
My work as a teacher and researcher in English classrooms is steeped in the cultural-historical past of my family. As I imagine a much-needed language of solidarity for Black and Latinx1 youth in English classrooms, I must return to the experiences my...
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Difficult Knowledge: When a Black Feminist Educator Was Too Afraid to #SayHerName
In this Provocateur Piece, the author shares her regrets, mistakes, and fears in hopes that more conversations about how educators, especially Black female educators who are on the front lines of educating students about race-centered violence toward...
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Vol. 49, No. 1, October

The Rock Is Still Rolling
One night in 2008 during the last semester of my undergraduate studies, I was talking with a friend In a coffee shop about a piece of literature I was reading for class, animatedly conveying my fascination with critical lenses. At some point I paused...
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Dartmouth Revisited: Three English Educators from Different Generations Reflect on the Dartmouth Conference
Half a century ago, 47 educators from the United States, England, and Canada met ln New Hampshire at Dartmouth College for the "Anglo-American Seminar on the Teaching of English," a month-long event that came in later years to be known as the Dartmouth...
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Writing 2.0: How English Teachers Conceptualize Writing with Digital Technologies
Many national organizations in literacy research and the teaching of writing have called for professional development that addresses the teaching of writing with digital tools. The Writing, Learning and Leading in the Digital Age report (2010), conceptualized...
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Honoring All Learners: The Case for Embedded Honors in Heterogeneous English Language Arts Classrooms
Introduction: The Challenge of HeterogeneityThere is no such thing as a homogeneous classroom. As Piney Branch Elementary principal Bertram Generlette once put it, "One kid is a homogeneous group. As soon as you bring another student in, you have differences....
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Provocateur Piece: Teaching Story
DIRECTIONS: Read the following three passages from "Teaching Story." After carefully reading each passage, select the best answer for each multiple-choice item. You have 15 minutes to complete the test. Your performance will assess your understanding...
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Vol. 48, No. 4, July

Black Girls and Critical Media Literacy for Social Activism
Centering Black girls' lived experience through critical media literacy can teach critical thinking and interrogation and enables Black girls to negotiate visibility by counternarrating racist, sexist, and classist media narratives with authentic stories...
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At the Kitchen Table: Black Women English Educators Speaking Our Truths
The kitchen table. Where mothers and daughters prep Sunday dinners on Saturday afternoons and each head of hair is pressed for Sunday's church service. Where women kinfolk play cards and drop dominoes. Where girlfriends drink morning coffee and afternoon...
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Developing Curriculum to Support Black Girls' Literacies in Digital Spaces
What have you learned about equality and freedom in America? I really want you to consider all of the learning experiences we had with literature, digital tools, social media, and classroom conversations to help you name some of your understandings and...
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Vol. 48, No. 3, April

"Perhaps These Are Not Poetic Times at All": Using Poetry to Cope with and Critique a High-Stakes Teacher Performance Assessment
Nikki Giovanni (1996) penned her well-known poem, "For Saundra," in the 1960s when she was involved in the Civil Rights Movement. In it, she states that she originally wanted her poem to rhyme, "but revolution doesn't lend / itself to be-bopping." Giovanni's...
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"My Black Kids Are Not Sub-Pops": Reflecting on the Impact of Standardized Testing in English Education
This provocateur piece recounts the story of Francis from teacher preparation to her decision to exit the profession after five years. I seek to provide a space for English educators to step back and think about how we prepare and support ELA teachers....
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To the Loud Mouth in Room 114: An Elegy
I see you standing on the six inch stage up front,wrinkled Oxford sleeves rolled to the elbow,matching shoes and belt, a power clashing tie,all fittingly worn-the student-centered sage waiting to change the waysthey embrace the world:your fresh clay...
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Ubuntu: Calling in the Field
My humanity is inextricably bound up in yours."-Desmond TutuOn April 21, 2015, I attended a presentation given by Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela1 titled "Forgiving the Unforgivable?" at Naropa University in Boulder, Colorado. I was aware that she was an antiapartheid...
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Instruction Matters: Secondary English Preservice Teachers' Implementation of Cognitively Demanding Writing Tasks
Of writing instruction, the National Council of Teachers of English argues, "instruction matters. Teachers of writing should be well-versed in composition theory and research, and they should know methods for turning that theory into practice" (NCTE,...
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Vol. 48, No. 2, January

Finding Common Ground: Reasonable Compromise, Gray Areas, and Telling It Slant
The arc of the moral universe is long but it bends toward justice. This maxim, used liberally in Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s writing and speeches, came to mind when Michelle Zoss presented sj Miller and me with her first sketch of the concept map that...
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Dedication to Kent Williamson
During my daily walk through a canyon surrounded by the lower Front Range in Boulder, I passed Wonderland Lake and climbed a short uphill to find a flower so yellow and luminous, it compelled me to stop. I looked at the flower and noticed how alive and...
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The Territory of Literature
George Hillocks Jr.June 15, 1934-November 12, 2014Editor's Note: George Hillocks Jr. wrote this essay shortly before his death in 2014 in his role as an advisor to a research project that included his former doctoral student, Carol D. Lee, as a key investigator....
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Opening George Hillocks's Territory of Literature
IntroductionIn his last article, George Hillocks argues forcefully that K-12 schools have not adequately explored the "territory of literature." He describes a comprehensive vision of this literary "territory" that he believed should act as the foundation...
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Recalculation in Teacher Preparation: Challenging Assumptions through Increased Community Contact
"Recalculating."When I first moved to Atlanta, I heard this word often. I imagined a very tiny, very angry woman living in my cell phone, screaming at me as she repeatedly "recalculated" my route. In Atlanta, the traffic moves fast. People don't shy...
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Provocateur Pieces *:Provocateur Pieces*
What's your name?" the man asked, flipping through the pages of his clipboard as his name badge swung back and forth across a flat black necktie with a white pi symbol at its center."Bishop Ampleforth," the boy answered as he surveyed the attentive faces...
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Announcements
Call for Nominations: Richard Meade AwardThe Conference on English Education is now accepting nominations for the Richard Meade Award for Research in English Education. This award recognizes published research-based work that promotes English/language...
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Vol. 48, No. 1, October

White Abjections: Language and Feeling in the Urban English Classroom
". . . decolonization is not only a political and military process but also an imaginative one-an enunciation of new possibilities and collectives, new names and identities, new structures of thought and feeling."-Jahan RamazaniKeisha (a pseudonym) sits...
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"I'm Fighting My Fight, and I'm Not Alone Anymore": The Influence of Communities of Inquiry
When I think about what frustrates me about teaching sometimes, it's that I'm all alone, or that I feel isolated or helpless. So being able to have people in my school, or to be reaching out to other people and meeting other people who are like me and...
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John Dewey, the Common Core, and the Teaching of English
In their critique of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), Smith, Appleman, and Wilhelm (2014) distinguish between their views of the Standards themselves, which they "support, albeit with different levels of enthusiasm" (p. 37), and their responses...
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Honoring Our History, Envisioning Our Future
Welcome to the first issue of Tara Star Johnson and sj Miller's coeditorship! We are excited and-we'll admit it-a little anxious about the awesome responsibility of propelling the journal forward into its 50th anniversary at the culmination of our tenure...
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Vol. 47, No. 4, 2015

Handing over the Conversation: Our Final Editorial
In this, our final editorial, we reflect back on the goals outlined in our first editorial (October 2010) and what we accomplished in the past five years. Our vision for English Education was "to continue the solid reputation for both excellence and...
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Vol. 47, No. 4, July

Announcements
Search for New Editor of College EnglishNCTE is seeking a new editor of College English. In July 2017 the term of the present editor, Kelly Ritter, will end. Interested persons should send a letter of application to be received no later than September...
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Racial and Related Forms of Specialist Knowledge on English Education Blogs
The field of English education has long been troubled by its discipline, mired in traditions disconnected from the lives of diversifying student populations (Applebee, 1974; Morrell, 2005; Skerrett, 2010a). This concern, situated within recent reports...
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English Teachers' Online Participation as Professional Development: A Narrative Study
Sarah, a high school English teacher in the midwestern United States, is a blogger. Writing primarily about young adult literature on her blog Y.A. Love (http://yaloveblog.com), Sarah posts reviews of books she and students in her classroom have read,...
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Vol. 47, No. 3, 2015

Announcements
Candidates Announced for CEE ElectionsLater this month, ballots for the 2015 CEE elections will be sent to all CEE members. Candidates for Executive Committee posts (three to be elected; terms to expire in 2019) are Heidi Hallman, University of Kansas,...
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Vol. 47, No. 3, April

Value-Added Models and Why We Should All Be Worried
The Scarlet U-LisaIt came out of nowhere one day after school."Dr. Scherff, can I see you for a moment?"No one likes to hear those words from their principal, but I couldn't think of anything I had done wrong (well, I did show parts of All the President's...
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"Looking Back I Can See" Literate Tensions and Changes: A Veteran Teacher's Cross-Contextual Analysis of His Literate Life
Meeting EdI met Ed Kent (pseudonym) in 2006 through the memories of a middle school teacher. She held Ed, her former high school teacher, as the model that eluded her as she began her 17th year of teaching. She felt a bit frayed, questioned her choices,...
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Navigating the Text Selection Gauntlet: Exploring Factors That Influence English Teachers' Choices
IntroductionTeachers make many decisions on a daily basis, both in their planning and in their interactions with students: considering which objectives to focus on, which activities to use in helping their students learn, how to respond to their comments...
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"Inducing Colored Sisters of Other Places to Imitate Their Example": Connecting Historic Literary Societies to a Contemporary Writing Group
In the "Miscellaneous" section of the December 3, 1831, newspaper, The Liberator, a writer, Azile, wrote the proclamation above to express the progress of the Female Literary Association of Philadelphia, an African American female literary society developed...
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Vol. 47, No. 2, 2015

"I Love to Flip the Pages": Preservice Teachers and New Literacies within a Field Experience
Recently, we were in the middle of an in-class discussion about social networking when one of our students stopped the conversation cold. "I'm done with Facebook," she declared. A silence crept over the room. "I've given it up," she continued, "and I...
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Vol. 47, No. 2, January

We Will Never Get It All Done
As we write this editorial, it is the dog days of summer, and just as quickly as we thought we could slow down and take a breath, we realized that it is time to plan for the 2014-15 school year. With close to 40 years of teaching experience between us,...
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The Stormy Times of James Moffett
James Moffett's 1988 Storm in the Mountains: A Case Study of Censorship, Conflict, and Consciousness tells the story of a successful and highly publicized attack on several popular textbook series, including Moffett's own, in the early 1970s. A leading...
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A Catalyst for Change: Staging Dramatics for Preservice English Teachers through Improv, Role-Play, and Collaborative Reflection
Teaching is a performative act . . . that offers the space for change, invention, spontaneous shifts, that can serve as a catalyst drawing out the unique elements in each classroom. -bell hooks (1994, p. 11)In English education courses, students make...
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Vol. 47, No. 1, October

Taking Stock in Our Final Year of Editorship
This October issue is the first in the final year of our editorship, which began in 2010. The years that have intervened have been both a blur and slow motion, carrying with them problems that have frustrated and confused us as well as joys and insights...
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Preparing Preservice Teachers to Become Teachers of Writing: A 20-Year Review of the Research Literature
In the teaching of writing, teachers' instructional decisions and practices should be guided by a sound conceptual framework. This conceptual frame- work encompasses understandings about writing as a subject specific con- tent (what there is to know...
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Knotty Articulations: Professors and Preservice Teachers on Teaching Literacy in Urban Schools
Each semester when we greet our preservice teachers in our methods courses, we welcome them into the ongoing journey of becoming a teacher. While we teach these preservice teachers in the content area of literacy and English education over several semesters...
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Contemplating Trust in Times of Uncertainty: Uniting Practice and Interactional Awareness to Address Ethical Dilemmas in English Teacher Education
Every semester students enter our university classrooms trusting that we know how best to prepare them as future English language arts (ELA) teachers. We invite them to join local and national conversations about what it means to teach adolescents in...
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Vol. 46, No. 4, July

Meeting Mr. Danza. or Not
In 2013 we attended the NCTE Annual Convention, as always. We went to meetings, attended conference presentations, and enjoyed some pleasant time with friends and colleagues. One of the events that we were looking forward to was Tony Danza's address...
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Sustaining Narratives of Hope: Literacy, Multimodality, and the Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos High School
It was a cold evening in February 2013, four years after we had begun our research on how a multimodal writing pedagogy that focused on community issues might help us better understand the place of hope and community in the teaching of English. One of...
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Who's the Teacher? What Tony Danza Taught Us about English Education
If our viewers took one thing away from the show, I hope it was a profound appreciation for the challenge that teachers across this country face each and every day.-Danza, 2012, p. 207The connection between teaching and Tony Danza may not be immediately...
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Reframing Literacy Practices for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in U.S. Schools
The increasing numbers of students from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds attending U.S. schools have been a phenomenon that would seem difficult to ignore. In the past decade the number of school-aged students who spoke a language other than...
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Announcements
CEE Research Initiative Call for Proposals 2014-2015The Conference on English Education (CEE) is pleased to announce the fifth year of the CEE Research Initiative. We invite proposals for research projects that will advance the mission of the organization...
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Vol. 46, No. 3, April

Reflections on the 2013 NCTE Convention
No matter how many times we have attended the NCTE Annual Convention- at least a dozen-we always return home energized, renewed, and idea-filled. This past Convention was no exception. In particular, we were inspired by NCTE president Ernest Morrell's...
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Reclaiming English Education: Rooting Social Justice in Dispositions
Modern notions of social justice have been in existence since the nineteenth century (Nussbaum, 2006; Rawls, 1971) but have only become a tenet of educational philosophy in English education as of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries (see...
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Activist Teacher Education, Foucault, and the Case of Two English Teachers
Many English educators have experienced recent educational policies as not-so-veiled attacks on their professional expertise, academic freedom, and central passions and commitments as researchers, teacher educators, and teachers (Fleischer & Fox,...
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Learning to Teach and Critical Pedagogy: Struggling with a "Do as I Say, Not as I Do" Pedagogy
This article is a critical reflection in which I address epistemological and institutional collisions in beliefs and praxis that I've experienced as an instructor of English methods courses in Michigan State University's secondary teacher preparation...
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Announcements
Candidates Announced for CEE ElectionsLater this month, ballots for the 2014 CEE elections will be sent to all CEE members. Candidates for Executive Committee posts (three to be elected; terms to expire in 2018) are Leslie David Burns, University of...
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Vol. 46, No. 2, January

Teacher Evaluations That Improve Teacher Practice
In his "Extending the Conversation" article, "Authentic Teacher Evaluation: A Two-Tiered Proposal for Formative and Summative Assessment," Peter Smagorinsky presents a perspective on teacher evaluation that differs from those we hear much about lately,...
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To Witness and to Testify: Preservice Teachers Examine Literary Aesthetics to Better Understand Diverse Literature
Stat i sties suggest that, by 2019, approximately 4 9 percent of students enrolled in U.S. public schools will be Latino/Latina, Black, Asian/Pacihc Islander, or American Indian (Hussar & Bailey, 2011). Those preparing to work with these students...
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Contradictory and Missing Voices in English Education: An Invitation to English Faculty
In the current debate about English teacher preparation we hear a clamor of competing voices: federal initiatives such as Race to the Top and No Child Left Behind (NCLB); licensure testing agencies such as Educational Testing SMervice (ETS) and edTPA;...
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Learning from Our Youngest Writers: Preservice Teachers in Primary Classes
In 1994, at a small public university In Virginia, we developed a methods course titled Teaching Composition in Language Arts Classes for a new MAT program.1 As described in the article "From Pedant to Pragmatist" (Mulli- gan, 1997), this seminar accommodated...
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Authentic Teacher Evaluation: A Two-Tiered Proposal for Formative and Summative Assessment
If the old line, "What you assess Is what you get," has any currency In the area of teacher assessment, the challenge of coming up with a system for evaluating teachers authentically is of paramount importance to the field. Although standardized tests...
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Announcements
(ProQuest: ... denotes text missing in the original.)CEE Awards AnnouncedA number of awards were presented by the Conference on English Educa- tion at the NCTE Annual Convention in Boston. The 2015 James N. Britton Award for Inquiry within the English...
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